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Black matters toni morrison essay Baldwin comparative critical essay

Black matters toni morrison essay

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Black matters toni morrison essay Baldwin comparative critical essay

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How to Write a Cover Letter 40+ Free Templates. Writing a smart cover letter can get your foot in the door, even if you have a weak resume. This guide will help you to write the best letter possible. Cover Letter Examples. Professionally-written cover letter samples. Cover Letter Designs. Beautifully arranged cover letter designs. Cover Letter Builder. Create your cover letter in 15 minutes. How to black toni morrison, Write a Resume.

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Our Cover Letter Checklist. Cover letters are one page documents that you send with your resume when applying for a job. It is meant to: Introduce yourself to opinion, the hiring manager. Argue why you’d be a good fit for black matters toni essay the job Fill in places your resume cannot describe Further explain other aspects of your resume. By hitting those 4 aspects, your letter can be a convincing and powerful companion to a well-written resume. If you want to writing, see how a cover letter in your field should be written, then browse through our cover letter example library.

To begin, include both the black matters morrison essay, employer’s and your contact information. See the narrative essay, example below: While the example above demonstrates the toni essay, information you need to include in the section, there are various ways to study case, format it. Check out the black matters toni morrison, cover letter designs below to division, get more ideas on how you can structure this section. No spelling or grammar errors! This one really goes without saying. Matters Toni Morrison. Spelling mistakes make an awful first impression. Put yourself in division or analysis essay, the hiring manager’s shoes for matters a second. Master. Would you like to be addressed as “Dear Sir or Madame?” or “To whom it may concern?” “Dear Sir or Madame” makes you sound like you’re from the year 1865, and “to whom it may concern” is very irritating to black morrison essay, hiring managers. You can easily avoid this problem by doing your research.

Look through the company’s website, LinkedIn, or even give the study case, company a call to ask for the hiring manager’s name. Even if you get it wrong, it still looks like you’ve made an effort. In the black morrison, first paragraph, begin by telling the employer the position you are applying for and how you learned about the opportunity. The rest of this paragraph should briefly present basic info about yourself, including: degree, area of in europe study/expertise, and your career goals in terms of morrison essay how they align with the goals of the company. The second paragraph should respond directly to the job description written by the hiring manager. Describe how your previous job experiences, skills, and master abilities will allow you to meet the toni, company’s needs.

To make that easier, you can (and should) literally include words and phrases from the study case, job description in your cover letters. No bombast! The rule of thumb is that you’re allowed to be as boastful as you want – so long as you have the toni morrison, evidence to division or analysis essay, back it up ! To go the extra mile, do some research about the company, and try to find out what they are doing — and why — given the current state of their industry. In a third paragraph, explain how you can fit into that schema, and help push the company forward and achieve any goals you suspect they may have. The final paragraph is called the “call to action.” Inform them that you’d love to get interviewed. Tell them that you’ll be in contact with them in a week if you don’t hear back. Matters Toni Morrison Essay. Thank them for spending the time to read your letter.

Aside from the study case, content on the page, the actual look and feel of the document is also an important aspect of the black essay, your letter. Mfa Creative Programs. Elements such as margins, font size and style, and alignment all factor in to the hiring manager’s overall impression of you. Here are a few quick tips when styling your own: 1” – 1.5” margins are always a safe bet. If you are having trouble fitting everything on one page, there is some wiggle room, but be careful not to make the content look crammed together.

Don’t go below a 12-point font unless absolutely necessary. Anything below 12 can strain the eyes. Font style is really a matter of preference. Try to choose one that looks professional or that matches what the employer uses on their website. Keep in mind that different styles will change the matters toni, size of the font. Maintain a uniform alignment throughout. We suggest keeping all paragraphs left-aligned. Formatting For Applicant Tracking Systems.

If you don’t know what an ATS is, you absolutely must read up on it before sending in your next job application. Applicant tracking systems are mostly designed to read through resumes, sifting through keywords and key-phrases to statistically determine whether to let you through to the next stage. 70% of jobs are filled via an analysis essay college, applicant tracking system. Some ATS software is designed to read through letters as well, while others are not. You might as well be completely prepared. The good news is that simply by following the instructions we’ve written above, your letter should already be in good shape.

If you’ve responded directly to the hiring manager’s job description, and included language from it in black matters morrison essay, your own your letter, you already have a high likelihood of hitting statistically important keywords and phrases. Yes, someone will read it. Will they read it carefully? It depends on the hiring manager. Some use the writing in europe, letters to “weed out” candidates out of black toni morrison a huge stack, while others believe that the candidate’s interview skills are more important. Either way, you’re going to need to write a strong letter, in order to give yourself a higher chance of master getting a job. Winning Cover Letter Templates for All – Copy, Paste, Fill in the Blank. Simply click the black morrison essay, section that best reflects your current life situation and work experience, then choose the of thesis writing, “tone” of cover letter that best suits your personality. Before you start – 5 tips for filling in these template letters:

In our templates, you’ll be filling in the blanks that look like [this]. Here’s some help for filling in these trickier ones: [insert positive trait] – here’s a list of black matters toni positive traits you can use to describe yourself [insert 1-3 soft skills] – here’s a list of you write a personal narrative essay soft skills you can use to describe your abilities [insert 1-3 hard professional skills] – our cover letter samples or resume by industry pages should help you brainstorm [insert GPA] – only matters morrison, insert if your GPA is above a 3.5 [insert your degree] – style it this way, including the essay rubric, parentheses – (BS Engineering) My name is [your name]. Black Matters Toni Morrison Essay. I am thrilled to you write, be applying for the [position] role in black matters toni, your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for an enthusiastic applicant that can be relied upon to fully engage with the role and develop professionally in a self-motivated manner. Division Essay. Given these requirements, I believe I am the perfect candidate for toni essay the job. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and peers. While working on programs in europe, academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to leverage into the [name of open position] role at your company.

After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of positive and driven candidate that you are looking for. I am excited to elaborate on how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to essay, arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon. Confident (Authoritative) Tone. My name is [your name]. Thank you for master thesis opinion the opportunity to apply for the [position] role at your company.

After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for a candidate that is black matters morrison, extremely familiar with the responsibilities associated with the role, and a personal narrative essay can perform them confidently. Given these requirements, I am certain that I have the necessary skills to successfully do the job adeptly and perform above expectations. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by toni essay, my teachers and how do peers. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of black matters toni morrison essay competent and competitive candidate you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization.

Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to how do you write essay, arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from black matters you soon. My name is [your name]. I’m grateful for the opportunity to apply for writing the open [position] role at your company. After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for a versatile candidate to handle the matters essay, numerous and varied responsibilities associated with this role. Given these requirements, I am certain that I can meet and exceed all expectations. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and programs peers. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of skilled and resourceful candidate you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how my varied skillsets and abilities will benefit your organization.

Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to black matters, hearing from you soon. My name is [your name]. Please accept my application for you write the open [position] role at your company. After reviewing your job description, I believe that I have the necessary skills and abilities to fill the essay, role. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student [insert GPA] who has been consistently praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and you write a personal narrative peers. Matters Toni Morrison. While working on academic and extracurricular projects, I have developed proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I can leverage into the [position] role at your company. After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the components of thesis writing, type of competent and reliable candidate that you are looking for. I look forward to elaborating on how I can help benefit your organization, and assist your business achieve its goals. Please contact me at [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from you soon.

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After reviewing my resume, I hope you will agree that I am the type of positive and of thesis writing driven candidate that you are looking for. I am excited to elaborate on how my specific skills and abilities will benefit your organization. Matters Morrison Essay. Please contact me at of thesis writing [PHONE] or via email at [EMAIL] to matters toni morrison essay, arrange for a convenient meeting time. Thank you for study case your consideration, and I look forward to hearing from matters morrison you soon. My name is division or analysis essay, [your name]. Thank you for the opportunity to apply for the [position] role at your company.

After reviewing your job description, it’s clear that you’re looking for a candidate that is extremely familiar with the responsibilities associated with the role, and toni can perform them confidently. Given these requirements, I am certain that I have the necessary skills to successfully do the master opinion, job adeptly and perform above expectations. I am a [insert positive trait] high school student ([insert GPA]) who has consistently been praised as [insert positive trait] by my teachers and managers. During the course of my academic career, I also managed to toni, accrue nearly [# of months/years of experience] of essay college work experience. I had the privilege of working for morrison [your current company’s name] in a [your current job title] role in my free time, where I learned valuable professional skills such as [insert 1-3 hard professional skills]. Whether working on essay rubric, academic, extracurricular, or professional projects, I apply proven [insert 1-3 soft skills] skills, which I hope to leverage into the [position] role at your company.

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Can they go on the Resume or do I need a separate sheet for those? References should NOT be included on your resume — nor should you write “References Available Upon Request” on your resume. The hiring manager will request that information from you at a later date if they are interested in doing so. (Note: If the employer ASKS you to include references with your application, obviously you should do that.) Thanks for your question! This has given me a better understanding in the resume field!

Glad we could help! Good luck on the job hunt! thanks. you have explained clearly what i need to black essay, do. We are glad that the article could help! I just applied for a $14/hr job on Indeed. Components Of Thesis Writing. After 6 years of matters morrison essay working for the same company for $10/hr…. I’m praying this cover letter is enough to land me the job. I converted the opinion, “Sales Cover Letter” into a “Warehouse Manager” cover letter. Of course I tweaked it to my specifications and needs… but it turned out to be one professional piece of black toni morrison essay work when I was finished. I can’t thank you all enough for this posting.

I’ll be back to update if I land the job. We are happy to hear that as well! Hope to hear back from you soon. Keep us updated throughout the process and let us know if you have any interview questions. Best luck on your job hunt! This was definitely helpful. Recently I came across a job opening and they had asked for a cover letter. I had no damn idea what a cover letter was. You Write. Googled it.. nd came here.. im thankfull to you.. #128578; We are glad that we were able to help you with your cover letter.

We hope you get the interview! I have a significant gap in full-time employment. I need to create a cover letter that can briefly explain that gap. The template of a mother returning to work won’t cut it, IMO. Do you have a template that matches my needs?

Thanks in advance #128578; We regret that you weren’t able to find what you were looking for. Matters. The stay at home mom resume is one of our most popular and has received a lot of thesis positive feedback. We suggest that you check out our resume formats page: https://resumegenius.com/resume/resume-formats. You may want to matters toni morrison essay, consider using functional format to help cover up your work gaps.

If you still need help, you may also want to consider signing for a subscription with us. We offer the “Ask The Expert” service, which gives you access to you write a personal narrative, a professional resume writer. Good luck on toni essay, the job hunt! Hello I am applying for flight attendant position, but I have never worked in this position before. What title I need to put in the header of the resume? Our flight attendant sample has all the how do a personal, information you need to write your own resume. (https://resumegenius.com/resume/flight-attendant-resume-sample). Black Morrison Essay. Good luck on the job hunt! I only have volunteer work how do I put that in a resume ? thanks you. Check out our “How to Write a Resume” writing guide. (https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume) It should be helpful in answering your question. Very true and informative.

Just googled it and division or analysis essay no doubt remains now. Black Essay. Cover letter will be easy for me now. Glad you found our cover letter guide useful. Let us know if you have any additional questions. Good luck on you write a personal narrative essay, the job hunt!

This was helpful. is it same for black matters Student / Entry Level Cover Letter and programs Internship cover letter? We are glad you found our cover letter page useful. As far as your question goes, the black, student cover letter above could be reworked for study case an internship application. Please let us know if you have any other questions. This helped me so much, I’ve never written a cover letter before. Thank you so much RG! We are glad that the information is helpful! Please feel free to read other related articles and black matters toni let us know if you have any questions. Hey please i want to how do you write narrative, apply for a post of an armorer in the ministry of defense in our country advertised in the dailies. It wants people with high school education and i basically have that. Please lead me through…

We will need more information regarding the job posting as well as your background to lead you. Hi! Do you have cover letter samples to black matters essay, apply as a job intern? Not currently, but it is on our list of writing samples to add. For now, our student sample above should be helpful in giving you some ideas on how to format your own. Thanks a lot RG this was very helpful. Black Matters Toni Essay. Before today I have never done a one, now I have confidence with putting together a cover letter. How Do You Write Narrative. One small question though, what should I name the cover letter? We are glad that you found our cover letter resources helpful. You can simply name your it “Deitric (last name)’s Cover Letter.” That way, it will be easier for the employer to spot as they go through all the applicants in their inbox. Good luck on the job hunt!

Hi! I have never written a cover letter before and would like to apply to toni, a “work from master home” job–but, have no idea how to toni morrison, write it. Please help! We have plenty of industry-specific samples above. Find your industry and get a few detailed tips on how to structure your own cover letter. RG I must say this helps me a lot. Not sure if I could master it but this would definitely help. Thank you so much for making my day 3. We are really glad to hear that and thank you for your support. Please let us know if you have any question. I remain stumped as to how to master, address a cover letter in matters toni, response to a job advertisement that gives neither the company name nor the name of the person in charge of hiring.

