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RESUME FOR INTERNSHIP: 998 Samples + 15 Templates + Writing Guide. Imagine standing in line with hundreds of other people all vying for the same internship. When it’s finally your turn, the job recruiter says, “You have six seconds.” That may sound crazy but an eye-tracking resume study discovered that’s how long an employer looks at each resume. You have to make an georgetown essays impression and you have to profiling essay make it quickly. We’re here to application help make your resume stand out. We created 15 professional templates for you to download. Supplemental? We found samples of real-life resumes that landed internships . And we put together a resource toolkit with almost 1,000 sample resumes, tips, and ideas created by application essays law optional, the best universities. Here are the essay on the for attending key aspects of your internship resume we’ll guide you on: How to Write an Internship Resume: The Basics How to Write an Objective (and whether you need one!) Internship Resume Format How to Use Free Internship Resume Templates and Samples.
Table of Contents. How to law optional Write an useful Internship Resume: The Basics. It’s tough to grab an employer’s attention in just a few seconds, especially when you have little or no job experience. But it is georgetown application possible. You just have to be a little more creative. Look at your past jobs and phrases writing, the duties you performed in a new light. . For example, if you are applying for a banking internship but never worked in a bank, think outside the application essays box. Maybe you handled money at a concession stand. Or, maybe you had to balance a cash drawer in a job as a supermarket checker.
Remember, your goal in landing an internship is to use the family skills you already have to contribute to your academic and career goals, and gain new skills as well. Georgetown? Intern recruiters know you don’t have professional-level qualifications yet. They’re looking for someone who wants to learn and who has transferable skills like: Ability to components communicate Willingness to work hard Creativity Problem-solving ability Initiative Ability to multi-task Leadership. There are a few basic requirements for your resume. Every internship resume should be: One page in length Clean, error-free, and easy to read Structured and written to highlight your strengths Immediately clear about your name and the position you are seeking. Surprisingly, your high school or college GPA isn’t as important to intern recruiters as you might think . In 2013, internships.com surveyed 300 intern recruiters and found employers put more value on relevant work experience than academic performance. Your list of skills and experience is one of the most valuable things on your resume. Here’s an easy way to georgetown application essays start building a great experience section for reasons college, your internship resume. First, create a master list of georgetown law optional every job, skill and useful phrases writing, academic achievement you have in your background.
Keep updating it as you think of georgetown application essays new things to add. This is a valuable tool to help you customize each resume you send out. You’ll pull from this master list to emphasize the skills and experience you have that each employer is writing looking for . Georgetown? Think of your resume as a way of matching what you have to offer with what an of maryland essays intern recruiter wants for that particular internship program. Keeping these basics in mind, let’s get down to business. How to write an objective statement. The objective statement goes near the top of essays your resume, and, in a matter of seconds, should tell an employer what you have to offer. That means you have to resume write lean and mean.
Your goal is to grab a prospective employer’s attention with one or two clear, compelling sentences. Let’s say you are a junior at State University with a journalism major/political science minor looking for an internship. You have experience writing news and features for application essays, the college paper. You also created fliers for a local political candidate. Children Essay? Last summer, you were a part-time copy editor at a community weekly. You would someday like to be a press secretary. You are also a swimmer and application, have won state meets. Here are some internships you might apply for: Public relations intern: Public relations position in which I can use my journalism training and my years in competitive sports to promote the resume 11 form New York Yankees. Journalism major desires to use political experience to help John Doe get elected.
College recruitment intern: Journalism student and georgetown essays law optional, championship swimmer seeks position as marketing assistant to use writing skills and resume 11 form, competitive swimming experience to georgetown law optional raise awareness of the importance of components of thesis student-athletes at State University. An objective statement tells how you can benefit the company. Application? What employer wouldn’t want to know that? Yet opinions are divided on whether or not objective statements belong on resumes. That’s because objectives are too often long, unfocused paragraphs that employers skip over. An objective statement like “Seeking a challenging and racial essay, rewarding position in georgetown application essays, a dynamic organization for potential growth” is just a lot of words that say nothing meaningful. Some applicants replace “objective statement” with different names that serve the same purpose: Career Summary, Job Goal, Skill Set, Profile, or Personal Branding Statement. Whatever you call the section of your resume that tells an of maryland supplemental employer how your particular skill set and knowledge will help the company achieve its goals, it’s still an important part of your resume. It’s especially important when applying for law optional, an internship, because, this early in your career, your limited work history probably doesn’t define your career goals.
Make it concise and specific. Don’t be vague. Find keywords in the job description and focus on those when describing your knowledge and abilities. Make your objective as unique to components of thesis writing you as possible. Instead of georgetown saying “highly motivated student,” say “third-year journalism student.” Instead of racial in america saying “excellent communication skills,” say “produced political fliers.” Emphasize your benefit to the employer. You want to law optional tell the company what you can do for it, not ask what it can do for of maryland, you.
BAD: “Seeking a team-oriented newsroom that fosters my writing development.” GOOD: “Journalism student brings team sports experience to reporter internship.” Emphasize the job experience, character traits, personality, and work ethic that would make you valuable to the company. Do not write in first person. Instead of “I have experience writing code,” say “student with code-writing experience.” It’s almost always best to leave out adjectives and personal pronouns. Try to make each word engaging. A great resume grabs the attention of application essays law optional a potential employer right away. Every objective statement must be customized to the internship you are seeking. Don’t copy and paste the resume 11 form same objective into georgetown essays law optional, each internship resume you send out.
When an employer reads an objective statement tailored to the internship they’re hiring for, they’ll see you as someone who knows about and cares about that position. It gives your resume credibility, and signals to the employer that everything else in your resume is relevant too. Now that you know the basics about an internship resume and on the for attending college, how to write an objective statement, it’s time to georgetown application compile your winning resume. Some sections you might include on your internship resume: Objective Education Relevant Coursework Skills Relevant Experience Professional Experience Honors #038; Activities.
You don’t have to of thesis writing include all of georgetown law optional these sections. Choose those that are relevant to your experience and the internship you’re applying for. You’ve done research on the company. You know what it’s all about. You know their mission statement. You’ve identified some keywords that describe what the company wants. Profiling Essay? You’ll use those keywords as often as you can to describe what you have to offer. Even if you have minimal work experience, you can put together a great resume. A clean layout with a logical structure will give a good first impression.
Display your name, email address, and phone number prominently. (Make sure your voicemail greeting is appropriate.) If your mailing address (your location) helps your resume in any way, add it too. If you have a strong LinkedIn profile, include the URL to your page. Don’t use a silly email address. Georgetown Law Optional? One that includes your name is best. Make it clear you are seeking a specific position. State what you can do for racial profiling in america essay, them, not what they can do for georgetown application, you. Of Maryland Essays? Use keywords from the georgetown company’s website or the components internship description. Start with the degree you are currently working toward.
Note the date you expect to graduate. For example, “B.A. expected in June 2017.” List your previous degrees in reverse chronological order, including the georgetown application essays law optional name and location of each institution attended. Pupel 11 Form? Include majors, minors, or areas of specialty for each degree. Include your high school only if you want to highlight its academic reputation or if its location is georgetown relevant to the internship. State College (Expected graduation: Spring 2017)
Bachelor of Arts in Communication. English minor. Concentration on writing, public relations. Use this section to georgetown essays show you have appropriate transferable skills, even if you didn’t learn them in on my family, the workplace. Georgetown Essays? Describe classwork that demonstrates skills required for the internship. Include class projects that bolster your value to the employer. Sports writing Communicating Effectively: Increased traffic to university of maryland supplemental college’s SportsTalk website through Search Engine Optimization Public Speaking Video for law optional, the Web: Filmed an athlete training for a triathlon. Write a strong summary of resume your qualifications.
Start sentences with active verbs whenever possible. Align what you have to georgetown application law optional offer with what the employer wants. List the skills that are most important to of thesis the internship you are applying for. Be creative. You’d be surprised how many life skills transfer to job skills.
Include proficiencies as well as interpersonal skills. Proficient in Microsoft Word, PowerPoint, and Excel Experience with online research Bilingual: Fluent in English and Spanish. Include experience that’s relevant to georgetown essays the internship. If you are applying for essay on the reasons for attending, a job in sports marketing, for example, describe your summers working at the baseball stadium. List certificates from schools or courses that are relevant or impressive. Describe situations in which you were a leader or an innovator.
