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An Essay Example On Economic And Ecological Sustainability
benedictine essays [ From the A TLANTIS of January , 1858.] A S the physical universe is sustained and carried on in dependence on certain centres of power and essay on sustainability laws of operation, so the course of the social and political world, and of that great religious organization called the Catholic Church, is psychology found to proceed for the most part from the essay on sustainability, presence or action of definite persons, places, events, and institutions, as the visible cause of the whole. There has been but one Juda, one Greece, one Rome; one Homer, one Cicero; one Csar, one Constantine, one Charlemagne. And so, as regards Revelation, there has been one St. John the Divine, one Doctor of the Nations. Dogma runs along the line of Athanasius, Augustine, Thomas. The conversion of the heathen is ascribed, after the Apostles, to champions of the submission cambridge, truth so few, that we may almost count them, such as Martin, Patrick, Augustine, Boniface. Persuasive Essay On Sustainability! Then there is St. Antony, the father of monachism; St. Jerome, the interpreter of apa format, Scripture; St. Chrysostom, the great preacher.
Education follows the same law: it has its history in Christianity, and its doctors or masters in that history. It has had three periods:#8212;the ancient, the persuasive on sustainability, medieval, and the modern; and there are three Religious Orders in those periods respectively, which succeed, one the other, on its public stage, and represent the teaching given by the Catholic Church during the for english, time of their ascendancy. The first period is that long series of centuries, during which society was breaking or had broken up, and then slowly attempted its own re-construction; the second may be called the persuasive essay, period of a woman the home, re-construction; and the third dates from the Reformation, when that peculiar movement of mind commenced, the issue of which is still to persuasive on sustainability come. Now, St. Benedict has had the training of the ancient intellect, St. Dominic of the medieval; and St. Ignatius of the modern. Wetlands! And in saying this, I am in no degree disrespectful to the Augustinians, Carmelites, Franciscans, and other great religious families, which might be named, or to the holy Patriarchs who founded them; for I am not reviewing the whole history of Christianity, but selecting a particular aspect of it. On Sustainability! Perhaps as much as this will be granted to me without great hesitation.
Next, I proceed to contrast these three great masters of Christian teaching with each other. To St. A Woman Essay! Benedict, then, who may fairly be taken to represent the various families of monks before his time and those which sprang from him (for they are all pretty much of one school), to this great Saint let me assign, for his discriminating badge, the element of Poetry; to St. Dominic, the essay on sustainability, Scientific element; and to St. Ignatius, the Practical. These characteristics, which belong respectively to the schools of the three great Teachers, grow out of the circumstances under which they respectively entered upon their work.
Benedict, entrusted with his mission almost as a boy, infused into it the romance and essay for english oral simplicity of boyhood. Dominic, a man of forty-five, a graduate in theology, a priest and a Canon, brought with him into religion that maturity and persuasive completeness of learning which he had acquired in the schools. Of The Holocaust Essay! Ignatius, a man of the world before his conversion, transmitted as a legacy to his disciples that knowledge of mankind which cannot be learned in cloisters. And thus the three several Orders were (so to say), the births of Poetry, of Science, and Practical Sense. And here another coincidence suggests itself.
I have been giving these three attributes to persuasive the three Patriarchs whom I have specified, severally, from thesis binding londonderry, a bon-fide regard to their history, and persuasive on sustainability without at all having any theory of philosophy in my eye. About Wetlands! But after having so described them, it certainly did strike me that I had unintentionally been illustrating a somewhat popular notion of the persuasive essay, day, the like of which is attributed to authors with whom I have as little sympathy as with any persons who can be named. According to these speculators, the life, whether of a race or of an individual of the great human family, is divided into three stages, each of which has its own ruling principle and characteristic. The youth makes his start in life, with hope at the prow, and wetlands fancy at the helm; he has nothing else but these to impel or direct him; he has not lived long enough to persuasive exercise his reason, or to gather in a store of facts; and, because he cannot do otherwise, he dwells in a world which he has created. He begins with illusions. Next, when at binding londonderry length he looks about for some surer footing than imagination gives him, he may have recourse to persuasive essay reason, or he may have recourse to facts; now facts are external to him, but his reason is his own: of the two, then, it is easier for him to exercise his reason than to submission cambridge ascertain facts. Accordingly, his first mental revolution, when he discards the life of aspiration and affection which has disappointed him, and the dreams of persuasive essay on sustainability, which he has been the sport and victim, is to embrace a life of logic: this, then, is his second stage,#8212;the metaphysical.
He acts now on a plan, thinks by system, is essay for english cautious about his middle terms, and essay trusts nothing but what takes a scientific form. His third stage is when he has made full trial of life; when he has found his theories break down under the weight of facts, and experience falsify his most promising calculations. Then the old man recognizes at length, that what he can taste, touch, and thesis cambridge handle, is trustworthy, and nothing beyond it. Thus he runs through his three periods of Imagination, Reason, and Sense; and then he comes to an end, and is not;#8212;a most impotent and melancholy conclusion. Undoubtedly a Catholic has no sympathy in so heartless a view of life, and yet it seems to square with what I have been saying of the three great Patriarchs of essay on sustainability, Christian teaching. Essay! And certainly there is a truth in on sustainability, it, which gives it its plausibility. However, I am not concerned here to do more than to put my finger on the point at which I should diverge from it, both in what I have been saying and what I must say concerning them. It is true then, that history, as viewed in these three Saints, is, somewhat after the manner of the theory I have mentioned, a progress from poetry through science to submission practical sense or prudence; but then this important proviso has to be borne in mind at the same time, that what the Catholic Church once has had, she never has lost.
She has never wept over, or been angry with, time gone and persuasive over. Essay Wetlands! Instead of passing from one stage of life to another, she has carried her youth and middle age along with her, on to her latest time. She has not changed possessions, but accumulated them, and has brought out of her treasure-house, according to the occasion, things new and old. She did not lose Benedict by finding Dominic; and she has still both Benedict and Dominic at home, though she has become the persuasive on sustainability, mother of Ignatius. Imagination, Science, Prudence, all are good, and she has them all.
Things incompatible in nature, cexist in her; her prose is essay poetical on the one hand, and philosophical on the other. Coming now to the historical proof of the contrast I have been instituting, I am sanguine in thinking that one branch of it is already allowed by persuasive essay, the consent of the world, and is undeniable. By common consent, the palm of religious Prudence, in essay oral, the Aristotelic sense of that comprehensive word, belongs to the School of Religion of which St. Ignatius is the Founder. That great Society is the classical seat and persuasive essay fountain (that is, in religious thought and the conduct of life, for of ecclesiastical politics I speak not), the school and pattern of discretion, practical sense, and wise government.
Sublimer conceptions or more profound speculations may have been created or elaborated elsewhere; but, whether we consider the illustrious Body in its own constitution, or in its rules for instruction and direction, we see that it is its very genius to prefer this most excellent prudence to wetlands every other gift, and to think little both of poetry and persuasive essay of science, unless they happen to about wetlands be useful. On Sustainability! It is children of the true that, in the long catalogue of its members, there are to be found the names of the most consummate theologians, and of scholars the most elegant and accomplished; but we are speaking here, not of individuals, but of the body itself. It is plain that the body is not over-jealous about its theological traditions, or it certainly would not suffer Suarez to persuasive essay controvert with Molina, Viva with Vasquez, Passaglia with Petavius, and Faure with Suarez, de Lugo, and Valentia. In this intellectual freedom its members justly glory; inasmuch as they have set their affections, not on the opinions of the essay about, Schools, but on the souls of men. And it is the same charitable motive which makes them give up the poetry of life, the persuasive essay, poetry of ceremonies,#8212;of the cowl, the cloister, and the choir,#8212;content with the most prosaic architecture, if it be but convenient, and the most prosaic neighbourhood, if it be but populous. I need not then dwell longer on this wonderful Religion, but may confine the remarks which are to follow to the two Religions which historically preceded it#8212;the Benedictine and a woman is in the home argumentative essay the Dominican [Note 1]. Persuasive Essay On Sustainability! One preliminary more, suggested by a purely fanciful analogy:#8212;As there are three great Patriarchs on the high road and public thoroughfare of Christian Education, so there were three chief Patriarchs in the first age of the chosen people. Putting aside Noe and thesis Melchisedec, and Joseph and his brethren, we recognize three venerable fathers,#8212;Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, and what are their characteristics? Abraham, the father of many nations; Isaac, the intellectual, living in solitary simplicity, and in loving contemplation; and Jacob, the persecuted and persuasive essay on sustainability helpless, visited by essay for english, marvellous providences, driven from place to place, set down and taken up again, ill-treated by those who were his debtors, suspected because of his sagacity, and betrayed by his eager faith, yet carried on and triumphing amid all troubles by means of his most faithful and powerful guardian-archangel. On Sustainability! St.
Benedict, then, like the great Hebrew Patriarch, was the Father of many nations. He has been styled the Patriarch of the West, a title which there are many reasons for ascribing to him. Not only was he the first to establish a perpetual Order of apa format essay, Regulars in on sustainability, Western Christendom; not only, as coming first, has he had an of the holocaust essay ampler course of centuries for the multiplication of his children; but his Rule, as that of on sustainability, St. Basil in the East, is the normal rule of the first age of the Church, and was in time generally received even in communities which in no sense owed their origin to him. Moreover, out of his Order rose, in process of apa format, time, various new monastic families, which have established themselves as independent institutions, and are able in persuasive essay, their turn to boast of the number of their houses, and the sanctity and historical celebrity of their members. He is the representative of essay, Latin monachism for the long extent of six centuries, while monachism was one; and even when at length varieties arose, and distinct titles were given to them, the change grew out of him;#8212;not the act of strangers who were his rivals, but of persuasive, his own children, who did but make a new beginning in all devotion and a woman the home argumentative loyalty to him. He died in persuasive on sustainability, the early half of the sixth century; at the beginning of the tenth rose from among his French monasteries the famous Congregation of children of the holocaust, Cluni, illustrated by St. Majolus, St. Odilo, Peter the Venerable, and persuasive essay other considerable personages, among whom is Hildebrand, afterwards Pope Gregory the Seventh. Then came, in long succession, the Orders or Congregations of Camaldoli under St.
Romuald, of Vallombrosa, of Citeaux, to which St. Bernard has given his name, of Monte Vergine, of Fontvrault; those of England, Spain, and cambridge Flanders; the Silvestrines, the essay, Celestines, the Olivetans, the Humiliati, besides a multitude of institutes for women, as the Gilbertines and the Oblates of St. Frances, and essay wetlands then at length, to mention no others, the Congregation of St. Maur in persuasive essay on sustainability, modern times, so well known for its biblical, patristical, and historical works, and for its learned members, Montfaucon, Mabillon, and their companions. The panegyrists of this illustrious Order are accustomed to claim for it in all its branches as many as 37,000 houses, and, besides, 30 Popes, 200 Cardinals, 4 Emperors, 46 Kings, 51 Queens, 1,406 Princes, 1,600 Archbishops, 600 Bishops, 2,400 Nobles, and 15,000 Abbots and learned men [Note 2]. Nor are the religious bodies which sprang from St. Benedict the full measure of what he has accomplished,#8212;as has been already observed. His Rule gradually made its way into those various monasteries which were of an earlier or of an independent foundation. It first coalesced with, and then supplanted, the a woman is in essay, Irish Rule of St. Columban in France, and the still older institutes which had been brought from the East by St. Athanasius, St.
Eusebius, and St. Persuasive! Martin. Londonderry! At the beginning of the ninth century it was formally adopted throughout the dominions of Charlemagne. Pure, or with some admixture, it was brought by St. Augustine to England; and that admixture, if it existed, was gradually eliminated by persuasive essay on sustainability, St. Wilfrid, St. Psychology Apa Format! Dunstan, and Lanfranc, till at persuasive on sustainability length it was received, with the name and obedience of St. Benedict, in all the Cathedral monasteries [Note 3] (to mention no others), excepting Carlisle. Nor did it cost such regular bodies any very great effort to make the change, even when historically most separate from St.
Benedict; for the Saint had taken up for the most part what he found, and his Rule was but the expression of the genius of monachism in those first times of the Church, with a more exact adaptation to their needs than could elsewhere be met with. So uniform indeed had been the monastic idea before his time, and so little stress had been laid by individual communities on their respective peculiarities, that religious men passed at pleasure from one body to another [Note 4]. St. Benedict provides in his Rule for the case of strangers coming to apa format essay one of his houses, and wishing to remain there. If such a one came from any monastery with which the monks had existing relations, then he was not to be received without letters from his Abbot; but, in the instance of a foreign monk from distant parts, who wished to dwell with them as a guest, and was content with their ways, and conformed himself to them, and was not troublesome, should he in the event wish to stay for good, says St. Benedict, let him not be refused; for there has been room to make trial of persuasive essay on sustainability, him, during the time that hospitality has been shown to place argumentative him: nay, let him even be invited to stay, that others may gain a lesson from his example; for in every place we are servants of one Lord and soldiers of essay on sustainability, one King. [Note 5] The unity of idea, which, as these words imply, is to be found in all monks in every part of Christendom, may be described as a unity of object, of state, and of occupation. Monachism was one and the same everywhere, because it was a reaction from that secular life, which has everywhere the same structure and thesis the same characteristics. And, since that secular life contained in persuasive essay, it many objects, many states, and many occupations, here was a special reason, as a matter of principle, why the reaction from it should bear the badge of unity, and should be in submission thesis, outward appearance one and the same everywhere. Moreover, since that same secular life was, when monachism arose, more than ordinarily marked by variety, perturbation and persuasive essay on sustainability confusion, it seemed on that very account to justify emphatically a rising and revolt against place argumentative essay itself, and a recurrence to some state which, unlike itself, was constant and essay on sustainability unalterable. It was indeed an old, decayed, and moribund world, into a woman is in the home argumentative essay which Christianity had been cast.
The social fabric was overgrown with the on sustainability, corruptions of apa format, a thousand years, and was held together, not so much by any common principle, as by the strength of possession and the tenacity of custom. It was too large for public spirit, and persuasive on sustainability too artificial for patriotism, and its many religions did but foster in the popular mind division and scepticism. Want of mutual confidence would lead to despondency, inactivity, and selfishness. Society was in the slow fever of consumption, which made it restless in proportion as it was feeble. Binding! It was powerful, however, to on sustainability seduce and deprave; nor was there any locus standi from which to combat its evils; and children the only persuasive way of getting on with it was to abandon principle and duty, to take things as they came, and to do as the about, world did. Worse than all, this encompassing, entangling system of on sustainability, things, was, at the time we speak of, the psychology apa format essay, seat and instrument of a paganism, and then of heresies, not simply contrary, but bitterly hostile, to the Christian profession. Serious men not only had a call, but every inducement which love of life and essay on sustainability freedom could supply, to holocaust essay escape from its presence and persuasive essay its sway. Their one idea then, their one purpose, was to be quit of essay, it; too long had it enthralled them. It was not a question of this or that vocation, of the better deed, of the higher state, but of life and on sustainability death. In later times a variety of holy objects might present themselves for children holocaust essay devotion to choose from, such as the on sustainability, care of the submission thesis, poor, or of the sick, or of the young, the redemption of captives, or the conversion of the barbarians; but early monachism was flight from the world, and nothing else. The troubled, jaded, weary heart, the on sustainability, stricken, laden conscience, sought a life free from corruption in its daily work, free from distraction in its daily worship; and it sought employments as contrary as possible to essay the world's employments,#8212;employments, the essay on sustainability, end of psychology apa format, which would be in themselves, in which each day, each hour, would have its own completeness;#8212;no elaborate undertakings, no difficult aims, no anxious ventures, no uncertainties to make the heart beat, or the temples throb, no painful combination of efforts, no extended plan of operations, no multiplicity of details, no deep calculations, no sustained machinations, no suspense, no vicissitudes, no moments of crisis or catastrophe;#8212;nor again any subtle investigations, nor perplexities of proof, nor conflicts of persuasive essay, rival intellects, to agitate, harass, depress, stimulate, weary, or intoxicate the soul.
Hitherto I have been using negatives to describe what the primitive monk was seeking; in truth monachism was, as regards the secular life and all that it implies, emphatically a negation, or, to use another word, a mortification ; a mortification of place is in essay, sense, and a mortification of reason. Here a word of explanation is persuasive essay necessary. The monks were too good Catholics to deny that reason was a divine gift, and had too much common sense to think to do without it. What they denied themselves was the various and manifold exercises of the reason; and on essay for english, this account, because such exercises were excitements. When the reason is cultivated, it at essay on sustainability once begins to combine, to centralize, to look forward, to look back, to view things as a whole, whether for speculation or for action; it practises synthesis and analysis, it discovers, it invents. To these exercises of the intellect is opposed simplicity, which is the state of mind which does not combine, does not deal with premisses and conclusions, does not recognize means and their end, but lets each work, each place, each occurrence stand by itself,#8212;which acts towards each as it comes before it, without a thought of anything else.
This simplicity is the temper of children, and it is the temper of monks. This was their mortification of the apa format, intellect; every man who lives, must live by reason, as every one must live by persuasive, sense; but, as it is possible to be content with the apa format, bare necessities of animal life, so is it possible to confine ourselves to the bare ordinary use of reason, without caring to improve it or make the most of it. These monks held both sense and reason to be the gifts of heaven, but they used each of them as little as they could help, reserving their full time and their whole selves for devotion;#8212;for, if reason is better than sense, so devotion they thought to be better than either; and, as even a heathen might deny himself the innocent indulgences of sense in order to give his time to the cultivation of the reason, so did the monks give up reason, as well as sense, that they might consecrate themselves to divine meditation. Now, then, we are able to understand how it was that the monks had a unity, and in what it consisted. It was a unity, I have said, of object, of state, and of occupation. Their object was rest and peace; their state was retirement; their occupation was some work that was simple, as opposed to persuasive intellectual, viz., prayer, fasting, meditation, study, transcription, manual labour, and other unexciting, soothing employments. Such was their institution all over the world; they had eschewed the busy mart, the craft of gain, the apa format, money-changer's bench, and the merchant's cargo. They had turned their backs upon the wrangling forum, the political assembly, and the pantechnicon of trades. Persuasive! They had had their last dealings with architect and habit-maker, with butcher and thesis binding londonderry cook; all they wanted, all they desired, was the sweet soothing presence of persuasive essay on sustainability, earth, sky, and sea, the hospitable cave, the bright running stream, the easy gifts which mother earth, justissima tellus, yields on very little persuasion.
The monastic institute, says the biographer of St. Maurus, demands Summa Quies , the most perfect quietness; [Note 6] and thesis binding londonderry where was quietness to be found, if not in reverting to the original condition of man, as far as the changed circumstances of our race admitted; in persuasive, having no wants, of which the supply was not close at hand; in the nil admirari; in having neither hope nor fear of anything below; in daily prayer, daily bread, and daily work, one day being just like another, except that it was one step nearer than the day just gone to that great Day, which would swallow up all days, the day of everlasting rest. However, I have come into collision with a great authority, M. Guizot, and I must stop the course of essay, my argument to make my ground good against him. M. Essay! Guizot, then, makes a distinction between monachism in its birth-place, in Egypt and Syria, and that Western institute, of which I have made St. Benedict the representative. He allows that the Orientals mortified the intellect, but he considers that Latin monachism was the seat of considerable mental activity.
The desire for retirement, he says, for contemplation, for a marked rupture with civilized society, was the source and fundamental trait of the Eastern monks: in the West, on the contrary , and especially in Southern Gaul, where, at the commencement of the fifth century, the principal monasteries were founded, it was in order to psychology essay live in common, with a view to conversation as well as to on sustainability religious edification, that the first monks met. The monasteries of Lerins, of St. Essay! Victor, and many others, were especially great schools of theology, the focus of intellectual movement. It was by no means with solitude or with mortification, but with discussion and activity, that they there concerned themselves. [Note 7] Great deference is due to an author so learned, so philosophical, so honestly desirous to set out Christianity to the best advantage; yet, I am at a loss to understand what has led him to make such a distinction between the East and West, and to assign to the Western monks an activity of intellect, and to the Eastern a love of retirement. It is quite true that instances are sometimes to essay be found of monasteries in the West distinguished by much intellectual activity, but more, and more striking, instances are to be found of a like phenomenon in the East. If, then, such particular instances are to be taken as fair specimens of the state of Western monachism, they are equally fair specimens of the state of Eastern also; and the Eastern monks will be proved more intellectual than the Western, by virtue of that greater interest in doctrine and in thesis binding londonderry, controversy which given individuals or communities among them have exhibited.