This is essay rubric, true of many job postings on Craigslist, for black toni morrison example. I dislike “To Whom It May Concern”, but what other greeting would you recommend? Many job seekers also run into division or analysis essay this issue. When the posting doesn’t include a name of the company or hiring manager, try copying some of the black matters essay, job description and searching for it on Google. You may find the job ad with the names included. If this doesn’t work, then it is acceptable to address the mfa creative writing, cover letter with “Dear Hiring Manager.” Good luck on the job hunt, I normally just put Dear Hiring Manager. Black Matters. I’ve had issues where you call and there are multiple people who do the hiring, so I don’t know who will be doing my interview until the day I have my interview.

If I ask the mfa creative programs, employee there like, “Oh I’m not sure.” I’m going to forward this to a client of mine I was just talking to him about this. Now he’ll know that I’m not just trying to make his life miserable. Great! We hope they find our resources helpful. I have done my resume and black matters now I’m preparing myself to do CL, but I have problem with it, because everything is writing, wrote in resume – especialy introduction. It would be the best if I could copy my introduction from resume to CL, because there is black matters, almost the same to opinion, write. please advise. Some of the matters toni morrison essay, contents from you write a personal essay your resume intro should be used in you CL, but should not simply be copied.

If you read the black matters toni morrison essay, above guide and download the template pack, you will learn exactly what information should be included. Also, be sure to check out our CL samples to give you a better idea on how you can word your cover letter. Good luck on study case, the job hunt! I am trying to write a cover letter for a managerial position in the hospitality field. Black Matters Toni Morrison Essay. However, I do not see any examples. We are in essay rubric, the process of adding new cover letter samples and have included your suggestion in the list. In the black matters toni morrison essay, meantime, follow the guide above and writing in europe download one of black matters toni morrison cover letter templates. Good luck on the job hunt! Basically, a cover letter is college, a letter of introduction.

Usually I state the name of the position I’m applying for and why I am qualified for black matters toni morrison the position. At the end of the letter, I’ll write something like “If you have any questions or to schedule an appointment for an interview, please contact me at master opinion ***-**-****.” Then double space and type “Sincerely” and then space 4 times and type your name. You’ll be signing in the space above your typed name. This has been most helpful. GBU. Glad you liked it. Share it with you your friends. GBU, too! I am working on a resume for an experienced welder, One of the requirements is a valid drivers license, which I do not possess at black this time , but if I was hired, I could pay the traffic fine and get my license back with my first paycheck. Should I explain this on my resume or by telephone or in person or not at mall.

In all honesty, your best bet is to find a way to study case, pay the traffic fine and get you license back before applying for the position. Thanks for toni essay the advice. I was thinking that very thing or appearing at traffic court and setting up a payment plan which would clear the analysis essay college rubric, way for a re issue. All about the money. which I happen to be in short supply of. Thanks again. We know the struggle.

Hang in there brother! Try add figures that will impress an employer and that pertain to the position you are applying for. Black Morrison Essay. Best of luck! I live in Thailand and odd numbers here are auspicious so it probably won’t hurt to throw some of them in. I’m still not sure what you all are referring to with bullet point ‘numbers’.

Can someone explain? Thank you. thank you so much RG you really shade light on cover letters, i was clueless wat it was so mostly i would ignore it and send my applications without one from today i will do thngs differently. Download our cover letter template pack and use the tips written above. That should get you started. Division Essay. Best of luck! How to address gaps in employment. Matters Morrison. My mom passed away unexpectedly in mfa creative programs, 2005.

I was incapacitated by toni morrison, depression and unable to work from study case 2005-2008. Got a job in 2008 was employed until 2012 when I had a baby. Black Toni Morrison Essay. i have been a stay at how do narrative home mom. Ready to go back to work again. Matters Essay. How do I address the gaps when posting my resume on job resource sites? I have spent the thesis, past six months working reworking my resume. Black Matters. I’ve searched hundreds of thesis resume websites; Resme Genius is, by far, the best. Would appreciate any advice. Thanks for the kind words. Black Matters Toni Essay. One of the easiest ways to mask your work gaps is to use a functional format: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Give it a try and master thesis opinion see what you think.

Good luck on the job hunt! How do explain a reason for essay leaving a company when you hate your job/employer, more management than the job itself. We always recommend not to burn any bridges with former employers and to master thesis, leave on black matters, a positive note. Master. So in that case, we suggest that you explain that you are looking for an opportunity in a new industry or a different position. Toni. Although it may sting, make sure to also thank management for the opportunity you were given.

Good luck! Struggling with how to address a cover letter for mfa creative a summer internship. I’m not applying for a posted internship, just going to show up at an organization that my school advisor suggested I reach out to. I have no idea who I’ll be giving my cover letter to, but I don’t want to say “dear hiring manager” because technically they wouldn’t be hiring me… right? Aside from that, this guide was still very helpful. We’re glad that you found our advice helpful. In your case, “Dear Hiring Manager” or “Dear Madam or Sir” would be appropriate. Good luck! So i have been asked to email my salary requirements, Here is my situation though, I previously worked with this company in the same exact role.

I left for another job opportunity ( which built my skill set and essay experience) about a year ago this month. Study Case. They have asked me to come back and fill that position again. How do I compose a salary requirement. In this situation you have the leverage, so it would be fair to ask for toni morrison essay 10-20% more than you were paid before. The skills and experience you gained over the last year make you more valuable than you were before. Good luck! Hi, I am trying to help a friend who is looking to of thesis writing, move into a completely different line of work, he has only had 1 job since high school, which has nothing to black toni, do with what he really wants to do. How do you approach that in a cover letter, since he has no experience in the field? Your friend will have to discuss their general skills or traits that are relevant to the job. I just turned 62 and want to retire from my current job, but not ready to retire.

Any suggestions on how to “put my best foot forward” when applying for study case a new position in an industry I’ve never worked in matters toni, before? When applying for a position in an industry that you’ve never worked in study case, before, the first thing you should do is come up with a list of the relevant skills that you can transfer over to that industry. From there, you can work on morrison essay, ‘selling’ those particular skills in your cover letter and or analysis resume. Essay. Good luck! So glad I stumbled upon study case this.

Glad you found it helpful! I’m applying for a new job but the matters essay, mining company has different projects. Would I have the company’s address or the project site address? We recommend that you use the study case, address that the cover letter is black morrison, being sent to. If you are not sure, then use the company’s address. Good luck! Some cover letter here have helped me move on to another level. Through this i had to division or analysis, pay bills for my ailing child . Thanks you have been of great help through the way to write a winning cover letter. Great information!

My question is I have been out of the work force for black toni morrison about a year and a half due to birthing children and components of thesis staying home for them. Morrison Essay. I am wondering if this is something i should include on my CL to study case, explain my gap in work history or is this information to black matters morrison essay, personal to include? Great question! If your work gap is longer than a couple of months, then you should certainly include an explanation in your cover letter. Don’t spend more than 1-2 sentences on components, your explanation though. Remember that you want to keep the focus of your cover letter on your experience and qualifications. You can say something like “After taking some time at home with my family,” then express how excited and enthusiastic you are to return to the work force and how this position is exactly what convinced you that now is the time to do so.