Directed setup of georgetown law optional political candidate’s County Fair booth Designed website for Junior Fair Queen candidate Completed Great Lakes Bike Tour. You can minimize the fact that you don’t have much relevant job experience by highlighting transferable skills. For instance, working at racial profiling in america, a fast-food restaurant requires much more than bagging burgers. You have to application be able to communicate, work as a team, manage your time, and handle money. Show results of your work. In America? Use active verbs whenever you can. Tie professional experience back to essays objective. North Rec Swimming Pool, Amherst, Ohio (Summers of of thesis 2012, 2013, 2014)
Drew up plans that led to expanding swimming lessons to infants Created Facebook page for pool Taught classes of law optional up to 12 youngsters how to swim Used Microsoft Office to make posters for university, annual swim meet. List awards and academic honors you have received. Highlight specific affiliations and volunteer work relevant to the internship you are seeking. Dean’s list, State University (Fall 2013, Spring 2014) National Merit Semi-Finalist Junior Rotary Club member (2012 to present) Nursing home volunteer: Distributed lunches, assisted with daily bingo games (2010) If you follow the above steps, you can create a winning resume for your internship application. And remember, a resume should always be a work in progress. In addition to essays law optional tweaking and essay, tailoring your resume for each job or internship, continually update your professional profile with new skills and experiences acquired. Be confident.
Sell yourself well, and prospective employers will notice. Make sure you know the basic rules that apply to all resumes. List the experiences most relevant to essays law optional the internship on your resume. Internships are offered year-round, not just in children family, the summer. Got your eye on georgetown law optional, interning for a specific company? Check out their intern opportunities online and research what the company looks for in employees.
Seeking an internship with a particular job title? Switch up the wording to find more opportunities. For instance, administrative assistant jobs can also be listed as admin assistant, admin asst, or admin assist. The more internships you can squeeze into your college years, the more you will learn, and the better job candidate you will make. Free Internship Resume Templates and Samples. Now that you know what makes a great internship resume, we’re going to show you some free templates, samples, and resources. This is the final step : customization. Choose a template you like. Look at resumes of successful intern candidates.
Now, it’s time to craft your own. Your resume should be as unique as you are. The good news is, you don’t have to reinvent the racial profiling in america essay wheel to do it. 15 Blank Internship Resume Templates. We took 15 fantastic resume samples in PDF (University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Washington University in St. Louis, University of Connecticut, Northwestern University, California Polytechnic State University, The University of Oklahoma, Syracuse University, University of Nebraska-Lincoln, and application law optional, the University of Connecticut Storrs – see template descriptions for details), and created 15 professional internship templates in MS Word that you can customize and use. These templates are designed to phrases writing showcase the skills and abilities of students who don’t have an extensive work history but still have a lot to offer. They all work.
Just pick one that suits you, download it, and georgetown essays law optional, customize it. 6 Internship Resumes and a Cover Letter that Landed High-Profile Jobs. Not sure what to say or how to say it? We convinced six people who landed great internships to allow us to post their resumes here for you. Of Thesis? Don’t worry if they seem to application essays have more impressive credentials than you do.
If you follow the writing steps above, you’ll be able to discover and highlight your own impressive experiences. Google and essays law optional, Facebook Internship Resume. Microsoft and Google Internship Resume Sample. Real Software Engineering Internship Resume. Internship Cover Letter Sample Software Engineering.
Over 1000 resume samples and essay reasons for attending, ideas. In this section you will find more than 50 university resources that contain almost 1,000 samples, ideas, and tips for you to use. University of essays California, Davis – PDF with 9 resume samples – a simple resume, a chronological format for an internship position, a laboratory research assistant resume, a chronological format for a career position, a functional format for a career position, a chronological format for an entry-level career position, a combination of chronological and functional format for a research position, a resume with international experience, and a technical resume used for racial in america, applying for positions in information technology, engineering or consulting. Hope College – PDF guide to internship resume writing, what makes an internship resume different from other resumes, how to describe your experiences, a list of action verbs to georgetown application use, as well as 4 resume samples with some formatting tips. University of university of maryland essays Minnesota – 32 real student resume samples for different majors: Continuing Education Majors, Design Majors, Food, Agricultural and Natural Resource Science Majors, as well as Masters and PhD resume samples. University of California – Irvine – 7 resume samples including 1 internship resume and 2 cover letter examples.
Harvard – an online resume workshop explaining how to write resumes, a PDF guide with resume tips, a list of action verbs, how to write an effective cover letter as well as a resume sample, 2 resume templates, and a cover letter sample. They also provide 2 Word resume samples and 2 PDF resume samples. University of Illinois Chicago – Help with creating a resume and georgetown essays, writing a cover letter, video that explains the basics of writing resumes, 4 freshman resume samples, as well as 4 engineering resumes with internship/research experience, and 6 sample resumes for different majors. University of California, San Francisco – Video tutorials on how to write a successful internship resume, and components writing, an action verb list, including 5 sample internship resumes and 1 before-and-after example. Purdue University – Resume writing guide including brainstorming techniques, resume formatting tips, which transferable skills employers are looking for, as well as which sections to include in your resume. Rose Hulman Institute of georgetown application essays law optional Technology – 5 sample resumes by class year, and 20 sample resumes by major. University of essay for attending college Oklahoma – 76 sample resumes by major for full time jobs and internships. Eight are internship resume samples along with a sample freshman resume and cover letter for an internship in advertising.
San Jose State University – 75 pre-career and career resume samples by major in applied sciences and arts, business, education, engineering, humanities, science, and georgetown application essays law optional, social science. Northeastern University – 10 sample resumes by class year as well as major. St. Olaf College – Before-and-after resume sample, professional school sample resumes, job and components of thesis, internship sample resumes, on-campus recruiting resume samples, as well as samples for georgetown, specialized fields. 28 samples available in total. University of resume pupel Berkeley – 56 page job and internship guide which includes a resume and letter writing guide with resume dos and essays law optional, don’ts, along with 9 sample resumes and cover letters. Pepperdine University – 6 PDF sample resumes for MFT and university of maryland, psychology in both functional and essays law optional, chronological formats.
Brown University – Resume and cover letter tip sheets, along with 19 sample resume templates in PDF. University of New Hampshire – 20 sample resumes by major, along with a resume outline in resume, Word, and a resume starter template in PDF. Monash University – 36 sample resumes by college department for both undergraduates and postgraduates. University of georgetown application North Florida – 4 sample PDF resumes for useful phrases writing essays, internships, 6 sample resumes for entry-level jobs, and 5 sample resumes for experienced alumni. Penn State – 4 sample resumes in law optional, both PDF and profiling essay, Word formats for internships, co-ops, entry-level full time positions, and georgetown application essays, CVs as well as cover letter samples, reference list samples, and post interview letter samples.
Rutgers University – Career and internship planning guide in PDF format which includes sections on preparing for internships, finding an internship, and essay on my, making an application essays law optional impact at your internship. Resume writing tips that include anatomy of a resume, tips to strengthen your resume, how to write accomplishment statements, using a problem-action-result approach, and some power verbs. The guide also contains 8 sample internship resume templates and 2 CV templates. Saint Joseph’s University – 10 sample resumes with 1 sample internship resume. Essay On The Reasons College? They also have resume examples by major, and georgetown, a “Resumes for International Students” webinar. Rollins College – Guide on how to write a resume, resume format and university supplemental essays, style, as well as samples of different types of resumes, such as targeted, integrated, CVs, and federal resumes. Marquette University – PDF guide to resume and cover letter writing for internships along with 1 sample cover letter and 2 sample resumes. Loyola University, Chicago – 11 sample resumes with sample cover letters, including a sample cover letter for internships. They also have various resume and job search guides. University of application Tennessee – 15 sample resumes by major, as well as various sample cover letters.
Wake Forest University – Resume writing guide with 10 samples based on children on my family, different experiences, as well as 5 resume samples for different majors. Stetson University – 11 resume templates, both chronological and functional, as well as internship and first-year student resume samples. DePaul University – Entry-level resume guide with list of action verbs, as well as 6 chronological resume samples, 1 functional resume sample, and 1 combination resume sample. Northwestern University – 16 resume samples by application essays law optional, major, including 1 for students with less experience and reasons, 1 for students with more experience. Muhlenberg College – 18 resume samples by job function and class year. University of georgetown law optional Richmond – Guides on resume formatting tips, writing a resume, action verbs, and 15 resume samples in PDF.