A very cursory reference to ecclesiastical history will be sufficient to show us that the persuasive essay on sustainability, fact is as I have stated it. The theological sensitiveness of the monks of Marseilles, Lerins, or Adrumetum, it seems, is to essay about be a proof of the intellectualism generally of the West: then, why is not the greater sensitiveness of the Scythian monks at Constantinople, and of their opponents, the Ac#339;met, an evidence in persuasive essay, favour of the East? These two bodies of Religious actually came all the way from Constantinople to Rome to denounce one another, besieging, as it were, the Holy See, and the former of them actually attempting to raise the Roman populace against the Pope, in oral, behalf of its own theological tenet. Does not this show activity of mind? I venture to say that, for one intellectual monk in the West, a dozen might be produced in the East. The very reproach, thrown out by secular historians against Greeks in general, of over-subtlety of intellect, applies in particular, if to essay any men, to certain classes or certain communities of Eastern monks. Essay About! These were sometimes orthodox, quite as often heretical, but inexhaustible in their argumentative resources, whether the one or the other. Essay On Sustainability! If Pelagius be a monk in the West, on the other hand, Nestorius and Eutyches, both heresiarchs, are both monks in the East; and Eutyches, at the time of his heresy, was an old monk into the bargain, who had been thirty years abbot of a convent, and whom age, if not sanctity, might have saved from this abnormal use of his reason. His partizans were principally monks of Egypt; and they, coming up in force to the pseudo-synod of a woman is in the home argumentative essay, Ephesus, in aid of a theological thesis, kicked to death the patriarch of Constantinople, and essay on sustainability put to flight the Legate of the Pope, all in consequence of their intellectual susceptibilities.
A century earlier, Arius, on starting, carried away into his heresy as many as seven hundred nuns [Note 8]; what have the psychology essay, Western convents to show, in the way of controversial activity, comparable with a fact like this? I do not insist on the zealous and influential orthodoxy of the monks of Egypt, Syria, and Asia Minor in the fourth century, because it was probably nothing else but an honourable adhesion to the faith of the Church, without any serious exercise of mind; but turn to the great writers of Eastern Christendom, and consider how many of them figure at first sight as monks;#8212;Chrysostom, Basil, Gregory Nazianzen, Epiphanius, Ephrem, Amphilochius, Isidore of Pelusium, Theodore, Theodoret, perhaps Athanasius. Among the persuasive essay, Latin writers no great names occur to me but those of Jerome and Pope Gregory; I may add Paulinus, Sulpicius, Vincent, and Cassian, but Jerome is the thesis cambridge, only learned writer among them. On Sustainability! I have a difficulty, then, even in comprehending, not to speak of admitting, M. Guizot's assertion, a writer who does not commonly speak without a meaning or a reason. But, after all, however the essay, balance of intellectualism may lie between certain convents or individuals in essay, the East and submission cambridge the West, such particular instances of mental activity are nothing to the purpose, when taken to persuasive essay measure the state of the great body of the monks; certainly not in the West, with which in this paper I am exclusively concerned. In taking an estimate of the Benedictines, we need not trouble ourselves about the state of monachism in Egypt, Syria, Asia Minor, and Constantinople, as it existed after the fourth century, when the true monastic tradition was passing from the about wetlands, East to the West. In the fourth century, the Eastern Monks simply follow the defined and promulgated doctrine of the Church, and in following it are guilty of persuasive essay, no exercise of reason; their intellectualism proper, which is foreign to the genius of their institute, begins with the fifth. Binding! Taking, then, the great tradition of St.
Antony, St. Pachomius, and St. Basil in the East, and then tracing it into persuasive on sustainability the West by the hands of St. Athanasius, St. Martin, and their contemporaries, we shall find no historical facts but what admit of a fair explanation, consistent with the views which we have laid down above about monastic simplicity, bearing in mind always, what holds in all matters of fact, that there never was a rule without its exceptions. Every rule has its exceptions; but, further than this, when exceptions occur, they are commonly likely to be great ones.
This is no paradox; illustrations of it are to be found everywhere. For instance, we may conceive a climate very fatal to the home essay children, and yet those who survive growing up to be strong men; and for a plain reason, because those alone could have passed the ordeal who had robust constitutions. Thus the Romans, so jealous of essay on sustainability, their freedom, when they resolved on the appointment of a supreme ruler for an occasion, did not do the thing by halves, but made him a Dictator. About Wetlands! In like manner, a mere trifling occurrence, or an essay on sustainability ordinary inward impulse, would be powerless to snap the bond which keeps the monk fast to his cell, his oratory, and his garden. Exceptions, indeed, may be few, because they are exceptions, but they will be great in order to become exceptions at all. It must be a serious emergence, a particular inspiration, a sovereign command, which brings the thesis londonderry, monk into political life; and he will be sure to on sustainability make a great figure in it, else why should he have been torn from his cloister at all? This will account for the career of St. Gregory the Seventh or of St. Submission Thesis! Dunstan, of on sustainability, St.
Bernard or of Abbot Suger, as far as it was political: the work they had to do was such as none could have done but a monk with his superhuman single-mindedness and his pertinacity of purpose. Again, in the case of St. Boniface, the children, Apostle of Germany, and in that of others of the persuasive on sustainability, missionaries of his age, it seems to have been a particular inspiration which carried them abroad; and it is observable after all how soon most of them settled down into children of the the mixed character of agriculturists and pastors in their new country, and essay resumed the tranquil life to which they had originally devoted themselves. As to the early Greek Fathers, some of those whom we have instanced above are only prim facie exceptions, as Chrysostom, who, though he lived with the monks most austerely for as many as six years, can hardly be said to have taken on himself the responsibilities of a woman is in argumentative essay, their condition, or to have simply abandoned the world. Others of them, as Basil, were scholars, philosophers, men of the world, before they were monks, and could not put off their cultivation of mind or their learning with their secular dress; and these would be the very men, in an age when such talents were scarce, who would be taken out of their retirement by superior authority, and persuasive who therefore cannot fairly be quoted as ordinary specimens of the monastic life.
Exceptio probat regulam : let us see what two Doctors of the of the, Church, one Greek, one Latin, both rulers, both monks, say concerning the state, which they at essay one time enjoyed, and afterwards lost. You tell me, says St. Basil, writing to a friend from his solitude, that it was little for me to describe the place of my retirement, unless I mentioned also my habits and my mode of life; yet really I am ashamed to tell you how I pass night and day in this lonely nook. I am like one who is angry with the size of his vessel, as tossing overmuch, and leaves it for the boat, and is seasick and miserable still. Is In Argumentative! However, what I propose to do is as follows, with the hope of tracing His steps who has said, 'If any one will come after Me, let him deny himself.' We must strive after a quiet mind. As well might the eye ascertain an object which is before it, while it roves up and down without looking steadily at it, as a mind, distracted with a thousand worldly cares, be able clearly to apprehend the truth. One who is not yoked in matrimony is harassed by rebellious impulses and hopeless attachments; he who is married is involved in his own tumult of on sustainability, cares: is he without children? he covets them; has he children? he has anxieties about their education. Then there is solicitude about his wife, care of his house, oversight of his servants, misfortunes in trade, differences with his neighbours, lawsuits, the merchant's risks, the farmer's toil. Each day, as it comes, darkens the soul in thesis binding londonderry, its own way; and night after night takes up the day's anxieties, and cheats us with corresponding dreams.
Now, the only way of escaping all this is separation from the whole world, so as to live without city, home, goods, society, possessions, means of life, business, engagements, secular learning, that the heart may be prepared as wax for the impress of divine teaching. Solitude is of the greatest use for this purpose, as it stills our passions, and enables reason to extirpate them. Let then a place be found such as mine, separate from intercourse with men, that the essay on sustainability, tenor of our exercises be not interrupted from without. Pious exercises nourish the apa format, soul with divine thoughts. Soothing hymns compose the mind to a cheerful and calm state. Quiet, then, as I have said, is the on sustainability, first step in our sanctification; the tongue purified from the gossip of the world, the essay wetlands, eyes unexcited by persuasive, fair colour or comely shape, the ear secured from the oral, relaxation of voluptuous songs, and that especial mischief, light jesting. Thus the mind, rescued from dissipation from without, and sensible allurements, falls back upon persuasive, itself, and thence ascends to the contemplation of God. Essay! [Note 9] It is quite clear that at least St. Basil took the same view of the monastic state as I have done. So much for the East in the fourth century; now for the West in the seventh. One day, says St. Essay On Sustainability! Gregory, after he had been constrained, against thesis londonderry his own wish, to leave his cloister for on sustainability the government of the Universal Church, one day, when I was oppressed with the excessive trouble of secular affairs, I sought a retired place, friendly to grief, where whatever displeased me in my occupations might show itself, and all that was wont to inflict pain might be seen at one view.
While he was in this retreat, his most dear son, Peter, with whom, ever since the latter was a youth, he had been intimate, surprised him, and he opened his grief to him. Binding Londonderry! My sad mind, he said, labouring under the soreness of its engagements, remembers how it went with me formerly in persuasive essay, this monastery, how all perishable things were beneath it, how it rose above all that was transitory, and, though still in the flesh, went out in contemplation beyond that prison, so that it even loved death, which is commonly thought a punishment, as the gate of life and the reward of labour. But now, in consequence of the pastoral charge, it undergoes the busy work of secular men, and for that fair beauty of its quiet, is essay dishonoured with the dust of the earth. And often dissipating itself in outward things, to serve the many, even when it seeks what is inward, it comes home indeed, but is persuasive on sustainability no longer what it used to be. [Note 10] Here is the very same view of the is in the home, monastic state at Rome which St. Basil had in Pontus, viz., retirement and repose. Persuasive! There have been great Religious Orders since, whose atmosphere has been conflict, and who have thriven in cambridge, smiting or in being smitten.
It has been their high calling; it has been their peculiar meritorious service; but, as for the Benedictine, the very air he breathes is peace. Persuasive Essay! I have now said enough both to explain and to vindicate the biographer of St. Maurus, when he says that the object, and apa format life, and reward of the ancient monachism was summa quies,#8212;the absence of all excitement, sensible and intellectual, and the vision of Eternity. And therefore have I called the monastic state the most poetical of religious disciplines. It was a return to that primitive age of the essay on sustainability, world, of essay for english, which poets have so often sung, the simple life of Arcadia or the reign of Saturn, when fraud and violence were unknown. It was a bringing back of those real, not fabulous, scenes of innocence and essay miracle, when Adam delved, or Abel kept sheep, or Noe planted the vine, and Angels visited them. It was a fulfilment in the letter, of the glowing imagery of prophets, about the evangelical period. Nature for art, the wide earth and the majestic heavens for the crowded city, the thesis londonderry, subdued and docile beasts of the field for the wild passions and rivalries of essay on sustainability, social life, tranquillity for ambition and of the care, divine meditation for the exploits of the intellect, the Creator for the creature, such was the normal condition of the monk. He had tried the world, and found its hollowness; or he had eluded its fellowship, before it had solicited him;#8212;and so St.
Antony fled to the desert, and St. Hilarion sought the sea shore, and St. Basil ascended the mountain ravine, and St. Benedict took refuge in his cave, and St. Giles buried himself in the forest, and St. Martin chose the broad river, in order that the world might be shut out of view, and the soul might be at persuasive essay rest. And such a rest of holocaust essay, intellect and of passion as this is full of the elements of the essay, poetical. I have no intention of committing myself here to a definition of poetry; I may be thought wrong in the use of the term; but, if I explain what I mean by for english, it, no harm is done, whatever be my inaccuracy, and each reader may substitute for essay on sustainability it some word he likes better.
Poetry, then, I conceive, whatever be its metaphysical essence, or however various may be its kinds, whether it more properly belongs to action or to suffering, nay, whether it is more at home with society or with nature, whether its spirit is submission thesis cambridge seen to best advantage in Homer or in Virgil, at any rate, is always the antagonist to science . As science makes progress in any subject-matter, poetry recedes from persuasive on sustainability, it. The two cannot stand together; they belong respectively to two modes of viewing things, which are contradictory of each other. Children Holocaust Essay! Reason investigates, analyzes, numbers, weighs, measures, ascertains, locates, the objects of persuasive essay, its contemplation, and thus gains a scientific knowledge of them. Science results in system, which is complex unity; poetry delights in the indefinite and holocaust various as contrasted with unity, and in the simple as contrasted with system. The aim of science is to get a hold of things, to grasp them, to handle them, to comprehend them; that is (to use the persuasive essay, familiar term), to master them, or to be superior to them. Its success lies in a woman is in the home argumentative, being able to draw a line round them, and to tell where each of them is to be found within that circumference, and how each lies relatively to all the rest. Persuasive Essay On Sustainability! Its mission is to destroy ignorance, doubt, surmise, suspense, illusions, fears, deceits, according to the Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas of the Poet, whose whole passage, by the way, may be taken as drawing out the contrast between the poetical and the scientific [Note 11]. But as to the poetical, very different is the frame of mind which is necessary for its perception. It demands, as its primary condition, that we should not put ourselves above the objects in which it resides, but at their feet; that we should feel them to be above and beyond us, that we should look up to thesis them, and that, instead of fancying that we can comprehend them, we should take for granted that we are surrounded and comprehended by them ourselves. It implies that we understand them to persuasive be vast, immeasurable, impenetrable, inscrutable, mysterious; so that at best we are only forming conjectures about them, not conclusions, for the phenomena which they present admit of many explanations, and we cannot know the true one. Poetry does not address the reason, but the imagination and affections; it leads to admiration, enthusiasm, devotion, love.
The vague, the uncertain, the irregular, the sudden, are among its attributes or sources. Hence it is that a child's mind is so full of thesis, poetry, because he knows so little; and an old man of the world so devoid of poetry, because his experience of facts is so wide. Essay On Sustainability! Hence it is that nature is commonly more poetical than art, in spite of Lord Byron, because it is less comprehensible and less patient of definitions; history more poetical than philosophy; the savage than the citizen; the knight-errant than the brigadier-general; the winding bridle-path than the straight railroad; the sailing vessel than the steamer; the ruin than the spruce suburban box; the Turkish robe or Spanish doublet than the French dress coat. I have now said far more than enough to make it clear what I mean by that element in the old monastic life, to which I have given the name of the Poetical. Now, in many ways the family of thesis, St. Benedict answers to this description, as we shall see if we look into its history. Its spirit indeed is ever one, but not its outward circumstances. It is not an Order proceeding from one mind at a particular date, and appearing all at persuasive on sustainability once in its full perfection, and in its extreme development, and in form one and the same everywhere and from first to last, as is the case with other great religious institutions; but it is an organization, diverse, complex, and irregular, and variously ramified, rich rather than symmetrical, with many origins and children of the essay centres and new beginnings and the action of local influences, like some great natural growth; with tokens, on the face of it, of its being a divine work, not the mere creation of essay, human genius. Instead of apa format, progressing on on sustainability, plan and system and from the will of a superior, it has shot forth and run out as if spontaneously, and has shaped itself according to events, from an irrepressible fulness of life within, and from the energetic self-action of its parts, like those symbolical creatures in the prophet's vision, which went every one of them straight forward, whither the impulse of the spirit was to go.
It has been poured out over the earth, rather than been sent, with a silent mysterious operation, while men slept, and through the romantic adventures of londonderry, individuals, which are well nigh without record; and thus it has come down to persuasive us, not risen up among us, and is found rather than established. Its separate and scattered monasteries occupy the land, each in its place, with a majesty parallel, but superior, to that of old aristocratic houses. Their known antiquity, their unknown origin, their long eventful history, their connection with Saints and Doctors when on earth, the legends which hang about them, their rival ancestral honours, their extended sway perhaps over other religious houses, their hold upon a woman place the home essay, the associations of the neighbourhood, their traditional friendships and compacts with other great landlords, the benefits they have conferred, the sanctity which they breathe,#8212;these and the like attributes make them objects, at once of awe and of affection. Such is the persuasive essay, great Abbey of Bobbio, in children of the holocaust, the Apennines, where St. Columban came to die, having issued with his twelve monks from persuasive essay, his convent in Benchor, county Down, and having spent his life in preaching godliness and planting monasteries in half-heathen France and essay wetlands Burgundy. Such St. Gall's, on the lake of Constance, so called from another Irishman, one of St. Columban's companions, who remained in Switzerland, when his master went on into Italy.
Such the persuasive, Abbey of Fulda, where lies St. Essay For English! Boniface, who, burning with zeal for essay on sustainability the conversion of the Germans, attempted them a first time and failed, and then a second time and succeeded, and at length crowned the missionary labours of forty-five years with martyrdom. Such Monte Cassino, the metropolis of the Benedictine name, where the Saint broke the idol, and cut down the of the, grove, of Apollo. Ancient houses such as these subdue the mind by the mingled grandeur and essay sweetness of their presence. They stand in history with an accumulated interest upon them, which belongs to no other monuments of the past. Whatever there is of venerable authority in other foundations, in Bishops' sees, in Cathedrals, in essay oral, Colleges, respectively, is found in combination in them. Each gate and persuasive essay cloister has had its own story, and time has engraven upon their walls the chronicle of its revolutions. And, even when at length rudely destroyed, or crumbled into dust, they live in history and antiquarian works, in the pictures and relics which remain of them, and in the traditions of their place. In the early part of last century the Maurist Fathers, with a view of collecting materials for essay for english oral the celebrated works which they had then on hand, sent two of essay, their number on a tour through France and the adjacent provinces.
Among other districts the travellers passed through the forest of Ardennes, which has been made classical by the prose of Csar, and the poetry of Shakespeare. There they found the great Benedictine Convent of St. Hubert [Note 12]; and, if I dwell awhile upon the illustration which it affords of what I have been saying, it is not as if twenty other religious houses which they visited would not serve my purpose quite as well, but because it has come first to my hand in turning over of the essay, the pages of their volume. At that time the venerable abbey in persuasive on sustainability, question had upon it the weight of essay about, a thousand years, and was eminent above others in the country in wealth, in privileges, in name, and, not the least recommendation, in the sanctity of its members. The lands on which it was situated were its freehold, and their range included sixteen villages. The old chronicle informs us that, about the middle of the seventh century, St. Sigibert, the Merovingian, pitched upon Ardennes and its neighbourhood for the establishment of persuasive on sustainability, as many as twelve monasteries, with the hope of thereby obtaining from heaven an thesis heir to his crown. Dying prematurely, he but partially fulfilled his pious intention, which was taken up by Pepin, sixty years afterwards, at the instance of persuasive essay, his chaplain, St. Beregise; so far, at least, as to make a commencement of the abbey of which we are speaking.
Beregise had been a monk of the Benedictine Abbey of St. Tron, and he chose for submission thesis the site of the new foundation a spot in the midst of the persuasive essay, forest, marked by the ruins of a temple dedicated to the pagan Diana, the psychology essay, goddess of the chase. The holy man exorcised the place with the sign of the Cross; and, becoming abbot of the new house, filled it either with monks, or, as seems less likely, with secular canons. From that time to the summer day, when the two Maurists visited it, the sacred establishment, with various fortunes, had been in possession of the land. On entering its precincts, they found it at essay on sustainability once full and empty: empty of the monks, who were in the fields gathering in the harvest; full of thesis binding, pilgrims, who were wont to come day after day, in never-failing succession, to visit the tomb of St. Hubert. What a series of events has to be recorded to make this simple account intelligible! and how poetical is the picture which it sets before us, as well as those events themselves, which it presupposes, when they come to be detailed! Were it not that I should be swelling a passing illustration into a history, I might go on to tell how strict the observance of the monks had been for the last hundred years before the travellers arrived there, since Abbot Nicholas de Fanson had effected a reform on the pattern of the French Congregation of St.
Vanne. I might relate how, when a simple monk in the Abbey of St. Hubert, Nicholas had wished to change it for a stricter community, and how he got leave to go off to the Congregation just mentioned, and how then his old Abbot died suddenly, and how he himself to his surprise was elected in his place. And I might tell how, when his mitre was on his head, he set about reforming the house which he had been on on sustainability, the point of quitting, and how he introduced for a woman place that purpose two monks of St. Vanne; and how the Bishop of persuasive, Liege, in whose diocese he was, set himself against his holy design, and how some of the old monks attempted to poison him; and how, though he carried it into effect, still he was not allowed to aggregate his Abbey to the Congregation whose reform he had adopted; but how his good example encouraged the neighbouring abbeys to commence a reform in themselves, which issued in an ecclesiastical union of the Flemish Houses. All this, however, would not have been more than one passage, of apa format, course, in the adventures which had befallen the abbey and persuasive on sustainability its abbots in the course of its history. It had had many seasons of decay before the time of about, Nicholas de Fanson, and many restorations, and from different quarters. None of them was so famous or important as the essay, reform effected in the year 817, about psychology a century after its original foundation, when the secular canons, who anyhow had got in, were put out, and the monks put in their place, at the instance of the then Bishop of essay on sustainability, Liege, who had a better spirit than his successor in children of the, the time of Nicholas. The new inmates were joined by persuasive essay, some persons of noble birth from the Cathedral, and by their suggestion and influence the bold measure was taken of attempting to gain from Liege the body of the great St. Hubert, the Apostle of Ardennes.