You can use that phrase for maternity leave, or caring for older family members, or even your own issues. Shoot, you can use that even when you didn’t choose to take a break, so to speak. Good luck! I’m a college dropout and I couldn’t decide on black matters morrison essay, which template to opinion, use for my cover letter. I quit school during my sophomore year.

We suggest using the ‘Non-Student’ templates. If your college experience is relevant to the job you are applying for, you might consider including it your cover letter. Best of luck on the job hunt! Thank you Resume Genius! what if there is no job description given? how do you start of with the cover application in black morrison, such a scenario? Even without a job description you can still follow the template above. Look up job descriptions for the same position from other companies to get an idea of what the employers is looking for.

Unless requested in the job ad, leave your salary requirements off your cover letter. Writing. Good Luck! Fair point – it’s always good to be careful when sending out matters toni personal information. Thanks for the suggestion! Share How to opinion, Write a Cover Letter #038; 40+ Free Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today’s competitive job market. Black Morrison. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to MS Word and master PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox.

By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. Play the black morrison, One-Minute Game That’ll Show You How to Improve Your Resume. Think you can judge the quality of a resume within 6 seconds? The answer may surprise you. Put your skills to the test, and learn how to essay college rubric, make your resume 6 second worthy! 3 Reasons Why I Wouldn't Hire Tom Brady. Tom Brady’s resume is a couple yards short of a touchdown. There are tons of errors throughout.

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Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to toni morrison, introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in today's competitive job market. HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to study case, choose from, and morrison essay easily export to MS Word and PDF.

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A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. Black Matters? This page will provide you with an overview of APA citation format. Components Writing? Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for black matters toni morrison, each source type, and other helpful information related to APA. If you’re looking for MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the essay college rubric site. Being Responsible While Researching. When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way.

This involves indicating that the work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the black morrison essay act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and of thesis there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project. Want to make these citations quickly and easily?

Try our APA citation machine which is morrison, found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to make citations in APA style. Components Of Thesis? There are two types of matters toni essay APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into how do you write a personal essay your own project. If you don’t use the information from another source word for black matters toni morrison, word in your assignment, but you paraphrase it in mfa creative your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of matters APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page. Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to how do you write narrative help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different.

In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process. When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for black matters essay, individuals in the psychology field. With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related.

APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to create citations. This citation format is used by individuals not only in the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for more information.

APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of writing information about a source, in black a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at a few different pieces of research and determine the types of master opinion sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and toni essay other critical pieces of information needed to essay rubric understand a source. Black Essay? Click here to learn more about division why the matters toni morrison essay American Psychological Association created APA.

APA Style is analysis essay college, currently in its 6th edition, which was released in matters essay 2009. In previous versions of study case APA format, researchers and black matters toni morrison essay scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to division or analysis essay include the date of access as well as the name of the database in an APA citation. The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in the citation. In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. Toni? This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources. There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations.

In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to learn more about how to format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here.

The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the proper format for components writing, the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from another source and include it in their own research projects. This is done for matters toni, many reasons. Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for something in your research project.

When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an components, in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the toni morrison exact words from another source and study case placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from black matters toni morrison another source and rephrase it, in your own words. When simply referring to mfa creative another piece of information from another source, also include an in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. Black Essay? This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. Opinion? And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport.

The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in black matters essay their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to master thesis a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for black matters morrison, these sources can be found on you write a personal narrative essay the last part of black matters morrison essay a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on Citation Machine.

Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. Essay? As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for black matters morrison essay, all of the in-text citations found in the body of a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. The format for APA reference citations varies based on the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published). Title . Retrieved from URL.

Learn more about each component of the reference citation and how to components of thesis writing format it in the sections that follow. Black Essay? The names of authors are written in reverse order. Division Or Analysis Essay? Include the initials for the first and middle names. Morrison? End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on a source, write them in the order in which they appear on analysis rubric the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M. Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Essay? Roberts, A., Johnson, M. Components Of Thesis Writing? C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Toni Essay? Lopez, G. S. If you plan on programs using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the matters toni morrison essay names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the study case author’s name is the date the source was published. Include the full date for newspapers, the month and year for magazine articles, and matters toni morrison essay only the year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on master thesis opinion the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder.

The Philadelphia Inquirer . If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. Black Matters Morrison? When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only study case, capitalize the first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle. Toni Essay? Names of people, places, organizations, and or analysis essay other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Jekyll and matters morrison Mr. Hyde.

Roots: The saga of an how do a personal narrative essay, American family. For articles and chapters in matters morrison essay APA referencing, do not italicize the analysis essay rubric title. Wake up the nation: Public libraries, policy making, and political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and toni morrison other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks.

In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not. Here’s a good general rule for opinion, APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the title in matters essay italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of master thesis a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in matters essay books, and a personal essay articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title.

If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to include additional information about the source type, include this information in black matters essay brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. Of Thesis Writing? (Director). Toni Essay? (1993). Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. Components Of Thesis Writing? USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the black matters toni morrison essay title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the city and country, of the mfa creative programs publisher’s location. Instead of matters morrison essay typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States.

After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is not necessary to include the entire name of the publisher. It is mfa creative writing programs in europe, acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Toni Morrison? Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and writing others can be omitted. For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the title in black matters an APA citation.

The volume number is listed first, by itself, in opinion italics. The issue number is in parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Black Toni Morrison? Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. Rubric? (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in toni essay adult education. Educational Research and writing in europe Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation.

After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson. New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more.

For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for black morrison essay, journal articles and other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is of thesis writing, assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of toni morrison its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. Essay? - It is matters toni morrison, not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the thesis source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases. When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the toni morrison essay online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources.

Author Last name, F. I. Programs? (Year Published). Title of work . Toni? Location: Publisher. Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date). Study Case? Title . Location: Publisher. Black Matters Toni Morrison? Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.

Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . Farnham, England: Ashgate. When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Mfa Creative In Europe? Chapter title.

In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx). Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Black Toni? Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Thesis? Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO.

APA reference Structure for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Black Toni Morrison Essay? Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from how do a personal narrative http://xxxx. Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to the structural chemistry of zeolites. In S. Black Matters Essay? Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of division zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com.

If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. Black Matters Morrison? (2007). The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from mfa creative http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published).

Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on matters “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab. Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published).

Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Study Case? Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. Black Matters Toni Essay? R. (2013). The forum: The decline of study case war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is essay, found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the how do you write a personal URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet.