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The evolution of georgetown application walking (bipedalism) We are seen as the only great ape to have stood upright and taken strides forward. Why this event took place is surrounded by a lot of hypotheses. These include. 1. savannah theory: leaving the components of thesis writing, trees to live on the ground (Dart, 1953) 2. Essays Law Optional! brachiation hypothesis: it evolved from walking in trees from branch to branch (Gabo, 1996) 3. pre-common-ancestor hypothesis: that our common ancestor with chimpanzees was bipedal (author’s own consideration) 4. University Of Maryland Essays! rock climbing hypothesis at georgetown essays law optional the African rift valley (Winder et al. , 2013) 5. The controversial Aquatic Ape hypothesis: that it evolved from 11 form, wading in essays law optional, lakes and university of maryland, rivers (Morgan, 1997). So in georgetown essays, this article we’ll be looking at.
a) how other species walk upright, b) why the human skeleton is specialised for walking, the of maryland supplemental essays, problems that causes us, and. c) why it might have evolved covering the 5 points above. First though, a little background to georgetown application law optional help: Bipedalism (where the supplemental, skeleton has become dedicated to it) and tool-making are traditionally seen as the first defining marks of humans in the archaeological record. The first official human ( hominin ) is the bipedal, small-brained tool-maker Homo habilis of 2.5 million years ago. For a long time, the application, first bipedal ape ( hominid ) was accepted to be Lucy, the Pliocene Australopithecus afarensis 3.6 million years ago.
Hominid refers to all non-human apes in this article. Hominin refers to all human apes. Bipedalism now appears as a possibility much further back, as far back as the Oreopithecus bambolii (cookie monster!) upright Greek ape of 9 million years ago (Wayman, 2011). The Oreopithecus may actually be very important in racial profiling essay, understanding bipedalism, as we’ll see later. However, most of the georgetown, hypotheses in university essays, the article are based on Lucy’s bipedalism. Walking upright in law optional, other species. This gorilla appears to be female and is wading through a shallow river. Profiling Essay! orang-utans also wade in application law optional, this fashion and university of maryland essays, both may use branches to georgetown essays law optional gauge depth. Humans are not unique in resume pupel 11 form, their bipedalism. Hopping mammals such as kangaroos are also classed as bipedal, but they move in a very different way. Birds are important: fellow highly intelligent beings (and sometimes tool-makers), are also dedicated bipedal walkers.
The Great Apes have their upright walking moments too but their skeletons are not designed for bipedalism. Orang-utans do the most upright walking of all, which they use in georgetown, the trees, walking along branches while holding upper branches. Of Thesis Writing! Like gorillas, they also walk upright while wading. Bonobos (pygmy chimpanzees) are the next great walkers. These are a more docile and georgetown essays, sociable species of chimpanzee that are matriarchal and racial profiling essay, peaceful natured than common chimpanzees. Essays! They are knuckle walkers but spend significant time walking upright, often while carrying objects. University! They can look very human when walking but their pelvis is not designed for bipedalism. Common chimpanzees do not stand upright often, being extremely efficient knuckle runners. Application Essays! Standing upright is for display and for performing tasks that require reaching, though captive humanised common chimpanzees will stand upright more.
Gorillas do not walk upright very much at all, but it is seen when they are wading through rivers, often holding a long branch for measuring depth. The young walk upright most frequently and the adult males sometimes rise upright in racial in america essay, display. Of the application, lesser apes, gibbons are also known for resume pupel 11 form, walking upright, which they do on the group, with their long arms held up in the air. Again, this can look very human but their pelvises are not designed for walking upright. Our very different physical and skeleton makes researchers wonder what was different in our evolution. Only we, of the Great Apes, have the pelvis and leg morphology of upright walkers. Homo sapien bipedalism: the skeleton. Human and common chimpanzee, though with great similarities have very different locomotor features. Note the legs, feet, pelvis, spine, and skull angle.
Our skeleton has evolved for walking on two legs (bipedalism) with our curved spine, flat feet, hip and knee rotations and georgetown application law optional, narrowed pelvis. It’s actually a strange adaptation in some ways: we are less stable on our feet than quadrupeds and a narrowing of the pelvis is very strange in a species whose brains have evolved to be very large. It would make much better sense for a large brained species to of maryland essays be on all fours, with a wide pelvis for childbirth. This makes us wonder if the selection for walking in humans was very powerful. When brains did start to really grow big, in georgetown, the Homo erectus , 1.8 million years ago, the pelvis was getting narrower. It’s a strange contradiction. Why did bipedalism evolve? Pioneered in the 1960s, savannah theory has now fallen out of fashion.
It was a simple hypothesis: that Africa changed abruptly from dense forest to pupel 11 form savannah at the start of the Pliocene. Once living on the ground, humans became bipedal because of a need to carry food and stone tools, to application essays hunt, and to look over the grass for children essay on my family, predators. Its downfall is very simple. Application Essays Law Optional! We now know that the dense forests of Africa did not change abruptly into a savannah, but into resume, open woodlands (mosaic habitat) with lakes and rivers also. Our australopithecine ancestors were living in essays law optional, trees, not on of maryland supplemental essays, a savannah, and their long arms for moving in trees are additional evidence. 2. Brachiation mosaic hypothesis (Gabo, 1996) This leads naturally on from our improved understanding of the ecology of the rift valley. We can see from georgetown essays law optional, Lucy’s skeleton that she was bipedal, but she was also specialised for swinging in trees. So it is likely she made full use of her mosaic habitat.
Orang-utans walk in trees as they travel high up in forest canopies, also using their arms, so it suggested that this manner of children essay on my locomotion was how bipedalism was selected for, as this hominid combined walking on the ground with use of hands for application essays, carrying and for into and rushing through trees. One potential problem with this is the possibility that bipedalism may have evolved long before the change to a mosaic environment. 3. Essay Reasons! Pre-common ancestor hypothesis (author’s own thoughts) Genetics currently suggest that the georgetown application, split with our common ancestor with chimpanzees took place 7-9 million years ago. Current dating of Hominid fossils places the bipedal Greek Oreopithecus bambolii of racial profiling in america essay 9 million years ago in the time point (but not at the African Rift Valley where hominin evolution seems to georgetown essays law optional have taken place. However the Sahelanthropus tchadensis of Chad has been diagnosed as bipedal and is dated at 7 million years ago (Su, 2013)
This opens the possibility that bipedalism was widespread in phrases writing essays, hominids before the common ancestor split and therefore took place in dense forest. It also raises the possibility that chimpanzees were once bipedal and georgetown application law optional, evolved knuckle walking as an reasons for attending college adaptation to forest floor living (dominant male communities have an georgetown essays law optional evolutionary drive towards greater size in a species, driving apes from trees and to the forest floor, where knuckle walking is the most efficient locomotion). This is again my own hypothesis. Potential problems are dating errors: if these early walkers have been dated too old or if the children on my, split occurred far earlier than currently believed. 4. Georgetown Law Optional! Rock-climbing hypothesis (Winder et al . 2013) An important new hypothesis appeared in Antiquity journal this year that suggests that climbing may have been important in early human evolution and this takes us back to the African Rift Valley at the start of the profiling in america, Pliocene.
Here early hominins would have been negotiating a rocky terrain with elevations, using their hands, arms and application essays, legs in new ways. This terrain was being generated by the great rift that was, and still is, active here. Therefore we have hominids climbing, reaching up with their hands, changing their ankle flexion, as they find water, refuge and protein sources on the rocky outcrops. This would have combined with use of 11 form woodland areas and travelling across open ground. It makes good sense and again, the only difficulty is georgetown law optional, dating. Was the university of maryland supplemental essays, evolution of bipedalism before or after the split with chimpanzees? 5. Aquatic Ape Hypothesis (Morgan, 1997) I’ve left the georgetown application essays, most controversial until last. The aquatic ape hypothesis is not popular with anthropologists and palaeontologists due to considerable flaws in its supporting arguments (that would be a separate and very big article!). It was a wonderfully researched book and did offer a better explanation of bipedalism than Savannah theory, but it has dated itself with its evidence (from human morphology interpreted as aquatic in nature) being now known to be erroneous.
However, there is one possibility in there to be gleaned from it and that is the value of wading in the selection for bipedalism. Orang-utans and gorillas both travel through water and reasons for attending college, wade to do so with their arm held upwards. Application Law Optional! The Pliocene African Rift Valley had many more rivers and lakes than it does now, and in fact, hominin fossils can accumulate around these extinct lakes and in water deposits. Earliest rainforests of the Miocene would also have had rivers and streams. So I have taken this from Morgan’s theory as a possibility suitable for serious consideration. We can see that humans are not the only bipedal species on the planet, but we are the only dedicated bipedal ape, and in this we are unique. Therefore there must have been an evolutionary selection factor. The question though is pupel, when and where?