But to return to the relics of the Saint; the sacred body was taken by water up the submission thesis cambridge, Maes. Persuasive On Sustainability! The coffin was of marble, and perhaps could have been taken no other way; but another reason, besides its weight, lay in submission cambridge, the indignation of the citizens of Liege, who might have interfered with a land journey, and in fact did make several attempts, in the following years, to regain the body. In consequence, the essay on sustainability, good monks of of the holocaust essay, Ardennes hid it within the walls of their monastery, confiding the secret of its whereabouts to only two of their community at persuasive a time; and they showed in the sacristy to the devout, instead, the Saint's ivory cross and his stole, the sole of his shoe and his comb, and Diana, Marchioness of Autrech, gave a golden box to hold the stole. This, however, was in thesis binding, after times; for persuasive essay they were very loth at first to let strangers within their cloisters at all; and in essay for english oral, 838, when a long spell of persuasive essay on sustainability, rain was destroying the crops, and the people of the essay for english oral, neighbourhood came in procession to the shrine to ask the intercession of the Saint, the cautious Abbot Sewold, availing himself of the Rule, would only admit priests, and them by threes and fours, with naked feet, and a few laymen with each of them. The supplicants were good men, however, and had no notion of playing any trick: they came in on sustainability, piety and devotion, and the rain ceased, and the country was the gainer by St. Hubert of submission thesis, Ardennes.
And thenceforth others, besides the monks, became interested in his stay in the forest. Persuasive Essay! And now I have said something in submission thesis, explanation why the courtyard was full of pilgrims when the travellers came. St. Hubert had been an object of devotion for essay a particular benefit, perhaps ever since he came there, certainly as early as the eleventh century, for we then have historical notice of it. His preference of the forest to the city, which he had shown in his life-time before his conversion, was illustrated by the particular grace or miraculous service, for which, more than for any other, he used his glorious intercession on place essay, high.
He is famous for curing those who had suffered from the bite of essay on sustainability, wild animals, especially dogs of the chase, and a hospital was attached to the Abbey for their reception. The sacristan of the Church officiated in the cure; and with rites which never indeed failed, but which to some cautious persons seemed to savour of superstition. Certainly they were startling at first sight; accordingly a formal charge on that score was at one time brought against them before the Bishop of Liege, and a process followed. The Bishop, the University of Louvain, and its Faculty of Medicine, conducted the inquiry, which was given in favour of the Abbey, on the ground that what looked like a charm might be of the nature of a woman the home argumentative essay, a medical regimen. However, though the sacristan was the medium of the cure, the general care of the patients was left to externs. Essay! The hospital was served by secular priests, since the monks heard no confessions save those of their own people. This rule they observed, in order to binding londonderry reserve themselves for persuasive the proper duties of a Benedictine,#8212;the choir, study, manual labour, and children of the essay transcription of books; and, while the essay on sustainability, Maurists were ocular witnesses of their agricultural toils, they saw the diligence of their penmanship in its results, for the MSS. of their Library were the choicest in the country. Among them, they tell us, were copies of St. Jerome's Bible, the Acts of the Councils, Bede's History, Gregory and the home argumentative essay Isidore, Origen and Augustine.
The Maurists report as favourably of the monastic buildings themselves as of the hospital and library. Those buildings were a chronicle of persuasive on sustainability, past times, and of the changes which had taken place in them. First there were the poor huts of St. Beregise upon the half-cleared and still marshy ground of the forest; then came the building of a sufficient house, when St. Hubert was brought there; and centuries after that, St. Thierry, the wetlands, intimate friend of the great Pope Hildebrand, had renewed it magnificently, at persuasive essay on sustainability the time that he was Abbot. He was sadly treated in his lifetime by his monks, as Nicholas after him; but, after his death, they found out that he was a Saint, which they might have discovered before it; and they placed him in the crypt, and there he and another holy Abbot after him lay in peace, till the Calvinists broke into it in the sixteenth century, and burned both of them to ashes.
There were marks too of the essay, same fanatics on the pillars of the persuasive essay, nave of the Church; which had been built by Abbot John de Wahart in the twelfth century, and then again from its foundations by Abbots Nicholas de Malaise and Romaclus, the friend of Blosius, four centuries later; and it was ornamented by Abbot Cyprian, who was called the friend of the poor; and wetlands doubtless the essay, travellers admired the marble of the choir and sanctuary, and the silver candelabra of the altar given by the reigning Lord Abbot; and perhaps they heard him sing solemn Mass on the Assumption, as was usual with him on that feast, with his four secular chaplains, one to carry his Cross, another his mitre, a third his gremial, and a fourth his candle, and accompanied by the pealing organ and the many musical bells, which had been the about, gift of Abbot Balla about a hundred years earlier. Can we imagine a more graceful union of persuasive, human with divine, of the sweet with the austere, of business and of calm, of splendour and of simplicity, than is displayed in a great religious house after this pattern, when unrelaxed in its observance, and pursuing the ends for which it was endowed? The monks have been accused of choosing beautiful spots for their dwellings; as if this were a luxury in ascetics, and not rather the necessary alleviation of for english, their asceticism. Persuasive Essay! Even when their critics are kindest, they consider such sites as chosen by a sort of sentimental, ornamental indolence. Psychology Apa Format Essay! Beaulieu river, says Mr. Warner in his topography of Hampshire, and, because he writes far less ill-naturedly than the run of authors, I quote him, Beaulieu river is stocked with plenty of fish, and boasts in particular of good oysters and fine plaice, and essay on sustainability is fringed quite to a woman place argumentative the edge of the water with the persuasive on sustainability, most beautiful hanging woods.
In the thesis binding, area enclosed are distinct traces of various fishponds, formed for the use of the convent. Some of them continue perfect to the present day, and abound with fish. A curious instance occurs also of monkish luxury, even in the article of on sustainability, water; to secure a fine spring those monastics have spared neither trouble nor expense. About half a mile to the south-east of the Abbey is a deep wood; and at children essay a spot almost inaccessible is a cave formed of smooth stones. It has a very contracted entrance, but spreads gradually into a little apartment, of persuasive essay on sustainability, seven feet wide, ten deep, and about five high. This covers a copious and for english oral transparent spring of water, which, issuing from the mouth of the cave, is persuasive lost in a deep dell, and is there received, as I have been informed, by cambridge, a chain of small stone pipes, which formerly, when perfect, conveyed it quite to the Abbey. It must be confessed the monks in general displayed an elegant taste in the choice of their situations. Beaulieu Abbey is a striking proof of this. Perhaps few spots in the kingdom could have been pitched upon better calculated for monastic seclusion than this. The deep woods, with which it is almost environed, throw an air of gloom and solemnity over the scene, well suited to excite religious emotions; while the stream that glides by its side afforded to the recluse a striking emblem of human life: and at the same time that it soothed his mind by essay, a gentle murmuring, led it to serious thought by its continual and for english oral irrevocable lesson. [Note 13 ] The monks were not so soft as all this, after all; and if Mr.
Warner had seen them, we may be sure he would have been astonished at on sustainability the stern, as well as sweet simplicity which characterized them. They were not dreamy sentimentalists, to essay about fall in love with melancholy winds and purling rills, and waterfalls and nodding groves; but their poetry was the poetry of hard work and hard fare, unselfish hearts and charitable hands. They could plough and reap, they could hedge and persuasive on sustainability ditch, they could drain; they could lop, they could carpenter; they could thatch, they could make hurdles for their huts; they could make a road, they could divert or secure the streamlet's bed, they could bridge a torrent. Mr. Warner mentions one of their luxuries,#8212;clear, wholesome water; it was an allowable one, especially as they obtained it by their own patient labour.
If their grounds are picturesque, if their views are rich, they made them so, and had, we presume, a right to enjoy the work of their own hands. They found a swamp, a moor, a thicket, a rock, and they made an Eden in the wilderness. Children! They destroyed snakes; they extirpated wild cats, wolves, boars, bears; they put to persuasive flight or they converted rovers, outlaws, robbers. Children Holocaust Essay! The gloom of the on sustainability, forest departed, and the sun, for the first time since the Deluge shone upon binding londonderry, the moist ground. St. Benedict is the true man of Ross.
Who hung with woods yon mountain's sultry brow? From the dry rock who made the waters flow? Whose causeway parts the vale with shady rows? Whose seats the weary traveller repose? He feeds yon almshouse, neat, but void of state, When Age and Want sit smiling at persuasive on sustainability the gate; Him portioned maids, apprenticed orphans blessed, The young who labour, and the old who rest. And candid writers, though not Catholics, allow it. Even English, and much more foreign historians and antiquarians, have arrived at a unanimous verdict here. Place Is In The Home Argumentative Essay! We owe the agricultural restoration of great part of Europe to the monks, says Mr. Essay On Sustainability! Hallam.
The monks were much the best husbandmen, and thesis binding the only gardeners, says Forsyth. None, says Wharton, ever improved their lands and persuasive essay possessions more than the monks, by building, cultivating, and other methods. The cultivation of Church lands, as Sharon Turner infers from Doomsday Book, was superior to essay that held by other proprietors, for there was less wood upon them, less common pasture, and more abundant meadow. Wherever they came, says Mr. Soame on Mosheim, they converted the wilderness into essay on sustainability a cultivated country; they pursued the breeding of cattle and agriculture, laboured with their own hands, drained morasses, and cleared away forests. By them Germany was rendered a fruitful country. M. Guizot speaks as strongly: The Benedictine monks were the agriculturists of Europe; they cleared it on a large scale, associating agriculture with preaching. [Note 14] St. Benedict's direct object indeed in setting his monks to manual labour was neither social usefulness nor poetry, but penance; still his work was both the one and the other. The above-cited authors enlarge upon its use, and I in what I am writing may be allowed to dwell upon its poetry; we may contemplate both its utility to man and its service to God in the aspect of its poetry. How romantic then, as well as useful, how lively as well as serious, is argumentative their history, with its episodes of personal adventure and prowess, its pictures of squatter, hunter, farmer, civil engineer, and evangelist united in the same individual, with its supernatural colouring of heroic virtue and miracle! When St.
Columban first came into Burgundy with his twelve young monks, he placed himself in persuasive, a vast wilderness, and made them set about cultivating the soil. At first they all suffered from hunger, and were compelled to live on the barks of trees and wild herbs. On one occasion they were for five days in this condition. Essay For English! St. Gall, one of them, betook himself to a Swiss forest, fearful from the multitude of wild beasts; and then, choosing the neighbourhood of a mountain stream, he made a cross of twigs, and hung some relics on it, and laid the essay, foundation of his celebrated abbey. St. Ronan came from Ireland to Cornwall, and chose a wood, full of essay, wild beasts, for persuasive essay his hermitage, near the Lizard. The monks of St. Dubritius, the founder of the children of the holocaust essay, Welsh Schools, also sought the woods, and there they worked hard at manufactures, agriculture, and road making. St.
Sequanus placed himself where the trees almost touched the clouds. He and his companions, when they first explored it, asked themselves how they could penetrate into it, when they saw a winding footpath, so narrow and full of briars that it was with difficulty that one foot followed another. With much labour and with torn clothes they succeeded in gaining its depths, and stooping their heads into the darkness at their feet, they perceived a cavern, shrouded by essay on sustainability, the thick interlacing branches of the trees, and thesis binding blocked up with stones and underwood. This, says the monastic account, was the cavern of persuasive essay on sustainability, robbers, and the resort of evil spirits. Sequanus fell on his knees, prayed, made the sign of the Cross over the abyss, and built his cell there. Such was the first foundation of the celebrated abbey called after him in Burgundy [Note 15]. Sturm, the Bavarian convert of submission thesis cambridge, St. Boniface, was seized with a desire, as his master before him in his English monastery, of founding a religious house in the wilds of Pagan Germany; and setting out with two companions, he wandered for two days through the persuasive essay, Buchonian forest, and saw nothing but earth, sky, and large trees.
On the third day he stopped and chose a spot, which on trial did not answer. Then, mounting an ass, he set out by himself, cutting down branches of a night to secure himself from the wild beasts, till at essay length he came to the place (described by St. Boniface as locum silvaticum in eremo, vastissim solitudinis), in which afterwards arose the essay, abbey and schools of Fulda. Wunibald was suspicious of the good wine of the Rhine where he was, and, determining to leave it, he bought the essay, land where Heidensheim afterwards stood, then a wilderness of trees and underwood, covering a deep valley and the sides of lofty mountains. There he proceeded, axe in persuasive essay, hand, to clear the children holocaust essay, ground for his religious house, while the savage natives looked on sullenly, jealous for their hunting-grounds and sacred trees. Willibald, his brother, had pursued a similar work on system; he had penetrated his forest in every direction and scattered monasteries over it. Persuasive Essay On Sustainability! The Irish Alto pitched himself in a wood, half way between Munich and Vienna.
Pirminius chose an island, notorious for its snakes, and there he planted his hermitage and binding londonderry chapel, which at length became the rich and noble abbey and school of Augia Major or Richenau [Note 16]. The more celebrated School of Bec had a similar beginning at a later date, when Herluin, an essay on sustainability old soldier, devoted his house and essay about wetlands farm to an ecclesiastical purpose, and persuasive essay governed, as abbot, the monastery which he had founded. You might see him, says the is in the home argumentative essay, writer of his life, when office was over in church, going out to persuasive essay on sustainability his fields, at the head of his monks, with his bag of seed about his neck, and his rake or hoe in his hand. There he remained with them hard at work till the day was closing. Some were employed in clearing the land of essay about wetlands, brambles and weeds; others spread manure; others were weeding or sowing; no one ate his bread in idleness. Then when the persuasive essay, hour came for saying office in church, they all assembled together punctually. Their ordinary food was rye bread and vegetables with salt and water; and the water muddy, for the well was two miles off. [Note 17] Lanfranc, then a secular, was so edified by the simple Abbot, fresh from the field, setting about his baking with dirty hands, that he forthwith became one of the party [Note 18]; and, being unfitted for labour, opened in children holocaust, the house a school of logic, thereby to make money for the community. Such was the persuasive, cradle of the children holocaust, scholastic theology; the last years of the patristic, which were nearly contemporaneous, exhibit a similar scene,#8212;St. Bernard founding his abbey of Clairvaux in persuasive, a place called the Valley of Wormwood, in the heart of a savage forest, the haunt of robbers, and his thirteen companions clearing a homestead, raising a few huts, and londonderry living on barley or cockle bread with boiled beech leaves for vegetables [Note 19]. How beautiful is persuasive essay on sustainability Simeon of Durham's account of Easterwine, the first abbot after Bennet of St.
Peter's at Wearmouth! He was a man of noble birth, who gave himself to religion, and died young. Children Holocaust! Though he had been in the service of King Egfrid, says Simeon, when he had once left secular affairs, and on sustainability lain aside his arms, and taken on him the spiritual warfare instead, he was nothing but the humble monk, just like any of his brethren, winnowing with them with great joy, milking the ewes and cows, and in the bakehouse, the garden, the kitchen, and all house duties, cheerful and obedient. And, when he received the name of Abbot, still he was in spirit just what he was before to every one, gentle, affable, and kind; or, if any fault had been committed, correcting it indeed by the Rule, but still so winning the offender by his unaffected earnest manner, that he had no wish ever to repeat the offence, or to dim the brightness of that most clear countenance with the cloud of his transgression. And often going here and there on business of the monastery, when he found his brothers at work, he would at once take part in it, guiding the submission thesis, plough, or shaping the iron, or taking the persuasive on sustainability, winnowing fan, or the like. He was young and essay strong, with a sweet voice, a cheerful temper, a liberal heart and a handsome countenance.
He partook of the same food as his brethren, and under the same roof. He slept in the common dormitory, as before he was abbot, and he continued to do so for the first two days of his illness, when death had now seized him, as he knew full well. But for the last five days he betook himself to a more retired dwelling; and then, coming out into the open air and sitting down, and calling for all his brethren, after the manner of his tender nature, he gave his weeping monks the kiss of essay, peace, and died at night while they were singing lauds. [Note 20] This gentleness and tenderness of heart seems to have been as characteristic of the children holocaust, monks as their simplicity; and if there are some Saints among them, who on the public stage of history do not show it, it was because they were called out of their convents for some special purpose, and, as I have said above, exceptions to a rule are commonly great exceptions. Bede goes out of his way to observe of King Ethelbert, on St. Essay On Sustainability! Austin's converting him, that he had learned from the teachers and essay about wetlands authors of his salvation that men were to be drawn heaven-wards, and persuasive essay not forced. Aldhelm, when a council had been held about the perverse opinions of the submission cambridge, British Christians, seconding the principle which the on sustainability, Fathers of it laid down, that schismatics were to essay oral be convinced, not compelled, wrote a book upon essay on sustainability, their error and converted many of them.
Wolstan, when the civil power failed in binding, its attempts to stop the slave trade of the Bristol people, succeeded by his persevering preaching. In the confessional he was so gentle, that penitents came to him from all parts of England [Note 21]. This has been the spirit of the persuasive, monks from the first; the student of ecclesiastical history may recollect a certain passage in St. Martin's history, when his desire to shield the Spanish heretics from capital punishment brought him into great difficulties [Note 22] with the for english oral, usurper Maximus. Works of penance indeed and works of persuasive essay, mercy have gone hand in hand in the history of the monks; from the Solitaries in Egypt down to the Trappists of this day, it is one of the points in which the unity of the wetlands, monastic idea shows itself.
They have ever toiled for others, while they toiled for themselves; nor for posterity only, but for their poor neighbours, and for travellers who came to them. St. Augustine tells us that the monks of Egypt and of the East made so much by manual labour as to be able to freight vessels with provisions for impoverished districts. Theodoret speaks of a certain five thousand of them, who by persuasive, their labour supported, besides themselves, innumerable poor and strangers. Sozomen speaks of the monk Zeno, who, though a hundred years old, and the bishop of a rich Church, worked for the poor as well as for himself. Essay! Corbinian in a subsequent century surrounded his German Church with fruit trees and vines, and sustained the poor with the produce.
The monks of St. Gall, already mentioned, gardened, planted, fished, and thus secured the means of relieving the poor and entertaining strangers. Essay On Sustainability! Monasteries, says Neander, were seats for the promotion of various trades, arts, and sciences. Submission! The gains accruing from their combined labour were employed for the relief of the distressed. In great famines, thousands were rescued from essay, starvation. [Note 23] In a scarcity at psychology the beginning of the twelfth century, a monastery in the neighbourhood of Cologne distributed in one day fifteen hundred alms, consisting of persuasive essay, bread, meat, and vegetables. About the same time St.
Bernard founded his monastery of Citeaux, which, though situated in the waste district described above, was able at length to sustain two thousand poor for months, besides extraordinary alms bestowed on others. The monks offered their simple hospitality, uninviting as it might be, to high as well as low; and to those who scorned their fare, they at least could offer a refuge in misfortune or danger, or after casualties. Place Is In The Home Essay! Duke William, ancestor of the persuasive essay, Conqueror, was hunting in thesis londonderry, the woods about Jumieges, when he fell in with a rude hermitage [Note 24]. Two monks had made their way through the forest, and persuasive with immense labour had rooted up some trees, levelled the ground, raised some crops, and put together their hut. William heard their story, not perhaps in the best humour, and flung aside in contempt the barley bread and submission cambridge water which they offered him. Persuasive! Presently he was brought back wounded and insensible: he had got the worst in an encounter with a boar. On coming to himself, he accepted the thesis binding, hospitality which he had refused at first, and built for persuasive essay them a monastery.
Doubtless he had looked on them as trespassers or squatters on his domain, though with a religious character and object. Essay! The Norman princes were as good friends to the wild beasts as the monks were enemies: a charter still exists of the Conqueror, granted to on sustainability the abbey of submission, Caen [Note 25], in which he stipulates that its inmates should not turn the woods into tillage, and reserves the game for himself. Contrast with this savage retreat and its rude hospitality the different, though equally Benedictine picture of the sacred grove of Subiaco, and the spiritual entertainment which it ministers to all comers, as given in the late pilgrimage of Bishop Ullathorne: The trees, he says, which form the venerable grove, are very old, but their old age is vigorous and healthy. Their great grey roots expose themselves to view with all manner of curling lines and wrinkles on them, and the rough stems bend and twine about with the vigour and ease of gigantic pythons . Persuasive Essay On Sustainability! Of how many holy solitaries have these trees witnessed the meditations! And then they have seen beneath their quiet boughs the irruption of mailed men, tormented by the thirst of plunder and the passion of blood, which even a sanctuary held so sacred could not stay. And then they have witnessed, for twelve centuries and more, the binding londonderry, greatest of the Popes, the Gregories, the Leos, the Innocents, and the Piuses, coming one after another to refresh themselves from their labours in a solitude which is steeped with the inspirations and redolent with the holiness of St. Benedict. [Note 26] What congenial subjects for essay on sustainability his verse would the sweetest of thesis binding, all poets have found in scenes and histories such as the foregoing, he who in his Georgics has shown such love of a country life and country occupations, and of the themes and trains of thought which rise out of the country!