This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for matters toni morrison, online sources. A retrieval date is division, only necessary if the essay source is likely to change (ex. Master Thesis Opinion? Wikipedia). Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is black matters morrison, used.

Author Last name, F. I. Study Case? (Year Published). Title of article. Toni Morrison? Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. (2009). Sequential processing of writing lexical, grammatical, and black matters essay phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for you. Master Thesis? Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to matters toni morrison essay include the study case date of access for electronic sources.

Author, F. I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article. Title of Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on morrison essay a database. Author, F. Master? I. (Year, Month Date Published).

Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from toni morrison newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. Study Case? (2004, August 31). Black Morrison Essay? College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Study Case? Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article.

Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post).

Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). EasyBib joins the Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and matters toni essay video blogs.

Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for study case, you. Writer Last Name, F. Black Matters Toni Morrison? I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of study case episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. Black Matters Morrison? I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014).

Chapter 18 [Television series episode]. In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. Study Case? I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. (Director). (Year Released). Title of black toni film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.

Bender, L. Thesis Opinion? (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is matters toni morrison, highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of how do you write a personal narrative source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation. Matters Morrison Essay? However, here is an example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films.

If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the how do you write essay form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and full reference citations for you. Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by First initial. Middle initial.

Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium]. Black Matters? Retrieved from URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file].

Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. Analysis Essay Rubric? If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings. Essay? Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). Essay College? English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F). On our APA citation machine, there is a form for toni, dissertations that will cite this source type for you.

Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). You Write Narrative Essay? Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. (Producer). (2016, February 11). History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts. If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from morrison essay URL. Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. (2014, April 10).

Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos. Looking for a source type that is not on components this guide? Here is another useful link to follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is a field at the bottom of each form to matters essay add your own annotations.

Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to Citation Machine’s homepage and thesis opinion choose “Title Page” at black morrison, the top of the study case screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an black, e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction. A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject.

A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos. Copyright © 2000 - 2017 by Citation Machine™, a Chegg Service. Citation Machine™ uses the 7th ed. of mfa creative in europe MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and black matters 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed.

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Black matters: Toni Morrison is the new Nobel laureate for literature

essay augustus game An Online Encyclopedia of toni morrison Roman Rulers. Despite vanquishing his opponents in the long series of civil wars 49-45 BC, Caesar did little to address the underlying ills of the study case, Republic. His concerns were first and foremost the defeat in the field of matters essay his political opponents. Essay? During these years, and toni morrison, following his final victory, he was content to maintain control by a combination of the consulship and the revived, albeit reviled, dictatorship. Extensive and excessive honors of all sorts were also voted to Caesar by a sycophantic senate: he refused none, save attempts to opinion, crown him king. Nevertheless, his broad disregard for tradition and precedent, and the general air of arrogance and high-handedness that marked Caesar's dealings with his peers, made him appear Rome's king in all but name.

To be sure, he passed various items of legislation dealing with immediate problems (for instance, debt relief or the black morrison essay, calendar), but he made no serious effort to systematize his position or tackle the issues that had generated the Roman Revolution in opinion the first place. In fact, in the last months of his life he was planning to leave Rome for essay several years to campaign against the Parthians in the East. That the cabal of how do you write narrative essay nobles who conspired to kill Caesar included disaffected members of his own party constitutes stark testimony as to the effects of Caesar's tactlessness. On 15 March, 44 BC C. Julius Caesar, dictator for life, was surrounded by the conspirators at a meeting of the black matters morrison essay, senate and cut down with twenty-three stab wounds. He died at the foot of a statue of his great rival, Pompey.

The senatorial Liberators, covered in blood and brandishing their daggers, rushed out to accept the gratitude of the liberated. They met with a somewhat different reception. The people had loved Caesar, even if his recent behavior had been disappointing [[3]] . The Liberators, who were led by study case L. Cassius Longinus and M. Junius Brutus, held public meetings in the Forum, but the reaction of the people was equivocal at best. The senate, meeting on March 17, vacillated and declared an amnesty for the Liberators (inferring legitimacy for their act of tyrannicide) while ratifying all of Caesar's acts and decreeing him a public funeral in the Forum (inferring legitimacy for black Caesar's power). It may have seemed a workable compromise, but when Caesar's mutilated body was displayed to the crowd and the contents of his will were made public--in which some gardens were bequeathed to the public and an individual stipend given to each member of the Roman people--the dam of emotion burst and rioting ensued. The Liberators fled the city.

Power seemed firmly in study case the hands of the pro-Caesar camp and, in particular, in black morrison essay those of M. Antonius (Mark Antony), Caesar's right-hand man. The dictator's will, however, had contained something of components writing a political bombshell that was to shake this situation to black morrison, its foundations. For Caesar named as his chief heir and adopted son one of his three great-nephews, C. Octavius. The nature of the relationship between Caesar and the young Octavius is not clear. Dio claims (45.1.2) that after Octavius reached maturity (in 48 BC), Caesar took him in and began training him to be his successor. This assertion is clearly more informed by later imperial behavior than by Late Republican practice, and is unlikely in any case, since Caesar was much occupied with the civil wars at this time (49-45 BC).

There is no evidence that the two actually met before Octavius was in or analysis essay his mid-teens, but that the dictator noticed Octavius is hardly to be doubted. Suetonius ( Aug . 8.1) presents a more likely series of events. In 48 BC the young Octavius was elected to the pontifical college. When Caesar celebrated his multiple triumphs in September 46 BC, Octavius took part in black matters morrison the procession and was accorded military honors. At some time in thesis this period, Octavius was also adlected into the patrician order. Toni Morrison Essay? He then followed Caesar to Spain when the latter went to components writing, fight the Pompeians at black, Munda (45 BC). College Rubric? He earned the admiration of the toni, dictator for the daring of his journey, which included a shipwreck; he was to show this same daring repeatedly in future months and years. In 44 BC Caesar nominated the magistrates several years in advance (another shunning of tradition on Caesar's part), and the young man was included as his Master of Horse for 43 or 42 BC.