If our common ancestor with chimpanzees was a Miocene bipedal tree dweller then we are flawed in looking for walking’s evolution in the later Pliocene rift valley. Indeed if arboreal (tree) bipedalism was present in georgetown, Greece at this time, it may have been a widespread hominid trait during the Miocene. If it did evolve during the Miocene then it could be that walking in trees and wading were the factors. If it evolved in the African Pliocene then it is resume pupel 11 form, likely that tree walking, rock climbing, wading and walking on open land combined with use of the hands for application law optional, carrying and tools were factors in resume 11 form, its evolution. Whatever the georgetown essays law optional, reasons for our retained and refined bipedalism, they must have been very strong ones, because they defied the racial profiling, difficulties of childbirth and increase in georgetown application essays law optional, brain-size. It remains a very tantalising evolutionary question. Dart R (1953) ‘The predatory transition from ape to man’ reprinted in (1977) R Leakey and of maryland, R Lewin (eds.) Origins London: Macdonald and application law optional, Jane’s. Gabo D L (1996) ‘Climbing, brachiation, and terrestrial quadrupedalism: Historical precursors of hominid bipedalism’, American Journal of university essays Physical Anthropology 101 (1), 55-92. Morgan E (1997) The aquatic ape hypothesis London: Souvenir Press Ltd. Winder I C, King G C P. Deves M and Bailey G N (2013) ‘Complex topography and human evolution: the essays, missing link’, Antiquity 87 (336), 333-349. The evolution of human bipedalism is not so tantalising, if we only analyse it into smaller elements use the resume 11 form, comparative data, eg,
-which animals have very long stretched legs? -which animals have the georgetown essays law optional, head-body-legs in 1 line? -which animals tend to useful writing have vertical spines? The answers are resp.: wading spp, diving spp, arboreal spp. This suggests that we evolved from law optional, vertical (below-branch) climbers to diving wading creatures. -Greg Laden blog Verhaegen.
-new directions in palaeoanthropology Verhaegen. In any case, open plain or savannah ‘explanations’ don’t explain anything: “Bipedalism — It is essay family, often stated that human locomotion was an adaptation to running on the open plains, which is illustrated by expressions such as ‘Savannahstan’, ‘endurance running’, ‘born to georgetown application essays law optional run’, ‘le singe coureur’ etc., even on the cover of the most influential scientific journals. Verhaegen et al.(2007) disproved in detail all endurance running arguments (Bramble Lieberman 2004) that our Homo ancestors during most of the Pleistocene were adapted to running over open plains. When we analyse human locomotion into more elementary components, the running ‘explanation’ appears to be a just-so interpretation (cherry-picking): Bramble Lieberman (2004) interpret every locomotor trait in humans as having evolved ‘for’ running, without even considering possible wading or swimming scenarios. A comparative approach shows that, for each trait, semi-aquatic scenarios provide more parsimonious explanations (google ‘econiche Homo’ table 4), and that extant human running is components, a secondary and application law optional, conspicuously imperfect adaptation which evolved late in the human past, e.g. we run maximally 32 km/hr over short and 20 km/hr over long distances, about half as fast as typical open plain mammals.” (Hum.Evol.28:237-266, 2013).
Human Evolution now publishes in of maryland essays, 2 special editions the proceedings of the symposium on human waterside evolution ‘Human Evolution: Past, Present Future’ in London 8-10 May 2013: SPECIAL EDITION PART 1 (end 2013) – Peter Rhys-Evans: Introduction. – Stephen Oppenheimer: Human’s Association with Water Bodies: the ‘Exaggerated Diving Reflex’ and its Relationship with the Evolutionary Allometry of Human Pelvic and Brain Sizes. – JH Langdon: Human Ecological Breadth: Why Neither Savanna nor Aquatic Hypotheses can Hold Water. – Stephen Munro: Endurance Running versus Underwater Foraging: an Anatomical and Palaeoecological Perspective. – Algis Kuliukas: Wading Hypotheses of the Origin of georgetown application Human Bipedalism. – Marc Verhaegen: The Aquatic Ape Evolves: Common Misconceptions and Unproven Assumptions about the So-Called Aquatic Ape Hypothesis. – CL Broadhurst Michael Crawford: The Epigenetic Emergence of Culture at the Coastline: Interaction of Genes, Nutrition, Environment and Demography. SPECIAL EDITION PART 2 (begin 2014) with 12 contributions.
An update of the littoral theory (e.g. my 2013 paper Hum.Evol.28:237-266). Resume Pupel! The conventional paleo-anthropological view – that human ancestors became bipedal by moving from the georgetown application, forests to the plains (schematically: ape=human = forest=plain = quadru-=bipedal) – is biologically physiologically unlikely, e.g. primates that move from forest to resume pupel 11 form plain become more, not less quadrupedal (“the baboon paradox”); sweating requires salt water (both scarce in arid grasslands); etc. An account of human evolution which mentions possible arboreal terrestrial but not shallow-aquatic milieus is incomplete. Comparative, paleo-environmental other data show:
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essay on economy However, the problem is that economists may often disagree on georgetown application essays law optional, the best solution to these challenges. For example, at the start of the great depression in 1930, leading economists in the UK Treasury suggested that the UK needed to balance the budget; i.e. higher taxes, lower unemployment benefits. But, this made the recession deeper and led to a fall in demand. The over children on my, production of negative externalities (e.g. pollution/congestion) The underproduction of goods with positive externalities (e.g. Application Law Optional? education, health care, public transport). Non-provision of Public Goods - (national defence, law and order) In recent years, behavioural economics has looked at the diverse range of factors that influence people's decisions. For example, behavioural economists have noted that individuals can exhibit present-bias focus.
This means placing excess importance on the current time period and making decisions our future self may regret. This includes over-consumption of components writing demerit goods like alcohol and application tobacco and failure to save for a pension. What may cause a run on the Pound? A run on the pound is more likely in a semi fixed exchange rate. e.g. when the Government is committed to useful writing essays, trying to keep the Pound at a certain level. If markets feel this level is unsustainable they may keep selling Pounds until the government is forced to georgetown application, devalue. For example, in 1992, the UK tried to maintain value of Sterling in ERM, but, ultimately markets forced the UK out and resume pupel we had to devalue. The graph above shows the near 20% devaluation in 1992. We also had a run on law optional, the pound in the late 60s, causing the Wilson government to devalue pound. (In 1967, Wilson devalued pound by 15% after selling many foreign currency reserves trying to maintain value of Pound) In 1976, there was another on the Pound as markets feared the of maryland supplemental essays, UK's fiscal position. Financial crisis depreciation. The credit crunch of 2008 hit the UK economy hard because it was more reliant on the financial sector than most other economies.
Other potential causes of a run on the Pound. High inflation - high inflation reduces the georgetown application essays, value of Pound Sterling. Resume Pupel? Foreign investors will be nervous of holding UK assets if the UK has high inflation. Georgetown Law Optional? Threat of sovereign debt default . On The Reasons For Attending? If markets feel government borrowing is essays, too high and unsustainable then there is a risk of foreigners losing their government bonds. Therefore, the market will sell bonds causing an outflow of foreign currency and fall in value of sterling. This can build up a momentum effect.
As the fall in the currency can alarm other investors. Large current account deficit. Resume 11 Form? A large current account deficit implies we rely on capital flows to finance the current account deficit. Therefore, the UK would be more vulnerable to capital flight. In this circumstance a run on georgetown law optional, the Pound would be stronger. Useful Phrases Essays? However, the UK has run a persistent current account deficit since the 1980s. Georgetown Application Essays Law Optional? (See: Current account deficit) Is the UK at risk from resume 11 form, a Run on the Pound?
Would membership of Euro protect against a run on the Pound? Link between inflation and interest rates. Interest rates can influence the rate of inflation and the rate of economic growth. Georgetown? The Bank of England change the resume 11 form, 'base' interest rate to try and target the government's inflation rate of 2% +/-1 Generally, an increase in inflation leads to higher interest rates. Georgetown Law Optional? A fall in the inflation rate and lower growth leads to essay family, lower interest rates. Graph Showing Inflation and Interest Rates in georgetown the UK. Real Interest Rates.
Typically, nominal interest rates are 1 - 2 % higher than inflation. Useful Writing Essays? When interest rates are higher than inflation, it means savers are protected against the effects of inflation. However, in 2008 and 2011, we had a period of negative real interest rates. Application Essays? This meant the inflation rate was higher than the base rate. A negative real interest rate is bad news for savers, but good news for borrowers. Response to Rising Inflation. If inflation rises, generally, the Bank of England increases interest rates to reduce inflationary pressure. Higher interest rates tend to reduce consumer spending. This is phrases essays, because homeowners see an georgetown application essays law optional increase in the cost of their mortgage payments and have less disposable income. Therefore, they spend less.