Would that Christianity had a Virgil to describe the old monks at their rural labours, as it has had a Sacchi or a Domenichino to paint them! How would he have been able to set forth the adventures and persuasive on sustainability the hardships of the missionary husbandmen, who sang of the cambridge, Scythian winter, and the murrain of the cattle, the persuasive essay, stag of children essay, Sylvia, and the forest home of Evander! How could he have pourtrayed St. Paulinus or St. Serenus in his garden, who could draw so beautiful a picture of the old Corycian, raising amid the thicket his scanty pot-herbs upon the nook of land, which was not good for essay tillage, nor for pasture, nor for vines! How could he have brought out the poetry of those simple labourers, who has told us of that old man's flowers and fruits, and of the satisfaction, as a king's, which he felt in those innocent riches! He who had so huge a dislike of cities, and great houses, and high society, and sumptuous banquets, and essay for english oral the canvass for office, and the hard law, and the noisy lawyer, and on sustainability the statesman's harangue,#8212;he who thought the thesis, country proprietor as even too blessed, did he but know his blessedness, and who loved the valley, winding stream, and wood, and the hidden life which they offer, and the deep lessons which they whisper,#8212;how could he have illustrated that wonderful union, of prayer, penance, toil, and literary work, the essay, true otium cum dignitate, a fruitful leisure and a meek-hearted dignity, which is exemplified in the Benedictine!
That ethereal fire which enabled the a woman is in argumentative essay, Prince of Latin poets to take up the Sibyl's strain, and to on sustainability adumbrate the submission thesis cambridge, glories of a supernatural future,#8212;that serene philosophy, which has strewn his poems with sentiments which come home to the heart,#8212;that intimate sympathy with the sorrows of human kind and with the action and passion of human nature,#8212;how well would they have served to illustrate the patriarchal history and office of the persuasive essay, monks in the broad German countries, or the deeds, the words, and the visions of a St. Odilo or a St. Aelred! What a poet deliberately chooses for the subject of his poems must be in its own nature poetical. A poet indeed is but a man after all, and in his proper person may prefer solid beef and pudding to all the creations of his own fine frenzy, which, in his character of poet, are his meat and oral drink. But no poet will ever commit his poetical reputation to the treatment of subjects which do not admit of poetry.
When, then, Virgil chooses the country and rejects the town, he shows us that a certain aspect of the persuasive, town is uncongenial with poetry, and that a certain aspect of the essay, country is congenial. Repose, intellectual and moral, is that quality of country life which he selects for his praises; and effort, and bustle, and excitement is that quality of a town life which he abhors. Herein then, according to Virgil, lies the persuasive, poetry of St. Benedict, in the secura quies et nescia fallere vita, in the absence of anxiety and fretfulness, of schemes and scheming, of hopes and fears, of doubts and psychology essay disappointments. Such a life,#8212;living for the day without solicitude for the morrow, without plans or objects, even holy ones, here below; working, not (so to say) by persuasive on sustainability, the piece, but as hired by the hour; sowing the ground with the certainty, according to the promise, of reaping; reading or writing this present week without the consequent necessity of reading or writing during the next; dwelling among one's own people without distant ties; taking each new day as a whole in binding, itself, an persuasive on sustainability addition, not a complement, to essay the past; and doing works which cannot be cut short, for they are complete in every portion of them,#8212;such a life may be called emphatically Virgilian. Essay! They, on the contrary, whose duty lies in what may be called undertakings , in science and system, in sustained efforts of the intellect or elaborate processes of action,#8212;apologists, controversialists, disputants in thesis binding londonderry, the schools, professors in the chair, teachers in essay on sustainability, the pulpit, rulers in the Church,#8212;have a noble and meritorious mission, but not so poetical a one.
When the bodily frame receives an injury, or is seized with some sudden malady, nature may be expected to set right the evil, if left to itself, but she requires time; science comes in to shorten the process, and is violent that it may be certain. Submission Cambridge! This may be taken to illustrate St. Benedict's mode of persuasive, counteracting the miseries of life. He found the world, physical and social, in ruins, and his mission was to restore it in the way, not of science, but of nature, not as if setting about to do it, not professing to do it by any set time or by for english oral, any rare specific or by any series of strokes, but so quietly, patiently, gradually, that often, till the work was done, it was not known to be doing. It was a restoration, rather than a visitation, correction, or conversion. The new world which he helped to create was a growth rather than a structure. Silent men were observed about the persuasive essay on sustainability, country, or discovered in the forest, digging, clearing, and building; and other silent men, not seen, were sitting in the cold cloister, tiring their eyes, and children of the essay keeping their attention on essay, the stretch, while they painfully deciphered and copied and binding londonderry re-copied the manuscripts which they had saved.
There was no one that contended, or cried out, or drew attention to what was going on; but by degrees the woody swamp became a hermitage, a religious house, a farm, an abbey, a village, a seminary, a school of learning, and a city. Persuasive! Roads and bridges connected it with other abbeys and cities, which had similarly grown up; and submission thesis cambridge what the haughty Alaric or fierce Attila had broken to pieces, these patient meditative men had brought together and made to live again. And then, when they had in the course of many years gained their peaceful victories, perhaps some new invader came, and with fire and sword undid their slow and persuasive persevering toil in an hour. Essay About Wetlands! The Hun succeeded to the Goth, the Lombard to the Hun, the Tartar to the Lombard; the Saxon was reclaimed only that the persuasive essay on sustainability, Dane might take his place. Down in submission thesis, the dust lay the labour and civilization of centuries,#8212;Churches, Colleges, Cloisters, Libraries,#8212;and nothing was left to them but to begin all over again; but this they did without grudging, so promptly, cheerfully, and persuasive tranquilly, as if it were by some law of nature that the restoration came, and they were like the flowers and binding shrubs and persuasive on sustainability fruit trees which they reared, and which, when ill-treated, do not take vengeance, or remember evil, but give forth fresh branches, leaves, or blossoms, perhaps in submission thesis, greater profusion, and with richer quality, for the very reason that the old were rudely broken off. If one holy place was desecrated, the monks pitched upon another, and by this time there were rich or powerful men who remembered and loved the past enough to wish to have it restored in the future. Thus was it in the case of the monastery of essay on sustainability, Ramsey after the ravages of the Danes. A wealthy Earl, whose heart was touched, consulted his Bishop how he could best promote the divine glory: the Bishop answered that they only were free, serene, and for english unsolicitous, who renounced the world, and that their renunciation brought a blessing on their country. By their merit, he said, the anger of the Supreme Judge is abated; a healthier atmosphere is granted; corn springs up more abundantly; famine and pestilence withdraw; the state is better governed; prisons are opened; the fetters unbound; the shipwrecked relieved. He proceeded to persuasive essay on sustainability advise him, as the best of courses, to give ground for a monastery, and to build and endow it.
Earl Alwin observed in reply, that he had inherited some waste land in thesis, the midst of marshes, with a forest in the neighbourhood, some open spots of good turf, and others of meadow; and he took the Bishop to see it. It was in fact an island in the fens, and as lonely as religious men could desire. The gift was accepted, workmen were collected, the persuasive essay on sustainability, pious peasants round about gave their labour. Twelve monks were found from holocaust essay, another cloister; cells and a chapel were soon raised. Materials were collected for a handsome church; stones and cement were given; a firm foundation was secured; scaffolding and machinery were lent; and in persuasive, course of submission thesis, time a sacred edifice and two towers rose over the desolate waste, and renewed the past;#8212;a learned divine from France was invited to preside over the monastic schools [Note 27]. Here then I am led, lastly, to speak of the literary labours of the Benedictines, but I have not room to do more than direct attention to persuasive the peculiar character of the home essay, their work, and must leave the subject of their schools for some future opportunity. Here, as in other respects above noticed, the unity of monachism shows itself. What the Benedictines, even in persuasive on sustainability, their latest literary developments, have been, in St. Maur in the seventeenth century, and at Solesme now, such were the monks in their first years. One of the chief occupations of the disciples of St.
Pachomius in Egypt was the transcription of books. It was the sole labour of the monks of St. Martin in Gaul. The Syrian solitaries, according to St. Chrysostom, employed themselves in making copies of the Holy Scriptures. It was the occupation of the monks of St. Equitius and of Cassiodorus, and of the nunnery of St. Csarius. We read of one holy man preparing the skins for writing, of another selling his manuscripts in order to gain alms for the poor, and of an abbess writing St.
Peter's Epistles in letters of gold. St. David had shown the same reverence to St. John's Gospel. Abbot Plato filled his own and other monasteries with his beautifully written volumes [Note 28]. During the short rule of Abbot Desiderius at apa format Monte Cassino, his monks wrote out on sustainability St.
Austin's fifty Homilies, his Letters, his Comment upon the Sermon on the Mount, upon St. Paul and upon Genesis; parts of St. Psychology Apa Format Essay! Jerome and persuasive essay on sustainability St. Ambrose, part of St. Bede, St. Leo's Sermons, the Orations of St. Gregory Nazianzen; the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles and the Apocalypse; various histories, including that of St. Gregory of Tours, and of Josephus on the Jewish War, Justinian's Institutes, and many ascetic and other works; of the Classics, Cicero de Natur Deorum, Terence, Ovid's Fasti, Horace, and Virgil.
Maurus Lapi, a Camaldolese, in the fifteenth century, copied a thousand volumes in less than fifty years. Essay! Jerome, a monk in an Austrian monastery, wrote so great a number of books that, it is persuasive essay on sustainability said, a wagon with six horses would scarcely suffice to draw them. Othlon, in the eleventh century, when a boy, wrote so diligently that he nearly lost his sight. That was in France; he then went to Ratisbon, where he wrote nineteen missals, three books of the essay for english oral, Gospel, two books of Epistle and Gospel, and essay on sustainability many others. Many he gave to submission his friends, but the list is too long to finish. The Abbot Odo of Tournay used to exult, according to his successor, in the number of writers which the Lord had given him. Had you gone into his cloister, you might have seen a dozen young men sitting in perfect silence, writing at persuasive essay tables constructed for essay the purpose. All Jerome's Commentaries on persuasive essay, the Prophets, all the works of St. Gregory, all that he could find of Austin, Ambrose, Isidore, Bede, and the Lord Anselm, Abbot of Bec, and afterwards Archbishop of Canterbury, he caused to be diligently transcribed. [Note 29]
These tranquil labourers found a further field in apa format, the illumination and binding of the transcribed volumes, as they had previously been occupied in the practice necessary for the then important art of calligraphy. Essay On Sustainability! It was not running hand that the monks had to learn; for it was no ephemeral expression of their own thoughts which their writing was to convey, but the for english, formal transcript, for the benefit of posterity, of the words of inspired teachers and Doctors of the Church. They were performing what has been since the persuasive essay, printer's work; and it is said that from the English monks is derived the thesis londonderry, small letter of the modern Roman type. In France the essay, abbeys of Fontenelle, Rheims, and Corbie were especially famed for beauty of penmanship in psychology apa format, the age of Charlemagne [Note 30], when literature was in its most depressed state. Books intended for on sustainability presents, such as that which the mother of Leo the Ninth presented to St. Essay! Hubert, and, much more, if intended for sacred uses, were enriched with gold and on sustainability silver plates and precious stones. Here was a commencement of the thesis londonderry, cultivation of the fine arts in those turbulent times,#8212;a quiet, unexciting occupation, which went on inside the monasteries, whatever rivalries or heresies agitated Christendom outside of them, and which, though involving, of course, an improvement in the workmanship as time went on, yet in the case of every successive specimen, whatever exact degree of persuasive, skill or taste each exhibited, had its end in itself, as though there had been no other specimen before or after. Brower, in his work on the Antiquities of apa format essay, Fulda, gives us a lively picture of the various tranquil occupations which were going on at one time within the monastic walls. As industrious bees, he says, their work never flagging, did these monks follow out persuasive on sustainability their calling. Some of them were engaged in describing, here and there upon the parchment, the special letters and characters which were to be filled in; others were wrapping or binding the manuscripts in handsome covers; others were marking out in red the thesis londonderry, remarkable sentences or the heads of the essay on sustainability, chapters. Some were writing fairly what had been thrown together at random, or had been left out in the dictation, and were putting every part in fair order.
And not a few of essay, them excelled in painting in all manner of colours, and in drawing figures. [Note 31] He goes on to refer to essay on sustainability an old manuscript there, which speaks of the monks as decorating their church, and of their carpenters' work, sculpture, engraving, and brass work. I have mentioned St. Dunstan in an earlier page, as called to political duties, which were out of keeping with the traditionary spirit of his Order; here, however, he shows himself in the simple character of a Benedictine. He had a taste for the arts generally, especially music. He painted and embroidered; his skill in smith's work is thesis recorded in persuasive on sustainability, the well-known legend of his combat with the evil one. And, as the monks of for english oral, Hilarion joined gardening with psalmody, and Bernard and his Cistercians joined field work with meditation, so did St. Dunstan use music and painting as directly expressive or suggestive of devotion.
He excelled in writing, painting, moulding in wax, carving in on sustainability, wood and bone, and in essay about wetlands, work in gold, silver, iron, and brass, says the writer of persuasive on sustainability, his life in Surius. And he used his skill in musical instruments to charm away from of the essay, himself and others their secular annoyances, and to rouse them to persuasive the thought of heavenly harmony, both by the sweet words with which he accompanied his airs, and by the concord of those airs themselves. [Note 32] And then he goes on to mention how on one occasion, when he had hung his harp against essay about the wall, and the wind brought out from persuasive on sustainability, its strings a wild melody, he recognized in a woman is in argumentative essay, it one of the antiphons in persuasive, the Commune Martyrum, Gaudete in C#339;lis, etc., and used it for oral his own humiliation. As might be expected, the monasteries of the South of Europe would not be behind the North in accomplishments of this kind. Those of St. Gall, Monte Cassino, and Solignac, are especially spoken of as skilled in essay on sustainability, the fine arts.
Monte Cassino excelled in the home, illumination and in mosaic, the Camaldolese in painting, and the Olivetans in wood-inlaying [Note 33]. While manual labour, applied to these artistic purposes, ministered to devotion, on the other hand, when applied to the transcription and persuasive on sustainability multiplication of books, it was a method of instruction, and that peculiarly Benedictine, as being of a literary, not a scientific nature. Systematic theology had but a limited place in ecclesiastical study prior to the eleventh and twelfth centuries; Scripture and the Fathers were the received means of education, and these constituted the very text on which the pens of the monks were employed. And thus they would be becoming familiar with that kind of knowledge which was proper to their vocation, at the same time that they were engaged in what was unequivocally a manual labour; and, in providing for the religious necessities of posterity, they were directly serving their own edification. And this again had been the practice of the monks from the a woman place argumentative essay, first, and is included in the unity of their profession. St.
Chrysostom tells us that their ordinary occupation in his time was to sing and on sustainability pray, to children essay read Scripture, and to transcribe the sacred text. [Note 34] As the works of the early Fathers gradually became the literary property of the persuasive essay, Church, these, too, became the subject-matter of the reading and the writing of the monks. For him who is going on to perfection, says St. Benedict in his Rule, there are the lessons of the Holy Fathers, which lead to wetlands its very summit. For what page, what passage of the Old or New Testament, coming as it does with divine authority, is not the very exactest rule of life? What book of the Holy Catholic Fathers does not resound with this one theme, how we may take the shortest course to our Creator? But I need not here insist on this characteristic of monastic study, which, especially as regards the study of on sustainability, Scripture, has been treated so fully and so well by Mr. Maitland in his Essays on the Dark Ages. The sacred literature of the monks went a step further. They would be naturally led by their continual perusal of the Scriptures and cambridge the Fathers to attempt to compare and adjust these two chief sources of theological truth with each other.
Hence resulted the peculiar character of the religious works of what may be especially called the Benedictine period, the five centuries between St. Gregory and St. Anselm. The age of the Fathers was well nigh over; the age of the Schoolmen was yet to come; the ecclesiastical writers of the persuasive, intervening centuries employed themselves for the most part in arranging and digesting the patristical literature which had come down to thesis them; they either strung together choice passages of the Fathers in caten , as a running illustration of the inspired text, or they formed them into a comment upon persuasive essay, it. The Summ Sententiarum of the same centuries were works of a similar character, while they also opened the way to the intellectual exercises of the scholastic period; for they were lessons or instructions arranged according to a scheme or system of doctrine, though they were still extracted from the works of the Fathers, and though the psychology apa format, matter of those works suggested the divisions or details of the system. Moreover, such labours, as much as transcription itself, were Benedictine in their spirit, as well as in on sustainability, their subject-matter; for where there was nothing of original research, nothing of brilliant or imposing result, there would be nothing to apa format dissipate, elate, or absorb the mind, or to violate the simplicity and tranquillity proper to essay on sustainability the monastic state. The same remark applies to a further literary employment in thesis binding, which the Benedictines allowed themselves, and which is the last I shall here mention, and that is the compilation of chronicles and annals, whether ecclesiastical, secular, or monastic. So prominent a place does this take in their literature, that the on sustainability, author of the Asceticon , in the fourth volume of Dom Francois's Bibliothque des Ecrivains Bndictins, does not hesitate to point to the historical writings of his Order as constituting one of its chief claims, after its Biblical works, on the gratitude of posterity. This, he says, is the praise especially due to the monks, that they have illustrated Holy Scripture, rescued history, sacred and for english profane, from the barbarism of the times and have handed down to posterity so many lives both of Saints and of Bishops. On Sustainability! [Note 35] Here again is a fresh illustration of the Benedictine character; for first, those histories are of the most simple structure and most artless composition, and next, from the circumstance of their being commonly narratives of contemporary events, or compilations from a few definite sources of information which were at hand, they involved nothing of essay oral, that laborious research and excitement of on sustainability, mind which is demanded of the writer who has to record a complex course of history, extending over many centuries and countries, and who aims at the discovery of truth, in the midst of deficient, redundant, or conflicting testimony.
The men who wrote history, says Mr. Dowling, speaking of the times in question, did not write by rule; they only put down what they had seen, what they had heard, what they knew. Essay! Very many of them did what they did as a matter of moral duty. The result was something sui generis ; it was not even what we call history at all. Persuasive Essay On Sustainability! It was, if I may so speak, something more, an submission thesis actual admeasurement rather than a picture; or, if a picture, it was painted in persuasive essay, a style which had all the minute accuracy and homely reality of the most domestic of the Flemish masters, not the lofty hyperbole of the Roman school, nor the obtrusive splendour, not less unnatural, of the Venetian. In a word, history, as a subject of criticism, is an art, a noble and beautiful art ; the historical writings of the middle ages is nature . [Note 36] Mention is made in wetlands, this passage of the persuasive essay, peculiarity in monastic historiography, that it proceeded from the motive of religious duty. This must always have been the case in consequence of the monastic profession; however, we have here, in addition to the presumption, actual evidence, and not on one occasion only, of the essay for english oral, importance which the Benedictine Order attached to these notices and essay memorials of a woman essay, past times. In the essay on sustainability, year 1082, for instance, the essay, Abbot Marquand of New Corbie, in Saxony, seems to have sent an order to all churches and monasteries subject to his rule to send to him severally the chronicles of their own places. Abbot Wichbold repeated the order sixty years later, and Abbot Thierry in 1337 addressed to the provosts and rectors subject to him a like injunction [Note 37]. Essay On Sustainability! Again, in 1481 the Abbot of Erfurdt addressed a letter to essay the Fathers of the persuasive essay, Reform of Bursfeld, with the view of persuading them to for english take part in essay on sustainability, a similar work.
If you were to agree among yourselves, he says, and about wetlands make a statute to the effect that every Prelate is under an obligation to compose annals and histories of his monastery, what could be better, what more useful, what more interesting, whether for knowing or for reading? [Note 38] It is easier to conjecture what those literary works would be, in which a Benedictine would find himself at liberty to engage, than to pretend to point out those from which his vocation would debar him; yet Mabillon, equally with de Ranc, implied that all subjects do not come alike to on sustainability him. Here we are recalled to the well-known controversy between these two celebrated men. The Abbot of La Trappe, the a woman is in the home essay, Cistercian de Ranc, writing to his own people, put forth some statements on persuasive, the subject of the studies proper to a monk, which seemed to reflect upon the learned Maurists. Thesis Binding! Mabillon, one of them, replied, in persuasive essay, a learned vindication of himself and his brethren. The Abbot had maintained that study of whatever kind should be kept in strict subordination to manual labour, and should not extend to any books except the Scriptures and the ascetic treatises of the Fathers. Mabillon, on the other hand, without denying the necessity of manual labour, to which the Maurists themselves devoted an hour a day, seemed to allow to the Benedictine the free cultivation of the is in argumentative essay, intellect, and an unlimited range of studies. When they explained themselves, each combatant would appear to have asserted more than he could successfully maintain; yet after all there was a considerable difference of view between them, which could not be removed. Essay! The critical question was whether certain historical instances, which Mabillon urged in his favour, were to be considered exceptions or not to wetlands the rule of persuasive essay on sustainability, St. Benedict. I have certainly maintained in an earlier page of psychology apa format essay, this Essay that such instances as Alcuin, Paschasius, or Lanfranc are no fair specimens of the Benedictine profession, and essay on sustainability must not be taken to represent the monks generally. Lest, however, in saying this, I may be thought to be evading the testimony of history, as adduced by a writer, authoritative at children essay once by essay on sustainability, his learning and as spokesman of the great Congregation of St.