Despite these indications of favor, it is fair to say that in the broad scheme of things Octavius was a non-player and a political nobody in March 44 BC, when his great-uncle was killed. When he heard of Caesar's murder, Octavius was in Apollonia in Illyricum, preparing to join Caesar on his Parthian campaign. His friends and some senior army officers urged him to take refuge with the army in Macedonia; his family advised that he lie low and come to Rome unthreateningly as a private citizen. He opted for the latter course of action and arrived in southern Italy, south of Brundisium. Here, he heard more details about Caesar's death and of his own adoption. Of Thesis? His family, now fearful for his life, urged him to renounce the adoption and inheritance in order to secure his personal safety. In a tremendous act of daring, he instead made directly for matters morrison essay Brundisium and the large concentration of troops there. [[5]] Entrance into mfa creative writing, Politics: April 44-November 43 BC [[6]]

Antony paid no attention, at least officially. He sent no deputations to meet Octavian and morrison essay, inquire as to mfa creative writing in europe, his intentions. Perhaps he dismissed the youth's actions as a sideshow bearing little relevance to the main thrust of politics. [[9]] At that time Antony was deeply occupied with several important matters, not the least being to secure powerful provinces for himself while downgrading those of Cassius and Brutus, the leaders of the Liberators. Thus, when Octavian finally entered Rome toward the end of April, Antony continued to ignore him. Octavian kept his cool and arranged a meeting. When he showed up--ironically, in the gardens of black toni morrison essay Pompey on the Oppian Hill--he was pointedly kept waiting. The ensuing exchange did not go well. [[10]] In subsequent weeks, Antony blocked Octavian's moves to study case, have his adoption officially recognized and also prevented him from black, standing for public office. But Octavian curried favor with the crowd, and tensions with Antony rose. [[11]]

Events around Mutina in northern Italy brought matters to how do a personal, a head, both between the toni essay, Caesarian camp and the Liberators and between Antony and Octavian. Decimus Junius Brutus Albinus had been a supporter of Caesar's -- and one of his assassins. The dictator had appointed him to the governorship of Cisalpine Gaul (roughly the Po Valley region of modern Italy), an appointment confirmed by the senate. The senate had also assigned Antony, consul in 44 BC, the study case, province of morrison essay Macedonia. Through tribunician legislation in you write essay June 44 BC, Antony had his command in Macedonia exchanged for that in proximate and powerful Cisalpine Gaul. Decimus Brutus's term was up at the end of 44 BC, but Antony decided to assume command of Cisalpine Gaul in November. Decimus Brutus resisted and was supported by a senate largely well disposed toward the black, Liberators, whom it regarded as tyrannicides. [[12]] Against this backdrop of of thesis writing looming crisis between the Caesarians and the Liberators, the relationship between Antony and Octavian continued to deteriorate, despite occasional public reconciliations. Antony accused Octavian of plotting against him, while Octavian attempted, through agents, to toni essay, undermine the loyalty of the army that Antony was bringing to Italy from Macedonia. Antony went to Brundisium to secure his army (things did not go well there for components him), at which juncture Octavian showed his daring once more.

Despite the risk of being branded a public enemy, he toured the Caesarian colonies of Campania and, relying on old loyalties, raised a private army from among Caesar's veterans, perhaps 10,000 strong. It was a vivid demonstration of the power of the black matters toni morrison essay, name Caesar. Antony, meanwhile, returned to Rome and intended to denounce Octavian to the senate when he heard that two of his five legions from Macedonia had defected to Octavian. Fearing the or analysis essay, worst, he took the remainder of his force and hastened to attack Decimus Brutus in Cisalpine Gaul. [[13]] The situation was now highly volatile. Decimus Brutus, backed by the senate, was resisting Antony under arms, and retired to the fortified town of Mutina in Cisalpine Gaul.

Antony had four legions, Octavian had five. All the black toni essay, armed parties were mutually antagonistic. Study Case? The senate, led by black morrison Cicero in his last great political action, identified Antony as the greater threat. [[14]] Cicero and Antony were now on master opinion opposing sides, following an matters morrison essay, acrimonious oratorical exchange in the senate that started in September 44 BC. At this crucial juncture, then, Cicero deployed his considerable rhetorical skill to components, Octavian's benefit and matters toni essay, began to champion his cause as a foil to Antony's power. As a result, on 1 January, 43 BC Octavian's essentially illegal command of men under arms was legitimized with a grant of propraetorian power. As such, Octavian continued his preparations to attack Antony, now declared a public enemy, who had begun besieging Decimus Brutus at you write a personal narrative, Mutina. Octavian, now an official representative of the republic, led his force into morrison, the region and moved against Antony. Components? [[15]] In two engagements in April, Antony was bested and black matters morrison, fled over the Alps to his political allies in analysis rubric Transalpine Gaul.

Both consuls for 43 BC, however, perished in black essay the fighting around Mutina, and Octavian, as the senior commander on analysis essay rubric the spot, refused to cooperate any further with Decimus Brutus, a murderer of black matters toni essay his father. The senators, it appears, hoped that Octavian would now go away. They appointed Decimus Brutus to the overall command against Antony, issued decrees of public thanks to writing, him, and palmed Octavian off with an ovation. When a commission to distribute land to veterans was set up, Octavian was pointedly omitted. Matters Toni Morrison? Smarting at of thesis, such insulting treatment, Octavian bided his time and put in requests for a consulship (with Cicero as his colleague) and a triumph. Toni Morrison? Meanwhile, Antony was preparing to return to Cisalpine Gaul with enormous forces gained from Caesarian commanders in Transalpine Gaul. The situation remained unstable. [[16]]

In the face of all these developments, Octavian once more acted with courage and determination, even if with shocking directness. Having secured his army's loyalty, he marched on Rome and seized the city with eight legions. Three legions brought from outside Italy to counter him defected. Unsurprisingly, Octavian was elected consul to replace the deceased consuls of 43 BC. He now carried the long-delayed ratification of his adoption, paid out the remainder of Caesar's legacy, revoked the amnesty for the Liberators, and tried and convicted them en masse and in absentia on a single day.

Despite his control of Rome, Octavian's position was perilous. Antony was massing huge forces in Cisalpine Gaul and, across the Adriatic, Cassius and Brutus had taken the opportunity offered by the enmity between the Caesarian leaders to gain control of most of the eastern empire, it might be noted, with no great regard for either legality or scruple. [[17]] These complicated events have been treated here in detail due to their immense importance in establishing Octavian in the mainstream of Roman politics. Dismissed by Antony and then by the senate as a bit player, he proved repeatedly capable of deft and how do a personal essay, resolute action in defence of his interests. On account of his tender years, he lacked the nexus of black matters toni influential support that most leading Roman politicians, including Antony, found essential to their success and therefore he had to rely more on direct appeals to the mob, his troops, and supporters of Caesar. His actions might not have been always scrupulous or admirable, but Late-Republican politics was a vicious and cutthroat business and few involved adhered solely to principle (the Liberators, for instance, went about the eastern empire seizing provinces and only had their acts ratified post factum by a compliant senate). Octavian had only two reliable tools available to him at this early stage in mfa creative his career: his name, Caesar, and black morrison essay, promises of bounty to the soldiers, and he deployed both with daring and master, decisiveness when he had to. In the autumn of 43 BC, he was to make his most ambitious move yet. The Triumvirate I: Early Challenges, 43-36 BC. The rule of the three got off to an inauspicious start.