Also, higher interest rates increase the incentive to save and reduce the phrases writing essays, incentive to borrow. Therefore, an increase in interest rates tends to reduce the rate of economic growth and prevent inflationary pressures. See more on: Effects of Higher interest rates on economy Response to Fall in Inflation Rate. Lower interest rates increase motivation to borrow Lower interest rates mean cheaper mortgage payments and increase disposable income. Why A Cut in Interest Rates May Not Work. The recession was so sharp that investment and georgetown application law optional consumption have fallen dramatically and so the cuts in interest rates have only mitigated the extent of the downturn House Price falls provide a powerful negative impact on spending. Lower interest rates should boost spending. But, with house prices falling 20% since the peak, this has reduced consumer wealth and therefore reduced spending. Writing? Global downturn.
Even sharp depreciation has been unable to boost export growth because of the extent of the economic downturn. Time Lags. A cut in georgetown application essays interest rates can take a long time to have an effect. For example, people with a two-year fixed rate mortgage won't notice for quite a long time. (until they re-mortgage. Also, commercial banks may be reluctant to pass the essay family, interest rate cut onto consumers. In some circumstances, the application essays law optional, Central Bank may not increase interest rates, despite an increase in inflation. For example, in of thesis writing 2008 and 2011, we had a rise in inflation to 5%, but, the Central Bank kept interest rates low.
Why? They kept interest rates low because: They felt inflation was just due to application essays law optional, temporary cost-push factors like higher taxes and volatile food prices increasing They felt economy was at risk of inflation. Therefore, it was more important to tolerate a temporarily higher inflation rate, than increase interest rates and push the economy back into recession. Related. UK Exchange Rate Mechanism Crisis 1992. In October 1990, the UK made the phrases writing, decision to join the georgetown, Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM) The ERM was a semi-fixed exchange rate mechanism. The value of the Pound was supposed to be kept at a certain level against the DM.
Keep inflation low Provide stability for exporters encouraging trade Enable countries to children essay on my family, join the single currency - the Euro. In the application, late 1980s, the chancellor, Nigel Lawson was keen to join the ERM. But, Mrs Thatcher with her euro-sceptic views wanted to stay out. The late 1980s saw an extraordinary economic boom - boosted by booming house prices, tax cuts and low interest rates. Growth reached record levels of essay on the for attending college 5-6% a year. Application Essays Law Optional? Enthusiastic government ministers talked of an economic miracle - hoping Government policies had enabled, at long last, to catch up with other countries like Germany. However, this miracle was an pupel 11 form illusion.
High growth was unsustainable and led to inflation.(see: Lawson Boom) With inflation of 10%, Nigel Lawson was able to convince Mrs Thatcher that the UK would benefit from joining the georgetown application essays, ERM to essay family, help reduce inflation. Therefore, the UK joined in October 1990. at law optional a rate of DM 2.95 to resume, the Pound. Increasing interest rates - this attracts hot money flows - it is more attractive to save in UK with high interest rates. Buying pounds with foreign exchange reserves. However, these policies of protecting the value of the Pound was causing a serious economic downturn. High interest rates particularly hit the housing market.
With rising house prices, many had taken out large mortgages to get on the property ladder. But, now interest rates were increasing, mortgage repayments became unaffordable and default rates increased. Combined with rising unemployment from the recession, the housing market saw a dramatic fall in prices that was to last 4 years. It was increasingly clear to the financial markets that the Pound was overvalued. The government was exhausting its foreign currency reserves in buying pounds. But, more problematically, the high interest rates was causing a serious recession and misery for homeowners. For a long time, the British government fought a losing battle.
But, the foreign currency reserves of the British government were no match for the trillions of Pound Sterling traded on the foreign currency and application essays law optional the pound kept sliding. It is estimated that the Treasury used ?27 billion of foreign currency reserves trying to prop up the writing, Pound. Georgetown Application Essays Law Optional? The Treasury estimated the final cost to the taxpayer was estimated at ?3.4 billion. An overvalued currency can lead to phrases writing essays, lower economic growth, due to uncompetitive exports. Trying to keep currency at a level which is too high, may require high real interest rates - which can cause economic downturn. It is georgetown law optional, hard to buck the market. Even government intervention on foreign currency markets is not sufficient to prevent depreciation if this is essay on the reasons, what reflects market fundamentals. Georgetown Application Essays? A devaluation of the currency can be beneficial for the economy - under certain circumstances. This devaluation did not cause significant inflation, because the economy was depressed.
UK Recession of 1991-92 UK devaluation of 1967 - many similarities UK Economic history Factors influencing exchange rate UK Crashes out of essay college ERM in 1992 at BBC Unemployment is A Price well Worth Paying for lower inflation - Norman Lamont commenting on his own policies. European harmony - European Union countries are no longer at loggerheads like they were in the past. With the exception of civil war in application essays Yugoslavia (which wasn't in the EU at phrases writing the time), Europe has managed to heal the divisions which were so painfully exposed in the two World Wars in the Twentieth Century. Application? The EU was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2012 for helping to promote peace and international co-operation. Many Eastern European countries are keen to join the EU because they feel it will help promote economic and political stability. Legal and human rights. The EU has a strong commitment to human rights, preventing discrimination and useful writing the due process of law. This makes the EU attractive to georgetown application essays, countries, such as the Ukraine who wish to resume 11 form, share in similar legal and human rights. Essays? Prospect of membership has helped modernise countries, such as Turkey. The Copenhagen Criteria for resume pupel 11 form, EU membership enshrine a commitment to human rights, the rule of law and a market economy.
The prospect of gaining membership of the EU, encourage countries to implement human rights legislation. Essays Law Optional? Economic benefits. EU is one of strongest economic areas in the world. With 500 million people, it has 7.3% of the world's population but accounts for 11 form, 23% of nominal global GDP. Application Essays Law Optional? Free trade and children essay on my removal of non-tariff barriers have helped reduce costs and prices for consumers.
Increased trade with the EU creates jobs and essays higher income. Writing? Over 52% of UK exports are to georgetown essays law optional, the EU. Trade within the EU has increased 30% since 1992. According to one study - over ten years (1993-2003), the Single Market has boosted the EU’s GDP by ˆ877 billion [?588 billion]. This represents ˆ5,700 [?3,819] of extra income per useful phrases essays, household. A paper, Campos, Coricelli, and Moretti (2014) used the synthetic counterfactuals method (SCM) pioneered by Abadie and Gardeazabal (2003). The red dotted line shows estimated GDP if the country had not been a member of the EU. This shows that even more prosperous EU countries, such as the UK have benefited from higher GDP as a result of being in the EU. Free movement of labour and capital have helped create a more flexible economy. For example, UK and Ireland have benefited from the immigration of georgetown application law optional Eastern European workers to fill labour market shortages in certain areas, such as plumbing, nursing and cleaning. Essay College? Far from 'taking jobs', migration has helped increase productive capacity and makes a net contribution to tax revenues. (see impact of net migration) Free movement of application essays labour also enables British people to live and work in Europe.
Roughly 1.6 million British citizens live in the EU outside the UK ( UNCTAD World Investment Report 2010 ) EU migrants are net contributors to UK Treasury. EU migrants tend to be young. Therefore they pay taxes, but use a relatively small share of the NHS and components writing pensions. See: Fiscal effects of application law optional immigration. Resume 11 Form? Net migration has helped deal with the UK's demographic timebomb. EU has enabled people to travel freely across national boundaries making trade and tourism easier and essays law optional cheaper. According to the European Commission, more than 15 million EU citizens have moved to other EU countries to work or to resume pupel, enjoy their retirement. 1.5 million young people have completed part of their studies in another member state with the help of the Erasmus programme.
The possibility to study abroad is considered positive by law optional, 84% of EU citizens. (benefits of EU) Easier to use qualifications in different member countries. This makes it easier to work abroad without having to retrain in different national qualifications. Mutual recognition of safety standards and rules have helped reduce costs for firms. This has encouraged the development of components of thesis small and medium business who rely on the low cost of georgetown law optional exports. Social charter enshrines protection for workers such as a maximum working week, right to collective bargaining and fair pay for employment. On The For Attending? European Arrest Warrant (EAW) scheme has made it easier to track criminals across the essays, European continent. Environmental benefits of the essay on the reasons for attending, EU. The EU has raised the quality of sea water and beeches, by implementing regulations on application, water standards 'Bathing Water Directive'. 92% of tourist locations now meet minimum water quality standards. (Clean water at Europa.eu) Tackling global warming.
In 2006, the (EU) committed to children on my family, reducing its global warming emissions by at least 20 percent of 1990 levels by 2020. Application Essays Law Optional? The EU has also committed to spending $375 billion a year to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 80 percent by 2050 compared to on the college, 1990 levels. (global warmingpdf) Tackling acid rain. Environmental treaties which have sought to deal with European wide environmental problems such as acid rain. The EU has set strict restrictions on emissions of pollutants, such as sulphur , and other causes of acid rain. (BBC Link) Consumer benefits of the EU. EU competition policy has harmonised regulation of monopoly and cartel power within Europe. The EU competition policy seeks to avoid abuses of cartels / monopoly / dominant market power and protect the interest of the consumer. There has been successful deregulation of airlines, electricity and georgetown essays gas markets.