Maur, I think it well to extract in my behalf some of his own admissions, which seem to me fully to bear out what I have been laying down above about the spirit and mission of his Order. For instance, he frankly concedes, or rather maintains, that the scholastic method of teaching theology and philosophy is foreign to the profession of a Benedictine, as such. Why, he asks, need we cultivate these sciences in the way of disputation? Why not as positive sciences, explaining questions and resolving doubts as they occur? Why is it not more than enough for religious pupils to thesis londonderry be instructed in the more necessary principles of the science, and thereby to make progress in the study of the Scriptures and the Fathers? What need of this perpetual syllogizing in form, and persuasive essay sharp answers to innumerable objections, as is the custom in essay about wetlands, the schools? Elsewhere he contrasts the mode of persuasive on sustainability, teaching a subject, as adopted by the early Fathers, with that which the Schoolmen introduced. The reasonings of the Fathers, he says, are so full, so elegantly set forth, as to be everywhere redolent of the sweetness and vigour of Christian eloquence, whereas scholastic theology is absolutely dry and sterile. Elsewhere he says that in the study of Holy Scripture consists the entire science of monks. Again, he says of Moral Theology, As monks are rarely destined to the cure of for english, souls, it does not seem necessary that they should give much time to the science of Morals.
And though of course he does not forbid them the persuasive on sustainability, study of history, which we have seen to be so congenial to their calling, yet he observes of children holocaust essay, this study, when pursued to its full extent, It seems to cause much dissipation of mind, which is prejudicial to that inward compunction of heart, which is so especially fitting to the holy life of a monk. Essay On Sustainability! Again, observing that the examination of ancient MSS. was the special occupation of the Maurists in his time, he says, They who give themselves to this study have the more merit with God, in essay for english oral, that they have so little praise with men. Moreover, it obliges them to devote the more time to persuasive solitude, which ought to be their chief delight. I confess it is a most irksome and unpleasant labour; however, it gives much less trouble than transcription, which was the most useful work of our early monks. Elsewhere, speaking of the celebrated Maurist editions of the Fathers, he observes, Labour, such as this, which is undergone in silence and in quietness, is especially compatible with true tranquillity of mind and the mastery of the about wetlands, passions, provided we labour as a duty, and not for glory. [Note 39] I trust the reader will be so good as to keep in mind that I am all along speaking of the Benedictine life historically , and as I might speak of any other historical fact ; not venturing at all on what would be the persuasive on sustainability, extreme presumption of any quasi-doctrinal or magisterial exposition of it, which belongs to those only who have actually imbibed its tradition. This being clearly understood, I think I may interpret Mabillon to mean that (be the range of studies lawful to thesis binding londonderry a monk what it may) still, whatever literary work requires such continuous portions of time as not to admit of being suspended at a moment's notice, whatever is so interesting that other duties seem dull and heavy after it, whatever so exhausts the power of attention as to incapacitate for attention to other subjects, whatever makes the mind gravitate towards the creature, is inconsistent with monastic simplicity.
Accordingly, I should expect to find that controversy was uncongenial to the Benedictine, because it excited the mind, and metaphysical investigations, because they fatigued it; and, when I met such instances as St. Paschasius or St. Anselm, I should deal with them as they came and as I could. Moreover, I should not look to a Benedictine for any elaborate and on sustainability systematic work on the history of doctrine, or of heresy, or for any course of patristical theology, or any extended ecclesiastical history, or any philosophical disquisitions upon history, as implying a grasp of innumerable details, and the labour of using a mass of essay, phenomena to the elucidation of a theory, or of bringing a range of multifarious reading to bear upon one point; and that, because such efforts of mind require either an essay energetic memory devoted to matters of time and place, or, instead of the tranquil and plodding study of one book after another, the presence of a large library, and the distraction of a vast number of books handled all at once, not for perusal, but for reference. Perhaps I am open to submission cambridge the charge of refining, in attempting to illustrate the principle which I seem to myself to detect in the Benedictine tradition; but the principle itself which I have before me is clear enough, and is expressed in on sustainability, the advice which is given to us by a sacred writer: The words of the wise are as goads, and thesis nails deeply fastened in; more than these, my son, require not : of making many books there is no end, and persuasive much study is an affliction of the flesh.
To test the essay, truth of this view of the persuasive essay on sustainability, Benedictine mission, I cannot do better than appeal as a palmary instance to the Congregation of St. Maur, an intellectual school of Benedictines assuredly. Now what, in matter of fact, is the character of psychology apa format essay, its works? It has no Malebranche, no Thomassin, no Morinus; it has no Bellarmine, no Suarez, no Petavius; it has no Tillemont or Fleury,#8212;all of whom were more or less its contemporaries; but it has a Montfaucon, it has a Mabillon, it has a Sainte Marthe, a Coustant, a Sabbatier, a Martene,#8212;men of immense learning and literary experience; it has collators and publishers of persuasive essay on sustainability, MSS. and of inscriptions, editors of the text and of the versions of Holy Scripture, editors and biographers of the Fathers, antiquarians, annalists, paleographists,#8212;with scholarship indeed, and criticism, and theological knowledge, admirable as often as elicited by submission cambridge, the particular subject on which they are directly employed, but conspicuously subordinate to it. If we turn to other contemporary Congregations of St. Benedict we are met by the same phenomenon. Their labours have been of the same modest, patient, tranquil kind. The first name which occurs to persuasive essay on sustainability me is that of Augustine Calmet, of the Congregation of about wetlands, St. Vanne. His works are biblical and antiquarian;#8212;a literal Comment on essay, Scripture with Dissertations, a dictionary of the Bible, a Comment on essay, the Benedictine Rule, a history of Lorraine.
I cast my eyes round the Library, in essay, which I happen at the moment to be writing; what Benedictine authors meet them? There is Ceillier, also of the of the holocaust essay, Congregation of St. Vanne; Bertholet, of the same Congregation; Cardinal Aguirre of Salamanca; Cressy of Douai; Pez of Mlk on the Danube; Lumper of St. George in the Hercynian Forest; Brockie of the Scotch College at on sustainability Ratisbon; Reiner of the English Congregation. Their Works are of the same complexion,#8212;historical, antiquarian, biographical, patristical,#8212;calling to mind the line of study traditionally pursued by a modern ecclesiastical congregation, the Italian Oratory. I do not speak of thesis binding, Ziegelbauer, Francois, and other Benedictines, who might be added, because they have confined themselves to Benedictine Antiquities, and every Order will write about itself.
And so of the Benedictine Literature from first to last. Ziegelbauer, who has just been mentioned, has written four folio volumes on the subject. Now one of them is devoted to a catalogue and an account of Benedictine authors;#8212;of these, those on Scripture and Positive Theology occupy 110 pages; those on persuasive, history, 300; those on scholastic theology, 12; those on polemics, 12; those on moral theology, 6. This surprising contrast may be an exaggeration of the fact, because there is much of repetition and digression in his survey, and his biographical notices vary in length; but, after all allowances for such accidental unfairness in the list, the result must surely be considered as strikingly confirmatory of the account which I have been giving. But I must cut short an investigation which, though imperfect for the illustration of its subject, is psychology essay already long for the patience of the reader. All human works are exposed to vicissitude and persuasive on sustainability decay; and that the essay, great Order of essay on sustainability, which I have been writing should in the lapse of thirteen centuries have furnished no instances of that general law is the less to be expected, in proportion to the extent of its territory, the independence of its separate houses, and the local varieties of its constitution. To say that peace may engender selfishness, and humility become a cloak for indolence, and a country life may be an epicurean luxury, is only to enunciate the over-true maxim, that every virtue has a vice for its first cousin.
Usum non tollit abusus ; and the circumstance that Benedictine life admits of being corrupted into a mode of living which is not Benedictine, but its very contradictory, cannot surely be made an argument against its meritorious innocence, its resolute cheerfulness, and its strenuous tranquillity. We are told to be like little children; and where shall we find a more striking instance than is here afforded us of that union of simplicity and reverence, that clear perception of the unseen, yet recognition of the the home argumentative, mysterious, which is the characteristic of the first years of human existence? To the monk heaven was next door; he formed no plans, he had no cares; the ravens of his father Benedict were ever at his side. He went forth in his youth to his work and to his labour until the evening of life; if he lived a day longer, he did a day's work more; whether he lived many days or few, he laboured on to the essay on sustainability, end of them. Essay Wetlands! He had no wish to see further in advance of his journey than where he was to make his next stage.
He ploughed and sowed, he prayed, he meditated, he studied, he wrote, he taught, and then he died and went to heaven. He made his way into the labyrinthine forest, and he cleared just so much of essay, space as his dwelling required, suffering the high solemn trees and binding the deep pathless thicket to persuasive essay close him in. And when he began to build, his architecture was suggested by the scene,#8212;not the scientific and a woman place argumentative essay masterly conception of a great whole with many parts, as the Gothic style in a later age, but plain and inartificial, the adaptation of received fashions to his own purpose, and an addition of chapel to chapel and a wayward growth of cloister, according to the occasion, with half-concealed shrines and essay unexpected recesses, with paintings on the wall as by a second thought, with an absence of display and a wild, irregular beauty, like that of the woods by which he was at a woman the home argumentative essay first surrounded. And when he would employ his mind, he turned to Scripture, the book of persuasive, books, and place is in there he found a special response to the peculiarities of persuasive essay on sustainability, his vocation; for there supernatural truths stand forth as the trees and flowers of psychology apa format essay, Eden, in a divine disorder, as some awful intricate garden or paradise, which he enjoyed the more because he could not catalogue its wonders. Next he read the Holy Fathers, and there again he recognized a like ungrudging profusion and careless wealth of precept and of consolation. And when he began to compose, still he did so after that mode which nature and revelation had taught him, avoiding curious knowledge, content with incidental ignorance, passing from subject to subject with little regard to system, or care to penetrate beyond his own homestead of thought,#8212;and writing, not with the persuasive on sustainability, sharp logic of disputants, or the thesis binding, subtle analysis of philosophers, but with the one aim of reflecting in his pages, as in a faithful mirror, the words and persuasive on sustainability works of the Almighty, as they confronted him, whether in Scripture and the Fathers, or in thesis, that mighty maze of deeds and events, which men call the world's history, but which to him was a Providential Dispensation. Here the beautiful character in life and death of St. Bede naturally occurs to the mind, who is, in his person and his writings, as truly the pattern of a Benedictine as is St. Thomas of persuasive, a Dominican; and essay wetlands with an extract from the letter of Cuthbert to Cuthwin concerning his last hours, which, familiarly as it is known, is always pleasant to read, I break off my subject for the present. On Sustainability! He was exceedingly oppressed, says Cuthbert of St. Bede, with shortness of breathing, though without pain, before Easter Day, for about a fortnight; but he rallied, and was full of joy and for english gladness, and gave thanks to persuasive essay on sustainability Almighty God day and night and every hour, up to Ascension Day; and he gave us, his scholars, daily lectures, and passed the rest of the psychology, day in singing the Psalms, and the night too in joy and thanksgiving, except the scanty time which he gave to sleep.
And as soon as he woke, he was busy in his customary way, and he never ceased with uplifted hands giving thanks to God. I solemnly protest, never have I seen or heard of any one who was so diligent in thanksgiving. He sang that sentence of the blessed Apostle Paul, 'It is a dreadful thing to fall into the hands of the essay on sustainability, Living God,' and many other passages of Scripture, in which he warned us to shake off the slumber of the submission thesis cambridge, soul, by anticipating our last hour. And he sang some verses of his own in English also, to the effect that no one could be too well prepared for essay his end, viz., in calling to mind, before he departs hence, what good or evil he has done, and how his judgment will lie. And he sang too the essay for english, antiphons, of which one is, 'O King of persuasive on sustainability, Glory, Lord of Angels, who this day hast ascended in triumph above all the heavens, leave us not orphans, but send the promise of the Father upon a woman is in argumentative essay, us, the Spirit of Truth, alleluia.' And when he came to essay on sustainability the words, 'leave us not orphans,' he burst into tears, and wept much. He said, too, 'God scourgeth every son whom He receiveth,' and, with St. Ambrose, 'I have not so lived as to be ashamed to have been among you, nor do I fear to die, for we have a good Lord.' In those days, besides our lectures and the Psalmody, he was engaged in two works; he was translating into English the Gospel of St. John, as far as the words, 'But what are these among so many,' and some extracts from the Not [Note 40] of Isidore. On the Tuesday before Ascension Day he began to of the holocaust suffer still more in his breathing, and his feet were slightly swollen. However, he went through the day, dictating cheerfully, and he kept saying from time to time, 'Take down what I say quickly, for I know not how long I am to on sustainability last, or whether my Maker will not take me soon.' He seemed to us to be quite aware of the time of his going, and he passed that night in giving of psychology essay, thanks, without sleeping.
As soon as morning broke, that is on the Wednesday, he urged us to make haste with the persuasive, writing which we had begun. We did so till nine o'clock, when we walked in procession with the Relics of the Saints, according to the usage of that day. Psychology Apa Format Essay! But one of our party said to him, 'Dearest Master, one chapter is still wanting; can you bear our asking you about it?' He answered, 'I can bear it; take your pen and be ready, and persuasive write quickly.' At three o'clock he said to of the holocaust me, 'Run fast, and call our priests, that I may divide among them some little gifts which I have in essay, my box.' When I had done this in much agitation, he spoke to each, urging and entreating them all to essay for english oral make a point of saying Masses and prayers for persuasive on sustainability him. Submission! Thus he passed the day in joy until the evening, when the above-named youth said to him, 'Dear Master, there is yet one sentence not written;' he answered, 'Write quickly.' Presently the youth said, 'Now it is written;' he replied, 'Good, thou hast said the truth; consummatum est ; take my head into thy hands, for it is very pleasant to me to sit facing my old praying place, and thus to call upon essay on sustainability, my Father.' And so, on the floor of his cell, he sang, 'Glory be to of the holocaust essay Father, Son, and persuasive essay Holy Ghost,' and, just as he had said 'Holy Ghost,' he breathed his last, and went to the realms above. It is remarkable that this flower of the Benedictine school died on the same day as St. For English Oral! Philip Neri,#8212;May 26; Bede on Ascension Day, and persuasive essay on sustainability Philip on the early morning after the psychology essay, feast of Corpus Christi. It was fitting that two saints should go to heaven together, whose mode of going thither was the same; both of them singing, praying, working, and guiding others, in joy and exultation, till their very last hour. 1. Owing to the temporary suspension of the Atlantis , the article on the Dominican Order was not written. 2. Helyot, Hist. Mon.
Ziegelbauer, Litt. Essay On Sustainability! Hist. For English Oral! Soame's Mosheim, vol. ii., p. 26. Brockie. Prf. ad Regul. Buckingham's Bible in the Middle Ages, p. 81, etc., etc. 3. Butler, June 22. 4. Thomassin, Disc. Persuasive! Eccl., t. i., p. Essay Wetlands! 705.
Calmet, Reg. Essay On Sustainability! Ben., t. ii., p. 25. Mabillon, Acta Sc. iv., p. 1, prf., p. xxx. Annal., t. Binding! i., prf., § 19. 6. Persuasive! Mabillon, Act Benedict., t. Binding! iv., p. 1, p. xxxvii. Essay On Sustainability! 7. History of Civilization, vol. ii., p. Submission! 65, Bohn; and so Ampre. 10. Dial., i. 1. Vid . Essays, vol. ii., p. 284.
Me ver primm dulces ante omnia Mus #8230; Accipiant, c#339;lique vias et sidera monstrent , etc., etc. Sin, has ne possim natur accedere partes, Frigidus obstiterit circm prcordia sanguis, Rura mihi et rigui placeant in vallibus amnes , etc. Felix, qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas , etc. Fortunatus et ille , Deos qui novit agrestes, etc. 12. Voyage Littraire. Vid . also Calmet, Lorraine, t. Essay On Sustainability! i., p. 1043.
Moreri, art. S. Hubert. Gallia Christ., t. iii. p. 966. Mabillon, Annal. Bened., t. ii., pp. 16, 441, 606. Bucherii, Gest. Tungr. etc., t. i., p. 153. Helyot, Ordres Mon., t. Essay About! vi., p. 296. Persuasive On Sustainability! 13.
Vol. i., p. 237, etc. 14. Hallam, Middle Ages, vol. iii., p. 436. Essay For English Oral! Forsyth, Antiqu., vol. i., pp. 37, 44, 179. Turner, Anglo-Sax., vol. ii., p. 167. Murdoch's Mosheim, vol. ii., p. 21, etc. Persuasive On Sustainability! Guizot, Hist. Civil., vol. ii., p. Thesis Cambridge! 75, Bohn. Essay On Sustainability! 15. Neander, Memorials, pp.
436, 451, 473, Bohn. Rader, Bavaria Sacra. Calles, Arm. Germ., t. i., pp. 200, 276, 317, 318. Guizot, Civil., vol. ii., p 134. Whitaker's Cornwall, vol. Of The Holocaust Essay! ii., p. 196. Fosbroke, Antiq. p. 16. 16.
Meyrick's Willibald, p. Persuasive Essay On Sustainability! 68. Bavaria Sacra, p.119. Petri, Suevia Eccles., p. 96. Calles Ann. Germ., t. i., p. 191. 17. Butler's Lives, Aug. 20. 18. Apud. Mabillon Act. Bened. 19. Thomass. Disc. Eccl. t. iii., p. 513. 20. P. 93. Place! The passage seems taken from Bede. 21. Bede, Hist. Eccles., i. 26. William of Malmesb. Ponfic. Angl. 23. Eccl. Hist., vol. vii., p. Essay! 331, Bohn. 24. Duchesne, Script. North., p. 236. 25. Children Of The Holocaust! Turner, Middle Ages, vol. Persuasive Essay On Sustainability! v., p. 89. 27. Children Of The Holocaust! Vid . Persuasive On Sustainability! Turner, Anglo-Saxons, vol. iii., p. 468. 28. Pallad, c. 39.
Cassian, Inst., iv., 12. Thesis Londonderry! Calmet, Reg., t. ii., p. 150. Thomassin, Disc. Eccl., t. iii., p. 505. Ziegelbaum, Hist. Litt. Bened., t. ii., p. 510. 29. Persuasive Essay! Annal.
Camald., t. vii., p. 300: vid . other instances in Maitland's Dark Ages, and Buckingham's Bible in the Middle Ages, who, however, is deficient in references. Essay! 30. Guizot's Hist. Civil., vol. On Sustainability! ii., p. 236, Bohn. 32.
Vid , also Whitaker's Cornwall, vol. i., p. 167, and the whole chapter. 33. Meehan's Marchese, p. xxiv. 34. Hist. Litter. de St. Maur. 1770, p. Apa Format! 21. 35. On Sustainability! P. 379. Submission Thesis! Printing, another tranquil work, was introduced into Italy by the Benedictines of Subiaco.
Vid . Dr. Ullathorne's Pilgrimage. 36. Introd. Eccles. Hist., p. 56. 37. Ziegelbaur, t. ii., p. 401. 38. Ibid ., t. i., p. 424. Persuasive On Sustainability! For lists of monastic histories, vid . The Home Argumentative! Mr. Dowling, Introd.
E. Essay! H., p. 260; the Asceticon as above, § 26. Ziegelbaur, t. ii., p. 398. Balmez., Prot. and cambridge Cath., p. 195. Persuasive On Sustainability! 39. Stud. Monast., ed. 1732; t. i., pp. 52, 135; t. ii., p. 2; t. Children Of The Essay! i., pp 145, 147, 191, 64. 40. The Bollandists have not been able to determine which of St. Isidore's works is here intended.
Not means Musical Notes, according to on sustainability Du Cange. According to Leb#339;uf in Ampre, Hist. Litter. t. Binding! iii., p. 253, the word means penmanship. Newman Reader #151; Works of John Henry Newman. Persuasive Essay! Copyright © 2007 by The National Institute for Newman Studies. All rights reserved .
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Role Of Icts In Sustainable Development Essay Sample
outline a essay Sure, you’re a lover not a fighter. I am too. Persuasive Essay. But that doesn’t mean that you can avoid writing your argumentative essay! Since you have to write an argumentative essay, you might as well learn how to write it well, right? I’ve said it time and time again—there’s nothing worse than staring at a blank page. Putting together an argumentative essay outline is the perfect way to turn your blank document into essay a ready-to-use template. All you have to do is persuasive, fill in for english oral, the blanks! In this blog post, I’m going to share with you how to essay on sustainability create an argumentative essay outline. At the end, I’ll give you a downloadable skeleton outline you can use to get started.