Their first act was the implementation of proscriptions, unused since the matters toni, horrible days of analysis Sulla's dictatorship. Since the property of the proscribed was forfeited, the main motive of the triumvirs in instigating the matters toni morrison essay, terror appears to have been financial, as many of their most implacable enemies were not in Rome or Italy at all but with Brutus and Cassius in the East. A recent interpretation has questioned this view and argues that the components, proscriptions were a purely political act, designed to root out black matters toni essay all opposition to the triumvirs in Italy. Our sources preserve, in excruciating detail, dozens of tragic anecdotes about the proscribed as well as the text of the components of thesis, chilling proclamation announcing the proscriptions. Cicero, Antony's bitter enemy, was one of the first victims, with Octavian's compliance.

The apparent financial reason for black toni essay the triumvirs' need for money was soon to be made clear, when mass veteran settlements took place. Thousands perished in the chaos and mayhem that inevitably followed hard on the heels of the proscriptions. [[19]] Next, the Liberators had to be dealt with. After a prelude in Africa early in 42 BC, in analysis essay which a pro-senate governor was ousted by Octavian's appointee, Antony and Octavian moved on morrison Cassius and Brutus in the summer and autumn of that same year. The campaign took place in the Balkans and culminated in a double battle some weeks apart in components of thesis writing October at black toni, Philippi in college rubric Macedonia.

The Liberators were decisively defeated, Cassius and Brutus committed suicide, and the Caesarians established their control over the whole Roman world. Octavian, who had not played a glorious part in matters morrison essay the battles, showed complete implacability in executing any and all of those implicated in division the murder of Caesar who fell into his hands. A reshuffling of the provinces was required in light of the new situation: Antony got the black morrison, East but retained Transalpine and mfa creative programs in europe, Narbonese Gaul; Octavian got most of the morrison, West; Lepidus, fast being overshadowed by his more ambitious and ruthless partners, was effectively sidelined in Africa. Following Philippi, Antony moved east, Octavian returned to Italy, and a new polarization of the master thesis opinion, Roman world began to manifest itself. [[20]] In the West, Octavian faced an immediate problem: the settlement of some 40,000 veterans in Italian communities. Veteran settlement was of paramount concern, since it spoke to Octavian's trustworthiness as a patron and so could influence the black matters essay, future loyalty of his armies. The procedure entailed the master thesis opinion, forcible eviction of inhabitants from their land followed by its redistribution as individual plots among the ex-soldiers. Matters? Prior to Philippi, eighteen rich towns in Italy had been promised to the soldiers--now it was time to how do a personal essay, pay up. Beginning in 41 BC and continuing for perhaps a year or more afterward, life in the towns and regions selected for matters essay settlement underwent massive disruption. It seems that the of thesis writing, dispossessed were not compensated for black morrison their loss, so that the whole process made Octavian enormously unpopular in Italy. [[21]] This unpopularity generated an opportunity for the opponents of the triumvirate and master opinion, led to the so-called Perusine War.

One of the consuls of 41 BC was L. Antonius, brother of toni morrison Mark Antony. Playing on Octavian's poor reputation among the Italians, he stirred up as much trouble for the triumvir as he could. He began spreading rumors that Antony's veterans were being shabbily treated compared to Octavian's and, along with Antony's wife Fulvia, started lobbying for the dispossessed Italians. His actions carried grave political dangers for Octavian, who could not allow army loyalties to mfa creative programs, be divided in Italy. The big question in all this remains how cognizant, even complicit, Mark Antony was in his brother's agitation.

By late in matters toni essay 41 BC the situation had so deteriorated that war between Octavian and L. Antonius in Italy was inevitable. When hostilities broke out, operations focused on Perusia, where Octavian holed Lucius and Fulvia up in early 40 BC up. Master Opinion? After several months of siege, Lucius surrendered and was magnanimously spared by black matters essay Octavian, though the councilors and study case, people of Perusia were not so fortunate: Octavian executed the local council and black matters, gave the town over to his soldiers to plunder. He then adjourned to Gaul, there to supervise the transfer of the region to his own command, since the Antonian governor had died. [[22]] Mark Antony reacted to this situation by moving west in the spring of 40 BC and besieging Brundisium. Octavian gathered his forces and marched south to confront him. The triumvirate appeared to be over, its two chief members at war. However, neither army was keen for war and negotiations produced an agreement instead, termed the Pact of Brundisium. By means of study case this agreement, Antony ceded Gaul to Octavian, relinquishing his last foothold in the West, but was confirmed in the East.

Lepidus continued to languish in Africa. Further, Antony was married to Octavian's sister, Octavia. (Fulvia had unexpectedly, and conveniently, died in Greece in toni morrison the interim.) The triumvirs then travelled to Rome amidst scenes of great public rejoicing. [[23]] The attention of the triumvirs was then directed toward Sextus Pompeius in analysis Sicily, who was posing a challenge to their authority in matters toni morrison the West. Sextus, the how do narrative, youngest son of Pompey, is one of the more colorful characters of the Roman Revolution. Surviving the Pompeian defeat at Munda in 45 BC, he fought guerilla warfare in Spain and then took to the sea as a pirate leader. When he was recalled to Rome following Caesar's murder, he cautiously sailed to Massilia and awaited developments. During the war at Mutina, when the fortunes of the senate and the Liberators appeared to be in the ascendant, he found himself appointed prefect of Rome's fleets and Italy's coastal zones (on 20 March, 43 BC). With the establishment of the triumvirate six months later, he seized Sicily and, as a beacon of resistance against the triumvirs, was greatly reinforced by refugees from the proscriptions, survivors of Philippi, those dispossessed by the veteran settlements in Italy, and any remaining forces of black toni morrison republican sentiment. He beat off attempts by analysis rubric Octavian to oust him from Sicily. Antony formed a pact with him, in order to make his move against Octavian in 40 BC but, if Sextus had hoped for black matters morrison some concrete reward for this service, he got none: he benefited in no way from the Pact of Brundisium and was not officially recognized by the triumvirs.

Now he exacted revenge by blockading Italy and writing programs in europe, placing a stranglehold on Rome's grain supply. Antony and matters toni morrison, Octavian were forced to act. Incapable of master thesis opinion assailing Sextus militarily, they were forced to negotiate. At a meeting off the coast at Misenum or Puteoli, an agreement was reached (the Treaty of Misenum [or Puteoli]) in the summer of 39 BC. Matters Morrison Essay? This agreement saw Sextus's control over Corsica, Sardinia, and mfa creative writing, Sicily made official with a promise that he'd be given the Peloponnese and a consulship in due course. Morrison? Sextus appeared well entrenched in triumviral politics, a fourth important player in the complex game. [[24]] The Treaty of Misenum was to have a short shelf life. Antony returned to the East, to components, Cleopatra and black matters toni, indecisive campaigns against the Parthians. Octavian remained in Italy and worked at extending his circle of followers and his influence in general. Toward that end, the presence of Sextus Pompeius was an obstacle. When the Peloponnese did not come his way as had been promised, Sextus blockaded Italy again in 38 BC.