The EU has reduced the price of making mobile phone calls abroad. In 2007 EU legislation set maximum charges for making and receiving calls. The EU also agreed with 14 mobile phone manufacturers to 11 form, create a standard design for chargers from 2011 in order to make life easier for consumers and reduce wastage. In 2014, it is has voted to scrap roaming charges which will drastically reduce the cost of using a mobile phone abroad. (BBC link) Consumers are free to application essays law optional, shop in any EU countries without paying any tariffs or excise duties when they return home. Supplemental? So what have the EU ever done for application law optional, us, apart from straightening all those pesky bananas? Recent posts on Brexit and Europe.
Unemployment - A price worth paying for lower inflation? To some extent N.Lamont will claim to be vindicated by events. Although unemployment rose to 3 million in the early 1990s, inflation was reduced and since then the economy has experienced a long period of uninterrupted growth without inflation and unemployment has fallen. 2. Costs of racial in america inflation. 1. Unemployment can last for a long time. Yet, this period of undoubted prosperity and rising living standards helped to mask a decline in the relative competitiveness of the UK economy. UK economic growth in the 1960s. There were brief dips in output, but these were not sustained. Lack of willingness / ability to innovate Poor industrial relations with a growing number of days lost to strike action.
There was often a break down between owners and application managers and increasingly militant trade unions. Some argue this was exacerbated by Britain's class system. University? Whilst Japanese workers sang company songs with zest and loyalty, British workers were more likely to be working to rule or considering strike action. Barbara Castle as Labour minister tried a moderate reforms of trades unions, through her white paper 'In Place of georgetown essays law optional Strife '. Children Essay On My? However, the application essays, unions effectively lobbied Labour ministers and the reform bill was blocked. Complacency. Some argue that in the post-war period, the UK was affected by complacency of being a global power. This complacency was in stark contrast to the defeated countries of resume 11 form Germany and Japan, who put greater energy into application law optional, business. The UK was also hampered by coming to terms with letting go its Empire and trying to join Europe.
In the 1960s, two applications to join the EEC were vetoed by the French. Useful Phrases? Lack of georgetown essays public sector infrastructure. Burdened by high post-war debt, the UK struggled to invest in new transport and technologies. For example, the UK was still relying on steam trains until the mid 1960s - later than many other countries who made switch to cheaper and of thesis more efficient electricity and diesel. Balance of Payments. In the 1960s, the trade deficit was seen as a vitally important economic statistic, with important politically considerations. Unfortunately, for the Harold Wilson government of the 1960s, the UK trade deficit was embarrassingly large - a result of the decline in competitiveness and a wish to retain a strong pound. Campaigns like 'Buy British' were surprisingly prominent, but, ultimately failed to make any real dent in the trade deficit.
The problem was that if you wanted a car or electrical good that worked - you were much better off buying from overseas. Georgetown Essays? If we made jokes about Skodas and Ladas in the 1980s, British Leyland was the butt of many jokes during 60s and 70s. Despite the economic weaknesses of the 1960s, it was still an era of full employment and rising real wages. Compared to the rest of the Twentieth Century, the 1950s and 60s were a rare period of pupel full employment. In fact, there were serious labour shortages in industries, such as manufacturing and transport, leading to the mass immigration from Commonwealth countries.
Devaluation of 1967. It does not mean that the pound here in Britain, in your pocket or purse or in your bank, has been devalued. Georgetown? (BBC) But, it did cause the price of imports to rise and contribute to rising inflation. Children On My? It was also hoped the devaluation would tackle. Our decision to devalue attacks our problem at georgetown application the root and that is 11 form, why the application essays, international monetary community have rallied round. However, although it proved a temporary boost in competitiveness.
It could not tackle the fundamental issues, such as productivity and college labour relations. After the Second World War, the UK was left with huge debts. National debt as a % of GDP exceeded 200% of GDP in the early 1950s. Britain was reliant on loans from the United States. Despite growth and a steady reduction in debt to GDP during the 1960s, the UK still required US help. The Lawson Boom of the late 1980s. The Lawson boom of the late 1980s was a classic example of a 'boom and bust' economic cycle. The late 1980s were a period of rapid economic expansion.
This was caused by rising house prices, tax cuts, lower interest rates and high confidence. However, the boom caused a rise in inflation and a larger current account deficit. Policies to tackle this inflation caused the recession of 1991-92. Law Optional? The Lawson boom followed from the reasons, recession of 1981. This recession particularly affected the manufacturing sector and caused unemployment to rise to georgetown application law optional, 3 million.
By 1985, unemployment was still over 2.5 million people. However, from 1986 the government made various decisions which helped to inflate the economy causing an inflationary boom. Economic growth in the 1980s. In 1987 as a whole, output grew by getting on for 4? per cent., rather more than the rate of inflation which averaged 4.2 per cent. At the same time, unemployment fell faster than in components any other year since the war, in every region of the country, and more than in application any other major nation. The plain fact is that the British economy has been transformed. Prudent financial policies have given business and industry the on the for attending college, confidence to expand, while supply side reforms have progressively removed the barriers to enterprise. (source) However, this was not the case and application essays economic growth of 4%, led to in america, a growing current account deficit and rising inflation rate.
4. The housing boom. The low-interest rates and the high consumer confidence sparked a housing boom. During the boom years, house prices rose by 300% (and more in places like London). Georgetown Application Essays Law Optional? Q4 1988 was the university supplemental, peak of the boom period with house prices rising over 30% at an annual rate. This boom in house prices caused a rise in household wealth and increased confidence. Equity withdrawal rose to record levels, which helped increase consumer spending. By 1988 and georgetown application law optional 1989, the economy was growing at 5% a year (almost double the long run trend rate) Despite signs of of maryland overheating, the government were reluctant to react.
Interest rates were increased, but not as quickly as they could have. Partly they believed there had been an economic miracle - enabling a higher long run trend rate of economic growth. But, also Nigel Lawson, didn't want higher interest rates to boost the application essays law optional, value of the Pound above the 'unofficial exchange rate' he was following. This was a policy known as shadowing the D-Mark. However, the fast growth meant that inflation started to racial in america essay, creep up, eventually reaching over 8% in 1990. A widening current account deficit in the late 1980s was evidence of the economic boom. High consumer spending led to a rise in import spending causing a deterioration in the current account. It was also in application essays the 1980s, that we saw rapid financial deregulation, which at the time was considered beneficial.
However, the of maryland supplemental essays, financial deregulation of building societies was a factor behind the UK credit crunch of 2008. The Lawson Boom also saw a period of widening inequality - helped by cuts to tax rates for high earners. One interesting outcome of the Lawson Boom was that it encouraged later governments to georgetown application essays, give responsibility of Monetary Policy to the Bank of England. University Of Maryland Supplemental? The argument was that an independent Bank of England would avoid the political pressure to keep interest rates too low to achieve high growth. Related. How does austerity affect the economy?
However, austerity, during a time of economic weakness often leads to further falls in georgetown essays aggregate demand, higher unemployment and lower economic growth. In some cases, austerity to reduce a budget deficit can be self-defeating, with sharp falls in real GDP, causing debt to GDP ratios to continue to rise. However, in certain cases, 'fiscal austerity' can reduce budget deficits without causing negative economic growth. Lower inflation . Spending cuts will tend to lead to lower inflation. Firstly, the fall in aggregate demand (AD) will lead to lower inflationary pressures in the economy. Also, if the government limits public sector wages, this will put downward pressure on wages.
Lower wage growth plays a key role in reducing underlying inflationary pressure. Ireland has been one of more 'successful' countries which has embarked on phrases writing, austerity, but this shows GNP is still significantly below pre -crisis levels (when real GNP was growing at an average rate of close to 5% a year) The UK's budget deficit fell slower than expected. This was partly because growth forecasts proved overly-optimistic. The austerity measures led to a slowdown in essays growth. What determines the impact of racial essay austerity? Exchange rate . Austerity is not as damaging if a country can devalue the exchange rate. This devaluation helps to restore competitiveness much quicker than relying on internal devaluation. The depreciation helps boost export demand. Countries in the Euro, can't devalue and so have to rely solely on georgetown application essays, internal devaluation to restore competitiveness.
Should we worry about national debt? It is worth bearing in mind that in the 1940s, as well as paying for post war reconstruction, the UK set up the university of maryland essays, NHS and welfare state. There was no austerity panic in georgetown law optional the 1940s! The high government debt levels of the 1940s and 1950s were not a barrier to the post war boom years of the 1950s and 1960s which saw record levels of economic growth. An analogy. When I took out a mortgage loan of ?140,000, I was left with mortgage payments of ?800 a month.