Structure of the Argumentative Essay Outline. That’s not so bad! There’s really nothing to a woman is in argumentative be afraid of. Here’s how your argumentative essay outline would look if you turned it into a pretty picture: Each of these four sections requires some important elements.
Let’s break those down now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 1: Your Intro. Your introduction is where you lay the foundation for persuasive on sustainability, your impenetrable argument. It’s made up of a hook, background information, and place the home, a thesis statement. 1. Hook. Persuasive Essay. Your first sentence is comprised of a “hook.” Don’t know what a hook is? A hook is about, a sentence that grabs your reader’s attention just like a good Jackie Chan movie grabs the attention of a martial arts fan. Let’s say I’m writing an argumentative essay about why American people should start eating insects.
My hook could be, “For those interested in on sustainability, improving their diets and about wetlands, the environment, say ‘goodbye’ to eating chicken, fish, and beef and ‘hello’ to eating silk worms, crickets, and caterpillars.” If you’re having trouble coming up with a good hook, I recommend reading my blog post How to essay Write Good Hook Sentences. 2. Wetlands. Background information. The next part of essay your intro is dedicated to binding offering some detailed background information on your topic. Try answering the persuasive essay on sustainability, following questions: What is the issue at hand? Who cares?
Where is this issue prevalent? Why is essay about, it important? For example, “Insects are abundant, nutritious, and environmentally sustainable. Currently, people in the United States shun the idea of eating insects as part of their diets, favoring instead less nutritious and environmentally destructive food options, such as beef and pork. The UN recently issued a statement calling for more world citizens to embrace the many benefits of eating insects.” 3. Thesis. Your thesis typically makes up the persuasive on sustainability, last sentence of your intro paragraph. This is where you clearly state your position on apa format, the topic and give a reason for your stance. For example, “A diet of insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change, and therefore, United States citizens should learn to rely on a variety of persuasive essay insects over chicken, beef, and fish as their main source of submission thesis cambridge protein and nutrition.”
Notice the word “should” in my thesis statement? Using this word makes it clear I’m taking a stance on the argument. You’ll also notice that my thesis statement sets up the three claims I’m going to expand on later: a diet of on sustainability insects can help fix problems related to starvation, obesity, and climate change. Let’s talk about adding those claims to our argumentative essay outline now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 2: Developing Your Argument.
Now that you have filled in the general points of your topic and outlined your stance in the introduction, it’s time to develop your argument. In my sample outline, I show three claims, each backed by three points of evidence. Offering three claims is just a suggestion; you may find that you only have two claims to thesis make, or four. The exact number of persuasive essay claims you choose to londonderry include doesn’t matter (unless, of persuasive essay on sustainability course, your teacher has given you a specific requirement). What matters is that you develop your argument as thoroughly as possible. 1. What is a claim? A claim is a woman the home argumentative, a statement you make to support your argument. For example, “Bugs are highly nutritious and eating them can fix the problem of hunger and malnutrition in the United States.”
Great! So I’ve made my claim. But who’s going to believe me? This is where evidence comes into persuasive on sustainability play. 2. Binding. What is evidence? For each claim you make, you need to provide supporting evidence. On Sustainability. Evidence is factual information from reliable sources. It is not personal knowledge or anecdotal. For example, “Researchers at the Food and Agricultural Organization of the United States state that ‘Termites are rich in children holocaust essay, protein, fatty acids, and other micronutrients.
Fried or dried termites contain 32–38 percent proteins.’“ My outline shows three pieces of evidence to persuasive support each claim, but you may find that each claim doesn’t necessarily have three pieces of evidence to thesis back it. Persuasive On Sustainability. Once again, the exact number doesn’t necessarily matter (unless your teacher has given you instructions), but you need enough evidence to make your claim believable. Once you have gathered your evidence to support your claims, it’s time to thesis binding londonderry add the next important element of your argumentative essay outline: refuting your opponents’ arguments. Let’s talk about that now. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 3: Refuting Opponents’ Arguments.
In this section, you state your opponents’ views and then offer a rebuttal. For example, “Opponents of insect eating from the persuasive on sustainability, Beef Council of America say that it is too difficult and time consuming to catch crickets, so it is not easy to gather enough food for a meal, whereas a cow is large and contains a lot of is in argumentative meat for persuasive essay, many meals.” Oh diss! We know the Beef Council just wants us to keep eating McD’s hamburgers and submission cambridge, skip the cricket soup. (By the way—I just made that up. The Beef Council did not say that. In your essay, make sure to persuasive essay on sustainability use real facts.) Now it’s time to binding set the opponents straight with a refutation that is full of hard evidence and that will bring them to their knees. For example, “According to researchers Cerritos and Cano-Santana, the best time to harvest crickets is to catch them in the hour just before sunrise when they are least active. What’s more, it is easy to develop the persuasive on sustainability, infrastructure to is in argumentative farm crickets in a way that is more sustainable than cattle farming.” Booyah!
The Beef Council has been served (crickets). Once you have refuted your opponents’ viewpoints, it’s time to essay sail to for english oral the finish line with your conclusion. Argumentative Essay Outline Section 4: Conclusion. In your conclusion, you are going to accomplish two important tasks. 1. On Sustainability. Restate the importance of place is in argumentative essay your issue. Persuasive On Sustainability. Similar to what you did in your introduction, you want to restate why this topic is submission thesis, critical. For example, “Simply by incorporating insects into persuasive essay on sustainability their diets, U.S. citizens can improve the sustainability and nutrition of the essay, American diet.” 2. Paint a picture of the persuasive on sustainability, world if your argument is submission, (or is not) implemented. In the final part of your conclusion, make your audience think about the ramifications of your argument.
What would happen if people started eating insects as a staple of persuasive their diets? For example, “The world would be a better place if more people ate insects as a part of their diets. Fewer people would go hungry, more people would get the vitamins, minerals, and micronutrients they need to live healthy lifestyles, and children of the holocaust essay, our planet would be relieved of the persuasive essay, burden of an thesis binding londonderry unsustainable food system. Closing with a clear picture of the world as you would like it to be can leave your reader convinced that your argument is valid. Download the Argumentative Essay Outline Template. Download this skeleton Argumentative Essay Outline to persuasive essay get started. Before you go off into submission the sunset and use my outline template, make sure that you are following the guidelines specific to persuasive your course. While this is a pretty standard outline, there are other ways to outline your argumentative essay. If you’re interested in essay wetlands, learning more about argumentative essays, I suggest reading The Secrets of a Strong Argumentative Essay. Essay. Want even more knowledge?
Check out this argumentative essay infographic! If you’re looking for of the holocaust, some ideas, check out these argumentative essay examples. When you have your argumentative essay and outline ready to go, you can always have one of our awesome editors give it a second look. Psst. Persuasive Essay. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over 500,000 example essays. About the Author. Naomi Tepper is londonderry, a former Kibin editor, the essay, former content manager for the Kibin blog, and submission, forever a word nerd.
wow this was really help full. Super! I’m really happy to help. #128578; Hi I have a 20 minute presentation to on sustainability do on the history of cognitive-behaviour therapy. Don’t know where to begin. Is this the same as doing an children of the holocaust argument. This sounds more like an persuasive essay expository essay. An expository essay (or presentation in your case) has the goal of apa format informing the on sustainability, audience on a specific topic. Binding. Usually you don’t take an argumentative stance for or against these topics. For more information on expository writing visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-an-expository-essay/ hi i need some help on an argument . Persuasive Essay. The topic is internet a guide or a distraction. i hope u can help.
Do you think the internet is a guide or a distraction? I would suggest writing a thesis statement like this: You could focus on arguing for the internet: “The internet is a useful guide as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.” OR you could focus on arguing against the internet: “The internet is an oral annoying distraction as shown by evidence 1, evidence 2, and evidence 3.” OR, and this is the persuasive essay on sustainability, best option, you could focus on arguing how to place is in essay best use the internet: “The internet can be both a useful guide as shown by evidence 1 and evidence 2, but it can also be an persuasive essay annoying distraction as shown by about evidence 3 and evidence 4. It is important to essay on sustainability set personal limits on web use including solution 1, solution 2, and solution 3.” Personal limits could include things such as limiting yourself to viewing only specific websites during work/study hours, limiting overall time online, and other things like that! Hi Liz, well first you need to pick a side. What do you think? Should they have their licenses revoked?
Then you need to come up with a few reasons for why you think this. Oral. Can you find any examples of how this tactic has worked (or hasn’t worked). What about people who lose their licenses for other (criminal) reasons, is this type of punishment effective? Why or why not? Come up with approx three claims to on sustainability support your side. Find some evidence to support your claims. Lay out how each of the two authors approach the submission thesis, topic of the Crusades. Essay On Sustainability. What do they have in about, common?
What is different? Super happy to help! thank you so much for this! You are welcome so much! Thanks for reading. #128578; Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on freedom of speech rights and persuasive on sustainability, the 1st amendment and wetlands, I have two sides of the persuasive essay, argument. A Woman Argumentative. I am for freedom of speech if it doesn’t harm other people and I have some cases where the persuasive essay on sustainability, supreme court are avoiding the laws stated in the amendment but I’m on the court’s side of binding restricting inappropriate speech in a school environment. How should I start out my argument? I think you need to combine your two perspectives into one focused argument.
Do you, perhaps, want to argue that inappropriate speech in a school environment is actually harmful to other people? That way, it falls into your first argument (pro-free speech as long as it’s not harmful) quite nicely. Good luck! it has helped a lot …… great work. Thanks! Glad you liked it. #128578; Thank you very much :)) You are welcome! Thanks for reading #128578; HI, I am writing an argumentative essay on how different governments should provide additional funding to increase awareness of human trafficking, prevent human trafficking, and help victims who have been trafficked. I am not sure where to start from.
Hi–some of these example essays on essay, human trafficking may give you ideas on how to get started: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/human%20trafficking. Hi, I am writing an argumentative essay on how is social media like Facebook or Twitter beneficial or harmful to its users? I am not sure how to submission start from persuasive essay there. Hi Rosie– you might find inspiration on thesis londonderry, how to persuasive essay on sustainability get started by cambridge reviewing some of these example essays on social media: https://www.kibin.com/essay-examples/search/social%20media. Hi, i was wondering if in the conclusion of the essay you need to end it with a question, something for the reader to continue to think about persuasive essay, after reading or is essay, it unnecessary?
Great question! Asking a larger question is definitely one great conclusion technique. Some teachers/profs really like this, while others prefer that you tie everything up with a neat little bow. Essay On Sustainability. I recommend you check out this post on the topic of conclusions: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ This helped a lot! Thanks, love how its broken down. I have a question though. Should the conclusion have its own paragraph or can I include the essay, conclusion with opponents argument? I definitely recommend giving your conclusion its own paragraph. You don’t want to leave your readers hanging on on sustainability, to just your opponent’s argument!
You can learn more about writing conclusions in this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/essay-conclusion/ Helped me to help my students #128578; I was wondering if you can show a sample essay with these elements in use? Thank you #128578; Awesome! I love to thesis binding hear that. That’s a really great idea… and one that I intend to implement in essay, upcoming blog posts. A Woman Place Is In Argumentative. However, at this time I don’t readily have access to a knock out example. Essay. –Naomi. HELP. Children Of The Essay. I am having a hard time with my argumentative research essay on drug testing to receive state benefits a.e.
T.A.N.F, food stamps.. I’m getting so frustrated and I dont have any idea where to begin.. I found it very useful! Thanks a lot #128512; You’re welcome a lot! Thanks for reading. #128578; thanks helped me a lot luv your work 3. can u do a website on persuasive on sustainability, argumentiv wtiting starters plz im a begener. OMG.
THX so much this helped a ton. You are so welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; You’re welcome! Wow that’s a great idea for for english oral, an essay. Very intriguing. is this guide ok for an eight grader test.
Yasss…This blog is reliable…Thanks ? Woot! Glad you like it. Persuasive Essay On Sustainability. #128578; I’m happy to hear it. #128578; Thanks for a woman place is in the home argumentative essay, your comment. I have to write an persuasive essay argumentative. research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I’m not sure what type of thesis binding arguments I need to on sustainability make. Am I defending my choice of is in careers? Am I talking about it’s importance in the world? It’s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to persuasive essay on sustainability write an argumentative paper about it. I have to write an argumentative research essay about the career of my choice, which is sports marketing. I’m not sure what type of arguments I need to essay for english make.
Am I defending my choice of careers? Am I talking about it’s importance in the world? It’s just something I am interested in so I am not sure how to write an argumentative paper about it. Hi there–I’d double check your assignment for clues on persuasive essay, how to approach this. Is In Argumentative Essay. If there really aren’t any additional clues, I would go with your first instinct to essay defend your choice of careers. Thesis Cambridge. Why are you interested?
Is the pay worth it? What makes you cut out for persuasive on sustainability, this career in binding londonderry, particular? A thesis statement might look like: Sports marketing is the perfect career choice for me as it will allow me to use my strengths in XYZ, make a decent income, all while keeping me interested and engaged. Then use the rest of your essay to on sustainability fill out those key points.
Thanks! That’s helpful. Here’s what the children holocaust essay, assignment says: “In your argumentative research essay, you will a) conduct research about a successful and realistic career of your choice, b) use this research and accompanying commentary and rhetoric to create an persuasive essay on sustainability argument that you will eventually present and defend to a group of children of the holocaust essay peers. This assignment serves to create a foundation for personal statements, resumes and CVs, and even interviews in which you will be asked about your chosen career path and its significance to you. The evidence you collect during your research should support and justify your pursuit of any given career.” Do you think I will be on track if I use your suggested thesis? Yes–I do. You’ll also want to essay find some hard facts and statistics to support your claims. Submission. For example, dig up how much it will cost for you to get your degree and weigh that against your potential income. You’ll want to start with a clear thesis statement.
I assume that when you say you are pro-Hungary this means that you feel the persuasive on sustainability, country shouldn’t be required to accept refugees? If so, your thesis statement might look something like this: Hungary should not be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Or–if you think the country should help. You would start with a thesis like this:
Hungary should be required to accept Syrian refugees because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Glad to help! Thanks for your comment. Hi ! I need help in children, writing a good thesis statement on the advantages and disadvantages of using a cell phone. Please help. I need to submit it on thursday. Plz Plz help. This one is pretty straightforward. You can frame it like this:
Cell phone use has many advantages such as A, and B, but some disadvantages such as C. Or you could flip it: Cell phone use has many disadvantages such as A, and B, but some advantages such as C. Fill in A, B, and C with your actual research. Thank you so much Naomi. This is a great help. Hi ! I need to persuasive on sustainability write a thesis statement on the topic, ‘Element of hamartia in Hamlet, Love song of J Alfred and Agamemnon. I need a thesis statement on this. I have written – Unable to take the correct decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end.
To be able to essay make that correct decision one must have the confidence otherwise it can have a tragic end as it happened to the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon and The Love song of persuasive essay on sustainability J. Alfred. Do you think this is ok, if not can you help me please in writing a good thesis statement. Thank you. I think you have the right idea, but your version is unclear and a bit repetitive. How about this edit? Being unable to a woman is in the home argumentative essay make the right decision at the right time can lead to a tragic end, which is persuasive essay on sustainability, exactly what happened to children essay the protagonists in Hamlet, Agamemnon, and The Love song of J. Alfred. Thank you Naomi so very much. This is great. On Sustainability. I can go ahead now.
You’re welcome, Rachel! First you’ll need to come up with a thesis statement. For example: Public schools should be divided by submission thesis sex because of reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. Then choose reasons that you can support with evidence from your research. this really works thanks. Glad it worked for you, Rose! Thanks for your comment. Thanks but I’m having trouble coming up with a good topic that is strong and worthy to be argued but not boring.
I want to persuasive do something that isn’t a popular topic like is texting and driving bad anu advice. thank you so much. I have to write an argumentative essay on Poverty and Illiteracy. I have already looked up my citations. But I don’t know how to break down my citations. Could you help me please? I’m not sure whether you need to essay oral write APA, MLA, or some other type of citation, but I have some blog posts that can help: MLA is how I need to write it. Oh lordy this blog is ammmaaazzzinnnng.
Why thank you! I appreciate you readinnnnnng! can you send me your project on my email [emailprotected] Ikr like wowww …I am so grateful to reach up on it. can u send me your project on my email [emailprotected] . I’m supposed to create an argumentative essay that Rome was a superior society to Han China. On Sustainability. Thank you so much. Children Of The Essay. I think this is super helpful.
Now my next problem is if I can fit it all onto one page. Persuasive Essay On Sustainability. (That’s the limit our teacher gave us. he wants to see if we can make brief statements that speak many words with little words written) Funny–is that a common assignment this month? You’re not the wetlands, first student to ask me about this Romans v Hans. A topic that large is going to be very difficult to explore in a single page–but hey, it’s a good exercise in concision. In any case–at the risk of sounding sales-y–the Kibin editing team is really good at meticulously cutting an essay down to size if you end up going over essay, that one-page limit. You can learn more about our editing service here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. I really don’t understand the refuting part. When you refute something, you take your opponent’s argument and rip it to shreds. So for example, say your opponent’s biggest argument is that Donald Trump is the children of the essay, best candidate for U.S. president, you could counter that argument by pointing out that he has zero experience in politics. hello again.
I don’t know if you got my resent reply but I was trying to ask and essay on sustainability, see if you could give me a little advice on some good resources involving work laws for teens. This is children of the holocaust essay, really helped a lot. I was able to do my argumentative essay after reading this. Persuasive On Sustainability. It also explained clearly what I was looking for. Thank you!
3. You are so welcome! Glad to help. #128578; thanks a lot! this helped me create my english paper! Sweet! Love to hear that. #128578; Thank you so much. You saved my last semester of college! (From a French canadian currently having English Classes) Hey! Thanks for the great comment. You really made my day! I wish you the very best in is in argumentative, your English classes.
Woot! Happy to help. Essay. #128578; Fantastic! So happy to hear it. #128578; I’m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and a woman is in, discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners. Please hook me up!! Love this blog. Persuasive Essay On Sustainability. What email address I can sent my essay to get fix?
And how long do I have to wait to get it back. Thank you. Hi Trinh Le, I love that you love it. #128578; Thanks for thesis binding londonderry, the comment. To have an on sustainability essay edited, please visit us here: https://www.kibin.com/essay-editing-proofreading. Our editors can have your essay back in oral, as few as 3 hours (depending on word count). I’m in love with this blog. I was totally dreading the argumentative essay outline but now I’m kind of pumped thanks to persuasive on sustainability your (absolutely hilarious) examples! Awesome!
I love hearing this. A Woman Place Argumentative. Writing can be fun as long as you don’t actively dread it. #128578; THANK YOU SO MUCH PLEASE WISH ME LUCK FOR MY ENGLISH EXAM TOMORROW SINCE ARGUMENTATIVE IS GOING TO BE INCLUDED IN THE EXAM TOMORROW I SHOULD’VE ADD THE EVIDENCE FOR THE CLAIM HAHAHAHA O??? Thanks for reading! #128578; This saved my life.
Thank you so much! Sweet! Happy to be a lifesaver. I need this argumentative essay for tmm… if crickets should be added to lunch school I need a sting essay I’m in 11 grade my opinion is yes crickets should be added. Hi there, the outline in persuasive essay on sustainability, this post should help you a lot! As for your thesis statement, you could write something like: Crickets should be added to the school lunch menu because they are both nutritious and inexpensive. For the rest of your essay, talk about how you know they are nutritious and inexpensive (hint, do your research!). I never understood the way my teacher taught this until I found this blog. It has helped me write a better argumentative essay.
Thanks. You’re welcome! Thanks for reading. #128578; Awesome! I love to children of the hear feedback like this. Thanks for persuasive, reading! Thanks a lot mate helped me so much. Super! Happy to help.
You’re super welcome! Happy to help. Thank You sooo much for this blog. This has given me a chance to structure my assignment even better. THANKS xx. Thanks so much for reading! Happy to thesis cambridge help. I’m writing about functionalism and Weberianism. Compare and contrast them and discuss briefly how concepts from the two theories contribute to the knowledge of health practitioners.
Please hook me up!! Your topic is persuasive, a bit over my head, but you may be able to apa format essay get the creative juices flowing by using our compare/contrast thesis statement generator: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder/compare-contrast-topic. You’re welcome! Thanks for reading. My name is Haley and i have to do an argumentative essay for LA and my topic is……..In what situations, if any, does a woman have a right to persuasive an abortion? what should i put as a hook? The hook you choose will definitely depend on argumentative, your stance on the topic. If your paper is pro-choice, you could start with a shocking statistic about the number of women who go through illegal/dangerous abortions during times and places where abortion is illegal. If your paper is pro-life, you might start with an emotional appeal about the life of an unborn fetus being cut short. This is very helpful. I was having trouble getting started on persuasive on sustainability, writing but now I feel a lot more confident in my subject. Thanks for the breakdown.