In 2004, this was nearly 40% of my income. However, if my income increases by 3% a year. In 20 years time, it will be much easier to pay that mortgage payment of ?800, it will hopefully be 15% of my income. To buy a house, it makes sense to borrow a mortgage and in america essay pay back over 30-40 years. However, although national debt can be effectively managed, there are concerns when debt grows faster than National Income.
For example, in Greece debt to application essays law optional, GDP has risen so quickly that it has proved very difficult to stop the ratio of debt to GDP rising. (partly because spending cuts to reduce the deficit, caused lower GDP) As UK debt rose from 35% of GDP to 80% of GDP. University Of Maryland Essays? Bond yields fell from 5% to 2% In other-words as debt rose, borrowing costs fell. This is because in georgetown application law optional economic downturn, there is greater demand for government bonds. In some cases (such as Eurozone economies) higher levels of public debt pushed up bond yields. Higher bond yields are damaging to the economy. It increases the cost of debt interest payments and is a reflection investors are nervous about the liquidity of government debt.
It forced the economies into components of thesis writing, austerity which caused a prolonged recession. The UK has seen a fall in bond yields during the recession of 2008-12. This is because, in a recession, private sector saving rises. Therefore, there is demand for safe investments, such as government bonds. In a recession, people don't want to take risks, therefore demand for shares and private investment tends to fall. In a recession, government borrowing doesn't tend to cause crowding out.
Government borrowing is merely mopping up private sector saving. Possible reasons to be concerned about government borrowing. However, an georgetown application law optional ageing population can be resolved without just increasing tax on young workers. The retirement age can be increase to keep the pupel, same% of population in workforce. 3. Inflationary Pressure. There is georgetown application essays, a concern that higher levels of useful writing essays national debt can cause inflation. If debt becomes too high, there may be insufficient investors to buy the government securities (the usual way of financing the debt). Therefore, the georgetown law optional, government may be tempted (or forced) to fill the shortfall in revenue by university of maryland, printing money. Printing money and increasing the money supply, will lead to georgetown application essays, inflation. The problem with inflation, is that it devalues the value of bonds, people will sell bonds, leading to higher interest rates on bonds and higher debt interest payments. If investors see inflation is getting out of control, people will not want to resume, hold bonds.
Foreign investors will sell their securities and this will cause a devaluation in the currency. Georgetown Law Optional? This is particularly a problem for the US, where foreign countries hold a high % of the national debt.The hyperinflation of Germany in profiling 1922-23 was caused by the government printing money to finance reparation payments to essays law optional, the allies. However, it should be pointed out, this hyperinflation is of maryland supplemental essays, quite rare and essays only occurs if the resume pupel 11 form, government prints money recklessly without regard to the fundamental economic situation. Quantitative easing in 2009-12 didn't cause inflation in the UK and US. The increase in the monetary base was very large, but the inflationary impact minimal. - Inflation and quantitative easing. 4. Crowding Out . It is argued that if government borrowing increases, it will cause crowding out of the private sector.
If the private sector buy bonds it means the private sector has less funds for georgetown law optional, private sector investment. Also, if borrowing increases, interest rates may rise. Higher interest rates also reduce private sector spending and investment. However, in a recession, crowding out doesn't occur because the private sector want to buy government bonds 5. As National Debt increases as a % of GDP, it means that the interest payments as a % of profiling in america essay GDP may increase. Therefore, higher levels of taxes have to georgetown application law optional, be spent on just financing the national debt. If the government increases debt during a period of economic growth - the higher borrowing is likely to university supplemental essays, crowd out the private sector and lead to a decline in private sector investment. If there is a structural deficit caused by spending commitments which can't be met by tax revenues. If the government responds to georgetown application, higher debt by printing money; this can cause inflation. e.g. case of Zimbabwe, Germany 1920s.
But, note QE of 2008-12, didn't cause inflation in UK and US because of liquidity trap. How to deal with an ageing population. How UK Pension spending as a % of GDP has increased in recent decades.
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Georgetown application essays law optional
Guide to the Classics: Michel de Montaigne’s Essay. Montaigne: his free-ranging essays were almost scandalous in their day. Etienne Dumonstier/Wikimedia Commons. When Michel de Montaigne retired to his family estate in 1572, aged 38, he tells us that he wanted to write his famous Essays as a distraction for his idle mind. He neither wanted nor expected people beyond his circle of friends to be too interested. His Essays’ preface almost warns us off:
Reader, you have here an honest book; … in writing it, I have proposed to myself no other than a domestic and private end. I have had no consideration at all either to georgetown application law optional, your service or to my glory … Thus, reader, I myself am the resume pupel matter of application law optional my book: there’s no reason that you should employ your leisure upon resume pupel so frivolous and georgetown application law optional, vain a subject. Therefore farewell. The ensuing, free-ranging essays, although steeped in classical poetry, history and philosophy, are unquestionably something new in profiling in america, the history of Western thought. They were almost scandalous for their day. No one before Montaigne in the Western canon had thought to essays, devote pages to subjects as diverse and 11 form, seemingly insignificant as “Of Smells”, “Of the Custom of Wearing Clothes”, “Of Posting” (letters, that is), “Of Thumbs” or “Of Sleep” — let alone reflections on the unruliness of the male appendage, a subject which repeatedly concerned him. French philosopher Jacques Ranciere has recently argued that modernism began with the opening up of the mundane, private and ordinary to artistic treatment. Modern art no longer restricts its subject matters to classical myths, biblical tales, the battles and dealings of Princes and prelates.
French philosopher, Jacques Ranciere. Annette Bozorgan/Wikimedia Commons. If Ranciere is right, it could be said that Montaigne’s 107 Essays, each between several hundred words and (in one case) several hundred pages, came close to inventing modernism in the late 16th century. Montaigne frequently apologizes for writing so much about himself. He is only a second rate politician and one-time Mayor of Bourdeaux, after all. With an almost Socratic irony, he tells us most about his own habits of writing in the essays titled “Of Presumption”, “Of Giving the Lie”, “Of Vanity”, and georgetown law optional, “Of Repentance”. But the message of of thesis this latter essay is, quite simply, that non, je ne regrette rien , as a more recent French icon sang:
Were I to live my life over again, I should live it just as I have lived it; I neither complain of the essays past, nor do I fear the university future; and if I am not much deceived, I am the same within that I am without…I have seen the application essays law optional grass, the essay blossom, and the fruit, and now see the withering; happily, however, because naturally. Montaigne’s persistence in assembling his extraordinary dossier of law optional stories, arguments, asides and observations on nearly everything under the sun (from how to parley with an enemy to whether women should be so demure in matters of sex, has been celebrated by admirers in nearly every generation. Within a decade of his death, his Essays had left their mark on Bacon and Shakespeare. He was a hero to the enlighteners Montesquieu and Diderot. Voltaire celebrated Montaigne – a man educated only by his own reading, his father and his childhood tutors – as “the least methodical of all philosophers, but the wisest and most amiable”. Children Essay On My? Nietzsche claimed that the very existence of Montaigne’s Essays added to the joy of living in this world. More recently, Sarah Bakewell’s charming engagement with Montaigne, How to Live or a Life of Montaigne in One Question and georgetown essays law optional, Twenty Attempts at children on my, an Answer (2010) made the best-sellers’ lists.
Even today’s initiatives in teaching philosophy in schools can look back to Montaigne (and his “On the Education of Children”) as a patron saint or sage . So what are these Essays, which Montaigne protested were indistinguishable from georgetown essays law optional their author? (“My book and I go hand in hand together”). It’s a good question. Anyone who tries to read the Essays systematically soon finds themselves overwhelmed by the sheer wealth of pupel examples, anecdotes, digressions and curios Montaigne assembles for our delectation, often without more than the hint of a reason why. To open the book is to venture into a world in which fortune consistently defies expectations; our senses are as uncertain as our understanding is prone to error; opposites turn out very often to be conjoined (“the most universal quality is diversity”); even vice can lead to virtue. Many titles seem to have no direct relation to their contents. Nearly everything our author says in one place is georgetown application law optional qualified, if not overturned, elsewhere.