Happy you found it useful. Thanks for reading! Glad to hear that! M hving trouble with introduction on smoking restriction. Can you help me with introducing on place argumentative essay, smoking restriction topic and thesis as well. I’m going to assume that you are taking a stance in favor of smoking restriction. A hook would be a shocking statistic about the health risks of on sustainability secondhand smoke to non-smokers. Cambridge. Here is a good source to persuasive on sustainability get you started: http://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/data_statistics/fact_sheets/secondhand_smoke/general_facts/ A thesis statement framework might look like this: Smoking restrictions are critical to public health due to submission thesis reason 1, reason 2, and reason 3. You might also try our thesis statement builder: https://www.kibin.com/thesis-builder. Naomi! youre amazing! this has really clarified this topic for me. thank you!
Well, thank you, Neil! This comment was a great way to start my Friday. #128578; Wow, this is really good. I have been reading about academic reading and writing every day for 9 wks. Persuasive Essay On Sustainability. I have to write a 1200-1500 word argumentative essay for my 1st university assessment. This is by far the most helpful article I have read.
Well done and thanks. Heaps. Fantastic! Happy to help. I have to write a argumentative essay and psychology apa format, the topic is: Should Homeland security and the CIA treat terrorist better? Aren’t they people too? I’m not sure what exactly im suppose to persuasive on sustainability do or how to start it. thank you ms.Naomi that was really helpful.
Do you add in a rebuttal for each of about wetlands your points?? That is certainly one way to persuasive approach an argumentative essay. Children Of The. Take an opponent’s view on each of your arguments and essay on sustainability, then crush it with your rebuttal. Or, if you follow the outline I gave you in this post, just include a section to crush one or two common opponent arguments. Thank you, this was very helpful and in the same time funny! good way to thesis binding make interesting!!
This was very helpful, but I still have some hesitation, my last important paper is an Argumentative Research, and persuasive, this will be my first one. I already have a thesis chosen and I’m just kinda confuse about what facts I need to collect, but its just getting information that will back up my thesis,correct? Hi there–yes, as long as you have a good defendable thesis, you should be able to find sources to support your stance. Here is a blog post about making sure your sources are credible: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/apply-craap-test-essay-sources/ Thanks for answering but I’m having a difficult time trying to find and discern what will be helpful in my paper. Of The. My paper being about Human Rights specifically Minority/Indigenous Rights. This was so helpful! But, I do have a couple of persuasive questions. Is there a secret to writing a killer hook? What is the best way to state your claim in the introduction?
You might need to apa format also read these posts: Thank you so much for the helpful info. I definitely owe a get out of jail free card. Awesome, I could definitely use it. Persuasive Essay. #128578; Seriously very usefull tips i like it #128578; How many paragraphs is essay, this? The argumentative essay outline is 6 paragraphs as it stands, but you can definitely alter it to suit your purposes by adding or subtracting body paragraphs as needed. Usually your hook sentence is separate from essay your thesis statement.
The hook is the first sentence in the intro paragraph, while your thesis statement is typically the last sentence in this paragraph. Sometimes you will add some background information too. So an intro is Hook-background info-thesis statement. Here’s a revision of your sentence: ADD A HOOK SENTENCE OR TWO HERE. We live in 21st century, and for english, many gender roles are outdated and essay on sustainability, shouldn’t affect our lives in the ways they did before.
One of these outdated gender roles is the idea that only boys can ask girls out–girls should be able to ask boys out too. this is very useful… but I can not write argument for my research paper (my topic is the racism in america and how effect to the home people ) can you help me , please. Racism in America is a huge problem and a huge topic. Persuasive. I think your first step is to narrow your research focus. First, which specific problem of racism will you be looking at? Racism against a particular minority group? In a specific region or city?
Are there studies that show the effects in these groups and a woman place the home argumentative, regions? What are some common findings/themes? Here is another post specifically about writing a research paper: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-research-paper/ This blog is persuasive, Amazing! Very helpful! But my question is that did you really have to use “eating insects” example? I was having a hot n sour soup while reading this. Ha! I’m so sorry to have ruined your supper. #128578; I think I was inspired to write this post after a bug flew into my mouth while I was riding my bike to work… nutty and a bit bitter. Thanks for reading!
This is essay oral, absolutely incredible! I greatly admire your work and accomplishment! I am a teacher that is writing a textbook with Creative Commons licensing for my school district using CK-12 as the platform. With all due respect, I would really love to speak with you about possibly including some of the persuasive on sustainability, information on the Kibin site, particularly this post, as a properly attributed contribution to my 6th Grade Reading Language Arts textbook. If you would not mind getting in oral, contact with me, my email is [emailprotected] or simply reply to persuasive on sustainability this comment. @naomi_tepper:disqus. Hi Alisha–Thanks for your kind comment. I’m totally in favor of you using the content from this post in your textbook with attribution. Best of about wetlands luck on this very important project, and if you need to discuss, you can easily reach me at [emailprotected]
You’re going to have to take a stance for essay on sustainability, or against school uniforms and offer credible evidence to londonderry support your stance. I’d suggest reading this post on how to write a thesis statement : https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-thesis-statement/ Thank you for writing all these helpful hints! I’m currently writing one for college with the persuasive essay on sustainability, topic of legalizing lane splitting for motorcycles. I just finished writing found your blog which is helping me make sure I did everything correctly #128578; thank you!! Fantastic! Happy to essay help.
this is amazing and funny as hell. this should help with my exam. Persuasive Essay. tqvm #128578; Thanks so much! Best of luck with your exam. #128578; it’s very useful. Psychology. thanks a lot. You’re welcome! Thanks for persuasive essay, commenting. I’ll be thankfull to children of the essay you #128578; You just made my time. You’re welcome! Thanks for the comment. #128578; Thank you very much for making this easy to understand, this helped me ace my English final exam. You are the best #128578;
So happy to persuasive essay on sustainability hear it! Thanks for thesis binding, the comment. Hi ?. Thanks for persuasive essay on sustainability, this wonderful guidelines. Your article really makes my day more easier. Wish me luck. Inny. Sweet! Good luck on your project! What a great tips. Thank you #128578;
Happy you think so! Thanks for the comment. woooow this blog had helped me lotssssssss , thanks for your efforts. Happy to help! Thanks for the comment. This seems to essay be very helpful!
I have an English final tmrw and I am really scared. Our teacher is giving us four random articles and on sustainability, we have to create an argumentative essay on a question he provided us. Essay Wetlands. Do you know what I can do because I’m really bad at writing and reading. Like what else can I do rather than read this blog? First off, relax, deep breath, no need to be scared! As intimidating as this final seems right now, it will be over essay, soon and you’ll barely remember it happened. #128578; I know you said that you want advice more than just this blog, but it happens that my best advice happens to be on submission thesis cambridge, the blog. I have a post that I think will help you make a game plan for tackling an in-class essay.
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Great! Happy to help. About Wetlands. #128578; Thanks for essay on sustainability, the clear outline, was very confused about how to start my paper after reading this made me crystal clear, don’t know how I started and didn’t know I had ended just went off like a flash. very very useful. I’m so glad you found it useful, Ram. Thesis Cambridge. Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for essay on sustainability, the outline!! I used it all morning to thesis cambridge help start my essay for college English over Big Box vs Small Businesses! Fantastic! Happy to hear it. #128578; i am writing a argumentative essay for “being competent in English Language is essay on sustainability, necessary for successful academic achievement” cloud you plx give me a best introduction for this essay … An interesting fact or statistic that shows the correlation between learning English and academic success might be your best choice, if you can find something from a reputable source. Or, if you could start with a story about psychology essay, yourself or someone you know who achieved something great because of persuasive on sustainability knowing how to essay oral speak English. Can anyone give me a good hook for same sex marriage . I’m writing an argumentative paper for my adv. Persuasive Essay On Sustainability. comp class.
Your hook will depend on the stance you are taking. For example, if you are arguing in favor of for english same sex marriage you could start with an interesting statistic that shines a light on the success of same sex marriages or you could start with a heartwarming story or anecdote about a successful same sex marriage. This was really funny! (and useful) Thanks #128578; Awesome! Glad you liked it.
Thanks for the comment. Persuasive. #128578; Hey!! This page was rlly helpful but I still need help with making an intro for “Why Teenager Should Not Have TVs In Their Bedrooms” I would really appreciate it if u could help ASAP plz!!O That will help you write a strong intro — including a strong thesis #128578; Ths for this it helped a lot.
Awesome! Thanks for of the essay, the comment. #128578; I really appreciate your help. didnt help at all sorry. Sorry that it wasn’t more helpful, Trent. Let us know if you have any questions that are still unanswered!
I’m going to write about persuasive, how humanity should strive for immortality. Wetlands. Do you think the topic is too hard and broad for a 10th grader like me? May I know your thoughts and suggestions, please? Thanks! Nah, you can totally handle that topic! I don’t think it’s too broad, either, and persuasive, I really like that it take a strong stance. Just make sure that you have 2-3 solid and specific reasons to thesis cambridge back up your claim that we should strive for persuasive essay on sustainability, immortality, as you’ll want to include those reasons in your thesis and defend them throughout your paper. Binding. So the essay, first question to answer as you write your thesis is “Why do I believe this?” Hi, there. I saw your question asking for submission, advice on the difficulty of persuasive essay on sustainability writing a paper on binding londonderry, immortality.
I have a few views on that myself but of the opposite point. I would be very interested in reading your thoughts on the matter. So perhaps you would be inclined to email me your assignment once it’s finished. thanks this blog was very helpful. Awesome!
We’re happy you think so and thanks for the comment. Persuasive Essay. #128578; Super helpful! About to write a 6-7 page paper for my college professor and I needed advice on an effective argumentative structure outline. This is exactly what I needed to look at. Well designed. Sweet! Love to hear that it helped. Thanks for place the home essay, the kind comment. #128578; Is Misdiagnoses of Mental Disorders a good topic to write about? And is persuasive essay on sustainability, it too broad?
I want to include toxic thinking as a huge contribution and impact to mental illness. I need direction– Please help!! It is a bit broad, yes. Children Holocaust Essay. I would suggest narrowing it down to just one mental disorder. Maybe depression or ADD. You could narrow it down even further to talk about persuasive essay, these diagnoses in young adults or children rather than everyone. Finally, make sure you have some evidence to support your argument that toxic thinking is the contributing factor here! That’s a pretty big statement and you’ll definitely need to back it up.
I COULD KISS YOU RIGHT NOW YOU SAVED MY LIFE. 3. can u send me your project on for english oral, my email [emailprotected] nice .. great work you have done.. thanks for help Naomi… Thanks for reading and for persuasive essay on sustainability, your kind comment! Thanks for your comment! Argumentative essay known as a task challenging somehow but the thing you break it up, that was a sick info. Thanks so so much. P.S. loved your sense of humour. Aww, shucks.
Thanks for your sweet comment! #128578; bless you!! i have a paper due and this helps so much ^^ Woot! So glad to hear it. Thanks for reading! Thank you so much for the helpful outline. This is by far one of the most detailed and useful outline I have used.
Keep up the good work. Thanks for your kind comment! Happy the outline helped you. Hehe love this comment. Thanks for children of the, your kind words and happy to on sustainability help. #128578; You’re super welcome! Thanks for the kind comment! A history paper isn’t necessarily the same as an argumentative essay, though it *can* be. It really depends on how you approach your topic. Read that suggested post though, it should help you get started! man, i think you dont no what you did to children of the essay me. thank U a lot.
Hehe hopefully it was a good thing. Thanks for persuasive essay on sustainability, the thank you. Submission Cambridge. #128578; this helped me so much. Thank you . Sweet! Happy to persuasive essay on sustainability hear it. Thanks, very helpful. Yay! Happy you think so. #128578; i love this blog … you are an essay awesome teacher … Aww, shucks. Essay On Sustainability. Thanks so much for reading. #128578; Hehe I’m 100% positive you could be as smart as me.
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Thank you so so so so so so so so much Naomi!! I was having trouble writing an argumentative essay from avid elective class you are greatly appreciated! *bows down to you* You will be a great writer I promise #128578; P.S. have you made any more of these? Haha, thanks for persuasive, the super kind comment. Londonderry. I really appreciate it! Yes, I’ve written quite a few other posts for this blog (though not so much any more since I manage it now). Here are a few that you might like: Yay!
Final complete! Congrats and persuasive essay on sustainability, happy this helped. Thanks for the kind comment. #128578; I was stumped in class by the prompt for a six paragraph essay. This article is great. Essay. THANK YOU! Noiiice! Happy this helped you. Thanks for essay on sustainability, the comment. Congratulations on your upcoming graduation!
So happy that this post helped you get to psychology essay the finish line. Persuasive. Thanks for the kind comment #128578; Naomi. omg you just saved my life i could kiss you 3. What if you are writing at school and they don’t allow you to use your computer to look up information for essay, the text. In that case you’ll want to prepare in advance as best you can by becoming as familiar as possible with the type of essay you’ll be writing and persuasive, the type of material you need to know for the essay. You might check out this post: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/how-to-write-a-timed-essay/ if you reply to me ill be so happy. You’re awesome! Thanks a lot for this excellent blog post Naomi. Thanks so much for the comment! #128578;
Wow i love this. Thanks Naomi for the educative piece. That’s great! Thanks for submission thesis, the kind comment. I’m in love with this phenomenal blogger.*SIGHS* Aww! Your comment totally made my day. xoxo! Muah! #128578; Happy to help. Hi Naomi, this is an amazing article, yet I have some questions I hope you can answer.
I’m about to on sustainability sit for the FCE in two days, and it’s mandatory that I write an essay. I don’t know the type of essay nor the submission thesis, topic of it. How would you recommend me to persuasive study for it? Thanks in advance #128578; Ooh! You must be feeling the pressure.
I’m sure you’ll do great, especially since you are reaching out for advice. It’s about writing a timed (in-class) essay, and a lot of the advice can apply to is in argumentative essay other types of timed essay tests too. Point #5 is especially important: “If you’re really nervous, practice writing under pressure before your test. Persuasive. Set a timer for a woman is in argumentative essay, the same amount of time you’ll have during the actual test, and work on persuasive essay, writing a coherent essay about a sample prompt or an important topic.” I’d also research the different types of essay prompts that they’ve given in the past to wetlands use for your practice writing session. Maybe this resource will help? http://www.firstcertificatewriting.co.uk/live/paper-2-writing-part-1-essays/
I wish you the persuasive essay, best on your FCE! Thanks for the comment. #128578; So glad you think it’s helpful! Thanks for reading! xoxo. i really like the explanation bcoz it’s clear and it’s not explained in a boring way like how most people did. thanks a lot! this really helped my homework :)) Great! That’s exactly what I was going for. So happy it helped you. Thanks for the comment! #128578; You’re awesome!
Thanks for reading. Very helpful article! Thank you so much! Great! Happy to help. Hi, it is about wetlands, really a clear and detailed graph. Could I cite it in my assignment? Sure, you’re welcome to cite it #128578; Thanks for reading.
OK I need help I have two argumentative essays due Wednesday and essay, I looked at your website and it helped me a ton i never could have done it without you. thx so much. now i just need to make one… You’ve totally got this!! THANK YOU SO MUCH. I am already almost done and it is mostly because of a woman place argumentative this page! Thanks for the words of encouragement! U guys are the best.
So glad it was helpful! Thanks for reading #128578; Ma’am you are such a saviour. #128536;#128536;#128536; Thank you for reading! Loved the explanation! Thanks a lot for being that graphic. So glad you liked it! Thanks for on sustainability, the comment #128578; Hey there, Michael #128578; Thanks for stopping by!
thanks for saving my life :-):-) Woot! Glad we could help. saving time and getting ultra information… We’re all about saving you time! #128578; Thanks for reading. I have Exams tomorrow and this really helped me alot…Thanks Naomi #128578; Glad you found it useful #128578; Thank you for reading!
Oh thank goodness! I always have trouble on the thesis and hook, thank you so much, you saved meee! Awesome! So glad we could help #128578; Amazing. For English Oral. Helped me like hell.
So glad you found it useful, Dana! Thanks for reading. Thank you this saved my butt. Sweet! So glad we could help #128578; Is this good for persuasive essay on sustainability, an argumentative essay titled ( Animals in Captivity )?? Have you thought why animals roar,cry, weak, looking upset? And why caged birds sing? In 2014 a research from submission cambridge Harvard University showed that 10,000 animals from different species around the persuasive essay on sustainability, world.
die every year out of apa format loneliness, violence, shortage of food and air and lack of freedom. Persuasive Essay. Animals are living organisms as humans and psychology, plants and need a lot of rights that we should put them in consideration. I can not THANK YOU for persuasive essay, ALL of this information. I wrote, deleted, rewrote, deleted, over and over again for days! You have helped me so much with my project!! So glad you found it helpful, Cheryl!!
Thank you for reading #128578; This is soooo good. Thank u. You’re welcome, Satwika! Thank you for reading!
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Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) The GMAT Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) consists of two, 30 minute components. One asks you to analyze an argument, and the other asks you to analyze an issue. On Sustainability. These 2 essays can appear in either order when you take the GMAT. A Warning About Studying the Downloadable GMAT Essay Questions. The test writers at the GMAC have published two complete lists of current Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA) questions. You can download the analysis of an binding, argument questions here and the analysis of an issue questions here. A note of persuasive essay on sustainability, warning: Please understand that you do not want to spend the essay, time it would take to persuasive on sustainability practice responding to a woman argumentative every one of these questions. It is, however, a good and efficient preparation technique to review the list and to think about how you would respond to a few selected questions. Your essays will most likely be graded by a teaching assistant or graduate student from a university English department. This evaluator will assign your essay a grade from 0 to 6. A computer program, called the E-rater, will then 'read' your essays and assign a grade as well. Persuasive Essay. If there is essay oral a difference of more than one point between the two grades, a second human reader will grade your essay and your score will be the average of the two humans' scores.
This average will be rounded up if it falls between the essay on sustainability, half point intervals. The graders (both human and computer) look for overall evidence of the following 4 qualities in your essays: Critique of the argument or analysis of the issue Ideas developed in a rational, persuasive manner, with relevant examples supporting them Organization Proper grammar and syntax. Due to wetlands the economics involved in grading this test, graders are not given much time to essay spend on thesis, each essay. In fact, it is persuasive estimated that they spend an average of only submission thesis cambridge 2 minutes on each essay. As you will see below, this impacts the strategies that you should choose for taking the AWA. The Overall Importance of the Writing Assessment. Admissions committees simply do not give AWA scores the essay, same importance that they do to GMAT verbal and quantitative scores. This written assessment is just another way for the business school to assess your communication skills, in addition to about wetlands your admissions essays and interview. We recommend that you spend more time preparing for the verbal and quantitative sections of the persuasive essay on sustainability, GMAT than you do for thesis cambridge the AWA.
You will have 30 minutes for each section. We suggest that, before you begin writing, you spend 3 to persuasive essay 5 minutes preparing a rough outline on your scrap paper of how you intend to psychology apa format essay attack your essay. Consider this your brainstorming time. Just throw down as many ideas on the paper as you can. At the end of this 3 to 5 minutes, look at persuasive essay what you have written. Scratch out anything you know you do not want to include. Number the remaining thoughts in terms of their importance to your issue or argument. Congratulations you now have a logical outline around which to structure your essay! You should spend the binding, next 20 to 22 minutes actually writing the essay, leaving yourself 5 minutes for proof-reading. Try to finish writing the persuasive on sustainability, essay when there are 5 minutes remaining on the GMAT CAT's clock. Take a second to about wetlands close your eyes, stretch, and then try to re-read your essays with fresh eyes.
These last 5 minutes are best utilized to proof what you have just written. Here's what you should be looking for: Make sure the introductory paragraph is still relevant to the body of your essay. Read the essay line by line, looking for and correcting omitted words, typographical errors, and essay grammar errors. Make sure your thoughts come across clearly. Check for use of appropriate transition words. Do not, however, attempt to begin a drastic overhaul of your essay. Giving Your Essays the Proper Structure. You will only use approximately 20 of the allotted 30 minutes to apa format essay actually write each essay. You will probably only be able to write about 350 words, which translates into 5 or 6 paragraphs.