Without pretending to untangle all of the knots of this “book with a wild and desultory plan”, let me tug here on children essay on my family a couple of Montaigne’s threads to invite and assist new readers to application law optional, find their own way. Philosophy (and writing) as a way of life. Some scholars argued that Montaigne began writing his essays as a want-to-be Stoic, hardening himself against the horrors of the French civil and religious wars, and his grief at the loss of writing essays his best friend Etienne de La Boetie through dysentery. Did Montaigne turn to the Stoic school of philosophy to deal with the horrors of war? Edouard Debat-Ponsan/Wikimedia Commons. Certainly, for Montaigne, as for ancient thinkers led by his favorites, Plutarch and the Roman Stoic Seneca, philosophy was not solely about constructing theoretical systems, writing books and articles. It was what one more recent admirer of Montaigne has called “a way of life”. Montaigne has little time for forms of pedantry that value learning as a means to insulate scholars from the world, rather than opening out onto it. He writes: Either our reason mocks us or it ought to have no other aim but our contentment. We are great fools. ‘He has passed over law optional, his life in racial, idleness,’ we say: ‘I have done nothing today.’ What? have you not lived? that is not only the fundamental, but the most illustrious of all your occupations.
One feature of the Essays is, accordingly, Montaigne’s fascination with the essays daily doings of men like Socrates and Cato the resume Younger; two of those figures revered amongst the ancients as wise men or “sages”. Their wisdom, he suggests, was chiefly evident in georgetown application essays, the lives they led (neither wrote a thing). In particular, it was proven by resume, the nobility each showed in georgetown essays, facing their deaths. Socrates consented serenely to racial profiling essay, taking hemlock, having been sentenced unjustly to death by georgetown, the Athenians. Cato stabbed himself to death after having meditated upon Socrates’ example, in order not to cede to Julius Caesar’s coup d’etat . To achieve such “philosophic” constancy, Montaigne saw, requires a good deal more than book learning. Indeed, everything about our passions and, above all, our imagination, speaks against achieving that perfect tranquillity the classical thinkers saw as the highest philosophical goal. We discharge our hopes and fears, very often, on university supplemental essays the wrong objects, Montaigne notes, in georgetown application, an observation that anticipates the thinking of Freud and modern psychology. Always, these emotions dwell on writing things we cannot presently change. Georgetown Essays? Sometimes, they inhibit our ability to see and deal in useful phrases, a supple way with the georgetown essays changing demands of life.
Philosophy, in this classical view, involves a retraining of our ways of thinking, seeing and being in supplemental, the world. Montaigne’s earlier essay “To philosophise is to learn how to die” is perhaps the application essays clearest exemplar of his indebtedness to this ancient idea of philosophy. Yet there is a strong sense in which all of the Essays are a form of components of thesis what one 20th century author has dubbed “self-writing”: an ethical exercise to “strengthen and enlighten” Montaigne’s own judgement, as much as that of essays law optional we readers: And though nobody should read me, have I wasted time in entertaining myself so many idle hours in so pleasing and useful thoughts? … I have no more made my book than my book has made me: it is a book consubstantial with the author, of a peculiar design, a parcel of of thesis writing my life… As for the seeming disorder of the application law optional product, and Montaigne’s frequent claims that he is children essay playing the fool, this is essays arguably one more feature of the components of thesis Essays that reflects his Socratic irony. Montaigne wants to leave us with some work to do and scope to find our own paths through the labyrinth of essays law optional his thoughts, or alternatively, to bobble about on their diverting surfaces. Yet Montaigne’s Essays, for all of their classicism and essay family, their idiosyncrasies, are rightly numbered as one of the founding texts of modern thought. Georgetown? Their author keeps his own prerogatives, even as he bows deferentially before the altars of ancient heroes like Socrates, Cato, Alexander the components of thesis writing Great or the Theban general Epaminondas.
There is a good deal of the Christian, Augustinian legacy in Montaigne’s makeup. And of georgetown essays all the philosophers, he most frequently echoes ancient sceptics like Pyrrho or Carneades who argued that we can know almost nothing with certainty. This is especially true concerning the “ultimate questions” the Catholics and for attending, Huguenots of Montaigne’s day were bloodily contesting. Michel de Montaigne. Wikimedia Commons. Writing in a time of cruel sectarian violence, Montaigne is unconvinced by the ageless claim that having a dogmatic faith is necessary or especially effective in assisting people to love their neighbors: Between ourselves, I have ever observed supercelestial opinions and subterranean manners to be of singular accord… This scepticism applies as much to the pagan ideal of a perfected philosophical sage as it does to essays, theological speculations. Socrates’ constancy before death, Montaigne concludes, was simply too demanding for most people, almost superhuman. As for family, Cato’s proud suicide, Montaigne takes liberty to doubt whether it was as much the georgetown law optional product of racial in america essay Stoic tranquility, as of a singular turn of mind that could take pleasure in law optional, such extreme virtue. Indeed when it comes to his essays “Of Moderation” or “Of Virtue”, Montaigne quietly breaks the ancient mold.
Instead of celebrating the feats of the world’s Catos or Alexanders, here he lists example after example of people moved by their sense of transcendent self-righteousness to acts of racial profiling in america murderous or suicidal excess. Even virtue can become vicious, these essays imply, unless we know how to georgetown application law optional, moderate our own presumptions. If there is one form of argument Montaigne uses most often, it is the useful phrases essays sceptical argument drawing on the disagreement amongst even the georgetown essays law optional wisest authorities. If human beings could know if, say, the soul was immortal, with or without the body, or dissolved when we die…then the wisest people would all have come to the same conclusions by now, the argument goes. On My? Yet even the application “most knowing” authorities disagree about such things, Montaigne delights in showing us. The existence of such “an infinite confusion” of opinions and customs ceases to be the problem, for Montaigne. It points the way to a new kind of solution, and could in fact enlighten us. Documenting such manifold differences between customs and essay reasons for attending, opinions is, for him, an education in law optional, humility: Manners and opinions contrary to mine do not so much displease as instruct me; nor so much make me proud as they humble me. His essay “Of Cannibals” for instance, presents all of the different aspects of essay on my American Indian culture, as known to Montaigne through travellers’ reports then filtering back into law optional Europe. For the most part, he finds these “savages’” society ethically equal, if not far superior, to that of war-torn France’s — a perspective that Voltaire and Rousseau would echo nearly 200 years later.
We are horrified at the prospect of profiling eating our ancestors. Yet Montaigne imagines that from the Indians’ perspective, Western practices of cremating our deceased, or burying their bodies to be devoured by the worms must seem every bit as callous. And while we are at it, Montaigne adds that consuming people after they are dead seems a good deal less cruel and inhumane than torturing folk we don’t even know are guilty of any crime whilst they are still alive… Voltaire celebrated Montaigne as one of the wisest and most amiable philosophers. Nicolas de Largillierre/Wikimedia Commons. “So what is application left then?”, the of thesis writing reader might ask, as Montaigne undermines one presumption after another, and piles up exceptions like they had become the only rule. A very great deal , is the answer. Georgetown Application Essays Law Optional? With metaphysics, theology, and the feats of godlike sages all under a “suspension of judgment”, we become witnesses as we read the Essays to a key document in useful phrases, the modern revaluation and valorization of everyday life. There is, for instance, Montaigne’s scandalously demotic habit of interlacing words, stories and actions from georgetown application law optional his neighbors, the local peasants (and peasant women) with examples from the greats of children essay on my family Christian and pagan history. As he writes: I have known in my time a hundred artisans, a hundred laborers, wiser and georgetown essays law optional, more happy than the rectors of the university, and whom I had much rather have resembled.
By the end of the racial in america Essays, Montaigne has begun openly to suggest that, if tranquillity, constancy, bravery, and honor are the goals the wise hold up for us, they can all be seen in georgetown essays law optional, much greater abundance amongst the salt of the earth than amongst the rich and famous: I propose a life ordinary and for attending college, without lustre: ‘tis all one…To enter a breach, conduct an embassy, govern a people, are actions of georgetown renown; to…laugh, sell, pay, love, hate, and gently and justly converse with our own families and with ourselves…not to give our selves the lie, that is on the reasons rarer, more difficult and less remarkable… And so we arrive with these last Essays at a sentiment better known today from law optional another philosopher, Friedrich Nietzsche, the author of A Gay Science (1882) . Montaigne’s closing essays repeat the useful phrases essays avowal that: “I love a gay and civil wisdom…” But in contrast to his later Germanic admirer, the music here is less Wagner or Beethoven than it is application Mozart (as it were), and Montaigne’s spirit much less agonized than gently serene. It was Voltaire, again, who said that life is a tragedy for those who feel, and a comedy for those who think. Montaigne adopts and admires the comic perspective. As he writes in components of thesis writing, “Of Experience”: It is not of much use to go upon stilts, for, when upon stilts, we must still walk with our legs; and when seated upon the most elevated throne in georgetown application law optional, the world, we are still perched on our own bums. Matthew Sharpe is an Associate Professor in family, Philosophy at Deakin University. This article was originally published on The Conversation.
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