Since this must include an introduction and conclusion, you will have only 3 or 4 paragraphs in which to persuasive essay express 3 or 4 ideas. This is the formula for psychology essay a winning essay: express a few ideas (the top ones you identified during your initial brainstorming session) in a few interesting sentences. Keep the essay structure simple. Persuasive. Remember, you only have a short amount of time to write the essay, and the graders have an even shorter amount of time to evaluate it. You certainly don't want to confuse the graders by using unduly complex structures or language. You are best served by using an introductory paragraph that clearly explains what you are going to say in the essay. You then want to develop your 3 or 4 ideas, each in its own separate paragraph. Make sure your opinions are clearly stated. (Leaving out opinion or reasoning is probably the most common mistake people make on the writing portion of the GMAT exam. Do not worry about offending a grader with your opinions or analysis. AWA topics are not that controversial.) Finally, in your conclusion, you want to summarize your main points, and tie the conclusion back to the introduction. This is not a good structure to follow in all writing particularly your admissions essays but it works extremely well for the AWA.
Other General Tips for the GMAT's AWA. Your grader will spend an average of 2 minutes reading and grading your essay. Clever metaphors and the like will be neither noticed nor appreciated. However, you do need to children of the holocaust come across as smart in essay, order to make the critical first impression needed to achieve a high score on this writing assessment. Thesis Binding. The following tips were conceived with just this objective in mind: Use transition words generously. Phrases like for example, consequently, or first, second, . lastly will help the persuasive on sustainability, reader follow your essay's structure more easily. Words such as because, consequently, and however can also be used to highlight your analytical abilities. In addition, these words are so succinct that it is difficult even for a time-pressed grader to miss them. Submission Cambridge. Be specific. One of the key criteria graders look for is your ability to present ideas and arguments clearly and persuasive persuasively. Many writers grow vague when pressed for time.
Do not let this happen to you. However, do not let yourself slip into dogmatism, either. Essay Wetlands. It is appropriate, even helpful, to acknowledge the limitations of essay, your arguments and to essay concede the validity of persuasive essay on sustainability, opposing points of view. The Home. Our society in persuasive, general, and the graders in particular, look highly upon the judicious individual. Because AWA essays are so short, however, such acknowledgements should be given only once or twice, and only in the body of the essay. Do not use big words just for the sake of using them. Despite a popular myth to the contrary, the AWA is not designed to judge your vocabulary. Your grader will get a first impression which is the only impression he or she will be able to psychology form in 2 minutes that you used big words to essay on sustainability mask weaknesses in your analysis. Grammar is important.
The grammar you use to express your ideas influences the way that people receive them. If your essay is grammatically incorrect, most people graders included will conclude that the essay's logic, structure, etc., are also incorrect. Do not allow this natural bias to essay for english oral harm your essay grade. Vary the length of your sentences. This will make your essay easier for the grader to read. It also signals that you are a smart and essay on sustainability effective writer. The Analysis of an Argument Essay.
You will be given a one-paragraph argument to critique. You are not asked to present or discuss your own opinion on the subject. Instead, you are supposed to find fault with the argument's reasoning. Use your 5 minute brainstorming session to think of some thoughtful and perceptive analyses of what you just read. These analyses should be geared towards providing a better remedy towards the stated problem. A specific and place the home argumentative sufficiently-detailed example should be used with each argument you develop.
As stated above, you should have 3 to 4 paragraphs in essay on sustainability, the body of the londonderry, essay. Each of these paragraphs should contain one point that you wish to make about the argument. Graders like to persuasive on sustainability see you use specifics in your essay. For example, find the generalizations included in the one-paragraph argument. (We guarantee this will not be difficult to do.) You will be given a one-paragraph text discussing the cambridge, pros and cons of some issue. You will be asked to persuasive essay select the a woman is in the home, position with which you agree. The graders will have no preference towards which position you decide to support. During your initial 5 minutes of brainstorming, try to come up with points that support each side of the persuasive essay on sustainability, argument. That way, you are more likely to select the position that you can defend well in your essay (even if it's not the of the holocaust essay, position you would take if you had more time or space to explain yourself).
As you do in your analysis of an argument, be sure to persuasive on sustainability include a specific example supporting or illustrating each point you make in the body of this essay. It's a good idea to acknowledge the complexity of the issue in your introduction. It is also a good practice to psychology apa format essay concede 1 or 2 points supporting the on sustainability, other position in the body of the essay. Do not worry that this might make you appear indecisive to the graders. Place The Home Argumentative Essay. Recall what we stated above, about graders looking fondly on evidence of a judicious individual. Be careful with your choice of language and tone on essay, this essay. You are being asked to write an issues analysis, not a campaign ad.
Many test takers make the mistake of adopting language that calls on the reader to take action. The test grader will react far more favorably to a persuasive argument that lays out the reasons to support a position but does not call on essay, him or her to persuasive take any immediate action. GMAT TM and GMAT CAT TM are registered trademarks of the Graduate Management Admission Council TM . The GMAC does not endorse, nor is it affiliated in psychology essay, any way with the owner or any content of this web site.
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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Whether you've never written an SAT Essay or didn't get the score you wanted on your last test, you can benefit from knowing more: both about the persuasive on sustainability Essay itself, and what really matters when the graders are reading your essay. Here are 15 tips to master the SAT essay . Apa Format Essay? If you can reliably follow all these points, you'll be able to get at least a 6/6/6 on the SAT essay - guaranteed. The SAT Essay is a very short assignment. You only essay get 50 minutes to read a 650-750 word passage, analyze the devices the author uses to structure her/his argument, and is in argumentative essay write a full-fledged essay - and it can pass in a flash if you don't have a method for attacking it.
Writing an SAT essay requires a very specific approach that's unlike the essays you've been writing for English class in school. The goal of this strategy is to cram in as many as possible of the desired components in the 50 minutes you've got. In this article, we give you 15 key tips for the SAT essay. The first five tips in this article relate to what the persuasive College Board tells us about what's a good essay. The next five are truths that the College Board doesn't want you to know (or doesn’t make explicit). And the last five tips for SAT essay writing show you how to build an SAT essay, step by step. What the College Board Does Tell You: 5 Tips. The College Board explains the main components of the successful SAT Essay in its scoring criteria. Here they are condensed: The SAT essay rubric states: The response includes a precise central claim.” What this means is holocaust essay that your essay needs to make a clear argument that the persuasive essay on sustainability reader can easily identify.
All you have to place the home argumentative do to persuasive essay on sustainability create your precise central claim is to identify the psychology main idea of the passage and list the methods the author uses to persuasive support it. Fortunately, the essay SAT provides you with the passage’s main idea, so you don’t have to go hunting for essay on sustainability it yourself. I've bolded the claim in this (fake) sample prompt so you can see this for submission thesis yourself: Write an essay in which you explain how Sam Lindsay builds an argument to persuade her audience that more works of persuasive essay, art should feature monsters . A Woman Place Is In? In your essay, analyze how Lindsay uses one or more of the features listed in persuasive on sustainability, the box above (or features of your own choice) to strengthen the logic and persuasiveness of binding londonderry, her argument. Be sure that your analysis focuses on the most relevant features of the passage. Your essay should not explain whether you agree with Lindsay’s claims, but rather explain how Lindsay builds an persuasive essay, argument to psychology essay persuade her audience. Now, here's an persuasive essay, example of psychology essay, a thesis statement for an essay responding to this prompt: In the article “Monsters Monsters Everywhere,” Sam Lindsay uses personal anecdotes, vivid language, and appeals to emotion to persuade her audience that more works of art should feature monsters.
It's fine to persuasive essay on sustainability copy the psychology essay exact words describing the author’s central claim from the prompt into your thesis statement—in fact, this guarantees that the graders will see that your thesis is there and on-topic. #2: Include Both an Introduction and a Conclusion. The SAT essay rubric states: The response includes a skillful introduction and conclusion.” Including an persuasive on sustainability, introduction paragraph in your essay is absolutely essential to getting a Writing score above a 4/8. The introduction paragraph introduces the reader to what you’ll be talking about and allows you to set up the structure for thesis londonderry the rest of the essay.
Plus, an persuasive essay, introduction can be a pretty good indicator of the quality for the rest of the essay – a poorly constructed introduction is often a warning that the essay that follows will be equally discombobulated. Submission Thesis? It's best to persuasive essay on sustainability have both an introduction and holocaust a conclusion, but if you’re running short on time and can only have one, definitely pick the introduction. A good introduction includes your thesis statement. For the SAT essay, as I discussed in the previous point, your thesis (or your precise central claim) should be a statement about what devices the author uses to build her/his argument. Introductions can be tricky to write, because whatever you write in that paragraph can then make you feel like you’re locked into writing just about that. Persuasive? If you’re struggling, leave yourself 10 blank lines at the beginning of the essay and jump into writing your body paragraphs. Just make sure you remember to essay about wetlands go back and write in your introduction before time’s up!
#3: Use Effective Language and Word Choice. There are a couple of parts of the Writing score section on the SAT essay rubric that pertain directly to style. First, the SAT essay rubric states: The response is cohesive and demonstrates a highly effective use and command of language. For most of us, this is an area that takes a long time to develop, so unless your language skills are really rough or you're prepping a year ahead of time (or both), you'll probably get more out of focusing on the other components of the essay essay. The SAT essay rubric also states: “The response has a wide variety in psychology apa format essay, sentence structures.
The response demonstrates a consistent use of precise word choice. The response maintains a formal style and objective tone.” This basically boils down to: don't be repetitive and don't make grammar mistakes. In addition, you should avoid using first person statements like I or My in the essay, along with any other informality. You're writing the equivalent of a school paper, not an opinion piece. “I think that Sam’s super persuasive in this article cause she’s just so passionate. On Sustainability? It made me feel kinda bad that I don’t really monster it up in my everyday life.” “Lindsay’s passionate defense of how drawing monsters 'allows us to laugh at our personal foibles' causes her audience to for english oral put themselves in her shoes and empathize with her position.”
Finally, try to use different words to describe the same idea - don't use shows 15 times. Take the chance to show off your vocabulary ( if, and only if , the vocabulary is appropriate and makes sense) . This component is the biggest reason why revising your SAT Essay is essential - it's fast and easy to change repeated words to persuasive essay on sustainability other ones after you're finished, but it can slow you down during writing to psychology essay worry about essay your word choice. If you're aiming for a top score, using advanced vocabulary appropriately is vital. #4: Only Use Information From the for english Passage. All the relevant information is in the passage, so avoid getting drawn into the topic and using your outside knowledge – you want to be sure to show that you’ve read the essay passage.
In real life, there are many ways to thesis binding support a thesis, depending on persuasive on sustainability, the topic. Binding? But on essay on sustainability, the SAT, there's one kind of essay for english oral, correct support: specific details drawn from the passage you’re asked to analyze . Essay On Sustainability? We'll show you more below. #5: Focus Your Essay on Relevant Details. You don’t have to mention every single detail that makes the argument effective. In fact, your essay will be more coherent and more likely to score higher in Analysis if you focus your discussion on essay about wetlands, just a few points . It's more important to persuasive essay on sustainability show that you're able to pick out the is in the home argumentative essay most important parts of the argument and explain their function that it is to be able to identify every single persuasive device the persuasive author used.
Think about it as if you were asked to write a 50-minute essay describing the human face and what each part does. A clear essay would just focus on major features - eyes, nose, and mouth. A less effective essay might also try to discuss cheekbones, eyebrows, eyelashes, skin pores, chin clefts, and psychology apa format essay dimples as well. While all of essay, these things are part of the face, it would be hard to thesis binding get into detail about each of the essay on sustainability parts in just 50 minutes. And this is the eye, and this is the other eye, and this is the. other eye. and the other eye. and the other. wait. Of The Holocaust Essay? what's going on here? What the College Board Doesn’t Tell You: 5 Secrets. Even though the SAT essay has clearly stated, publicly-available guidelines, there are a few secrets to writing the essay that most students don't know and that can give you a major advantage on essay on sustainability, the test. #1: Read the Prompt Before the Passage.
Why? Because the prompt includes the description of the essay about wetlands author’s claim. Knowing what the author’s claim is going into the article can help keep you focused on the argument, rather than getting caught up in reading the passage (especially if the topic is essay one you're interested in). #2: Your Facts Must Be Accurate…But Your Interpretation Doesn’t Have to Be. A big part of the Analysis score for the SAT essay is not just identifying the devices the author uses to build her argument, but explaining the essay effect that the use of these devices has on the reader . You don’t have to be completely, 100% accurate about the effect the passage has on the reader, because there is no one right answer. As long as you are convincing in your explanation and cite specific examples, you’ll be good. Here's an example of an interpretation about what effect a persuasive device has on the reader (backed by persuasive evidence from the passage): Lindsay appeals to the emotions of her readers by essay wetlands describing the forlorn, many-eyed creatures that stare reproachfully at her from old school notebook margins.
The sympathy the essay on sustainability readers feel for these forgotten doodles is expertly transferred to essay Lindsay herself when she draws the persuasive essay connection between the drawn monsters and her own life: “Often, I feel like one of these monsters – hidden away in my studio, brushes yearning to create what no one else cares to see.” Now, you don't necessarily know for submission thesis sure if sympathy for persuasive on sustainability the doodles is what the author was going for in her passage. The SAT essay graders probably don't know either (unless one of them wrote the passage). But as long as you can make a solid case for your interpretation, using facts and quotes from the passage to back it up , you'll be good. #3: You Should Write More Than One Page. This has always been true for thesis cambridge the SAT essay, but for the first time ever, the persuasive on sustainability College Board actually came out in The Official SAT Study Guide and children of the essay explicitly said that length really does matter . Persuasive? Here's the description of a 1-paragraph, 120-word-long student response that received a Writing score of 2/8 (bolding mine). “Due to essay the brief nature of the response , there is not enough evidence of writing ability to persuasive merit a score higher than one. A Woman The Home Argumentative Essay? Overall, this response demonstrates inadequate writing .” (source: The Official SAT Study Guide (March 2016 Beyond) , p. 206)
You’ll have one page for persuasive (ungraded) scrap paper that you can use to plan out your essay, and four pages of writing paper for essay about the essay – plan on writing at least two pages for your essay . #4: Be Objective When Reading the Passage. Being able to persuasive essay on sustainability stay detached while reading the passage you'll be writing the essay about can be tricky. This task might be especially difficult for students who were used to the old SAT essay (which pretty much made it mandatory for you to choose one side or the other). You’ll have to holocaust practice reading persuasive essays and persuasive essay on sustainability gaining objectivity (so that you are able to write about oral how the argument is constructed, not whether it’s good or bad). A good way to practice this is to on sustainability read news articles on topics you care deeply about by thesis people who hold the opposite view that you do . For instance, as a composer and violist/violinist, I might read articles about how children should not be encouraged to play musical instruments, since it holds no practical value later on in life (a view I disagree with vehemently).
I would then work on on sustainability, my objectivity by jotting down the is in argumentative essay central ideas, most important details, and how these details relate to the central ideas of the article . Being able to understand the central ideas in the passage and details without being sidetracked by rage (or other emotions) is key to writing an effective SAT essay. Don't let the monster of rage distract you from your purpose. #5: Memorize and Identify Specific Persuasive Techniques. Once you’re able to read articles objectively (as discussed in point 4 above), the next step is to be able to break down the argument in the articles . To do this successfully, you'll need to be aware of some of the techniques that are frequently used to build arguments. The SAT essay prompt does mention a few of these techniques (bolding mine): As you read the passage below, consider how Lindsay uses. evidence, such as facts or examples , to support claims. Essay On Sustainability? reasoning to develop ideas and to connect claims and evidence. stylistic or persuasive elements, such as word choice or appeals to emotion , to add power to the ideas expressed.
It’s certainly possible to wing it and go into the test without knowing specific names of particular persuasive devices and just organically build up your essay from features you notice in the article. However, it's way easier to go into the essay knowing certain techniques that you can then scan the passage for . For instance, after noting the central ideas and important details in the article about how more works of art should feature monsters, I would then work on essay for english, analyzing the way the author built her argument. Does she use statistics in the article? Personal anecdotes? Appeal to emotion? I discuss the top persuasive devices you should know in more detail in the article 6 SAT Essay Examples to Answer Every Prompt. How to Get All the on sustainability Necessary Components in 50 Minutes: 5 Step-By-Step Strategies. When you write an SAT essay, you only have 50 minutes to read, analyze, and write an essay, which means that you need a game plan going in. Here's a short step-by-step guide on how to write an effective SAT essay. Don’t just summarize the passage in your essay, or identify persuasive devices used by the author - instead, be sure to actually analyze the way the author of the thesis passage builds her argument. As The Official SAT Study Guide states, [Y]our discussion should focus on what the author does, why he or she does it, and what effect this is persuasive on sustainability likely to have on readers.
College Board makes a point of specifying this very point in its grading rubric as well - an essay that scores a 2 (out of 4) or below in Analysis merely asserts, rather than explains [the persuasive devices'] importance. If you want to get at least a 3/4 (or a 6/8) in Analysis, you need to heed this warning and stay on task . #2: Support Your Points With Concrete Evidence From the Passage. The best way to get a high Reading score for your essay is to children of the holocaust essay quote from the passage appropriately to support your points . Essay? This shows not only that you’ve read the passage (without your having to summarize the passage at all), but also that you understand what the author is saying and the way the author constructed her argument. As an a woman the home essay, alternative to using direct quotations from the passage, it’s also okay to paraphrase some of what you discuss. If you are explaining the persuasive author's argument in your own words, however, you need to be extra careful to make sure that the facts you're stating are accurate - in contrast to scoring on the old SAT essay, scoring on the new SAT essay takes into account factual inaccuracies and penalizes you for them. The SAT essay rubric states: “The response demonstrates a deliberate and highly effective progression of ideas both within paragraphs and throughout the essay.” The main point to take away from this is that you should follow the standard structure for an SAT essay (introduction-body-body-conclusion) . Using a basic 4-5 paragraph essay structure will both keep you organized AND make it easier for the essay graders to follow your reasoning - a win-win situation! Furthermore, you should connect each paragraph to each other through effective transitions. We'll give you ways to improve your performance in this area in the articles linked at the end of this article. #4: Make Time to Read, Analyze, Plan, Write, and Revise. Make sure you allocate appropriate amounts of time for each of the place steps you’ll need to persuasive take to a woman is in the home argumentative write the essay – 50 minutes may seem like a long time, but it goes by on sustainability awfully quick with all the things you need to do.
Reading the passage, analyzing the argument, planning your essay, writing your essay, and revising are all important components for writing an psychology, 8/8/8 essay. For a breakdown of essay on sustainability, how much time to spend on each of holocaust, these steps, be sure to check out our article on how to write an SAT essay, step-by-step. The more you practice the analysis and the writing, the better you’ll get at persuasive essay, the task of writing an the home, SAT essay (as you work up to it a little at a time). It's especially important to practice the analysis and writing components of the essay if you are a slow reader (since reading speed can be difficult to change). Essay On Sustainability? Being able to for english analyze and write quickly can help balance out the extra time you take to read and comprehend the material (plus, the time you put into working on analysis and writing will yield greater rewards than time spent trying to increase your reading speed). But don't forget : while it’s okay to break up the on sustainability practice at first, you also really do need to get practice buckling down and doing the whole task in one sitting . This is just the beginning of improving your SAT essay score. Next, you actually need to put this into practice with a real SAT essay. Want to for english oral learn more about the changes to the SAT essay? We have a comprehensive guide to what changed (and what didn't) here. Want to improve your SAT score by 160 points? Check out our best-in-class online SAT prep program.
We guarantee your money back if you don't improve your SAT score by 160 points or more. Our program is persuasive essay on sustainability entirely online, and it customizes what you study to your strengths and weaknesses. A Woman Place Is In Argumentative Essay? If you liked this SAT Essay lesson, you'll love our program. Along with more detailed lessons, you'll get your SAT essays hand-graded by a master instructor who will give you customized feedback on how you can improve. Persuasive On Sustainability? We'll also give you a step-by-step program to follow so you'll never be confused about what to submission thesis study next. Check out persuasive, our 5-day free trial: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura graduated magna cum laude from Wellesley College with a BA in Music and Psychology, and earned a Master's degree in Composition from the Longy School of Music of thesis, Bard College. Persuasive? She scored 99 percentile scores on the SAT and GRE and loves advising students on how to excel in high school.
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Make sure to clearly read the instructions (all of them) and clarify by essay asking questions. For example, some common things to look out for include: (ii) Required number of sources; (iii) Essay type (argumentative, comparative, narrative…etc); Thoroughly read the original essay instructions and make a plan before even starting to write. Strong Organization = Well-Written Essay. The structure of an essay can really make it or break it for persuasive essay you. Essay! Make sure that you have strong opening and closing paragraphs and persuasive on sustainability body content that supports your original thesis. The introduction should funnel down to your thesis and narrow down the specific argument you want to make.
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You are ready to start writing. Start with an introductory paragraph that funnels down from a broad issue to a specific time and place. About! Provide background details as necessary. Then, conclude the essay, introduction with your thesis statement. Body paragraphs should be 5-7 sentences long and start with a topic sentence. Always introduce your quotes and avoid “dropping them” without context. Finish with a conclusion that recaps each main point and make sure not to introduce any new information. Essay References and Final Review.
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