Octavian moved against him, but lost a naval engagement at Cumae and much of his fleet in a subsequent storm. Study Case? He now appealed to Antony for help. The two met at Tarentum in the summer of 37 BC. Aside from morrison essay, Octavian's acquisition of some 120 ships from Antony for analysis essay college the effort against Sextus (in return for a promise of 20,000 Italian troops for Antony's planned Parthian campaign), the black, meeting saw the triumvirate renewed for a further five years. The office had expired on 31 December, 38 BC, but none of the incumbents had paid any attention to that inconvenient detail and continued to exercise its prerogatives (illegally) for the first months of 37 BC. Now their power was renewed. [[25]]

Since equilibrium had been restored with Antony, Octavian now turned his full attention to defeating Sextus. Elaborate preparations, mostly under the direction M. Components? Vipsanius Agrippa, finally readied Octavian's fleet for action in 36 BC. While Agrippa held Sextus's fleet at bay, Lepidus was marshalled from Africa, to assault Sicily from the south. Another of black matters toni morrison Octavian's generals was to how do you write a personal narrative, converge on Italy from the northeast, while Octavian himself would move from Campania. But ship-destroying storms and another naval defeat for Octavian at the hands of Sextus seemed to signal the failure of the entire operation. Agrippa, however, saved the day and essay, took several of Sextus's ports before engaging and destroying the rebel's fleet at the battle of Naulochus on how do narrative essay 3 September, 36 BC. Sextus fled east but was murdered not long afterward.

Despite reverses, then, Octavian had ultimately emerged victorious and, in Sextus, had eliminated one the rivals to his position of dominance in the West. Fate allowed him to neutralize the black morrison, other. Master Thesis? Lepidus, so long in matters essay the shadows, now decided to make a play for power. Finding himself in control of twenty-two legions in Sicily, he defied Octavian and opinion, made demands that he quit the black toni morrison essay, island for good. Octavian marched in his direction, at which point Lepidus's men deserted him. At an embarrassing scene in Lepidus's camp, Octavian spared his former triumviral colleague but stripped him of his powers and study case, confined him to matters toni morrison essay, house arrest at the pleasant seaside town of Circeii. There he lived out his life unmolested until he died, of natural causes, in 12 BC. [[26]] Octavian was now the unchallenged master of the Roman West. In one campaigning season he had rid himself of the open challenge of Sextus Pompeius and the sleeping challenge of study case Lepidus. He set about consolidating his position for the inevitable clash with Antony. The Triumvirate II: Showdown with Antony, 36-30 BC.

In the East, Antony was not faring terribly well. He had, since 36 BC, been involved in sporadic and difficult contests with the Parthians and Armenians. There had been no decisive outcome and, in black matters morrison essay fact, there was a rather hasty retreat back to Syria. Writing? This was all the more regrettable (in Antony's eyes), since Octavian had been successful against Sextus and then, in 35-33 BC, against toni morrison, the tribes of thesis Illyricum. Black Matters Toni Morrison Essay? But Antony's behavior in the East raised problems for him in the political arena, fully exploited by Octavian. His continuing link with Cleopatra, despite his marriage to Octavia, was among the most troublesome, and it had produced two children. Antony also appeared to have gone native, wearing eastern dress, with an study case, eastern despot as a consort, and practising eastern customs. Even more appalling, having seized Armenia in toni 34 BC, Antony staged a spectacle in analysis college Alexandria's gymnasium known since as the Donations of Alexandria.

In this spectacle, Antony declared Cleopatra Queen of Kings and her son by Caesar, Caesarion, King of matters toni essay Kings; he then divided up the eastern Roman Empire among Cleopatra, Caesarion, and his own children. It seemed, from an Italian perspective, that Antony was under the spell of Cleopatra, whose ultimate goal, it was rumored, was to study case, become Queen of Rome. Furthermore, Antony's recognition of Caesarion as Caesar's son undercut Octavian's most fundamental claim to political leadership. In an atmosphere such as this, tensions rose between Antony and Octavian. At Rome, meanwhile, Octavian further heralded his new image by having his righthand-man Agrippa appointed aedile in 33 BC to black toni morrison, see to the restoration of many long-neglected services in the city, especially the study case, sewer system and water supply. The city was also beautified with new buildings and matters toni, the restoration of dilapidated ones, often by Octavian's supporters acting at his instigation. The popular image of Octavian's caring, popular administration must have been greatly bolstered by these actions. [[28]] The year 32 BC was a difficult one and saw Octavian and Antony finally embark openly on the road to war. In the first place, Octavian's second term of triumviral powers ran out on 31 December, 33 BC.

This made his legal position somewhat delicate, but the niceties of legality were far less important than his demonstrable exercise of power and influence, especially among his troops. Who was going to challenge him? It is college rubric interesting to observe that Octavian immediately ceased using the title triumvir; Antony did not. Morrison Essay? In dropping the title, Octavian once more ostentatiously respected Roman tradition. As matters turned out, events at Rome were to division essay, offer Octavian a new basis for claiming legitimate leadership of the black matters essay, Roman people, albeit a non-legal one. On 1 January, 32 BC, the Antonian consul, C. Sosius issued a speech denouncing Octavian and proposing something that required a tribunician veto to quash (the precise content of the proposal is unknown). Octavian, not in the city at the time, soon entered with an armed escort, convened the senate, and denounced Antony. This action so effectively cowed the Antonians that Sosius and his fellow consul Ahenobarbus fled eastward followed by the other pro-Antony senators.

News then reached Rome that Antony was forming his own senate in Alexandria from among the exiled senators and that he had officially renounced Octavia as his wife. Octavian, enraged, seized Antony's will from the Vestal Virgins (a completely illegal and unscrupulous act) and read it aloud in the senate. Its contents shocked Roman sentiment: Antony wished to be buried in Alexandria, next to Cleopatra. It seemed to many that, after all, he was indeed planning to establish a renegade eastern empire with a foreign queen at its helm. War was declared on Cleopatra, and traditional rituals revived to writing in europe, emphasize that the official enemy was a foreigner, not a fellow Roman. As preparations for war geared up in matters toni morrison the summer of 32 BC, a remarkable thing happened. First Italy and then the western provinces swore an oath of allegiance to Octavian personally. Whether the oath was voluntary, as Augustus later claimed in his Res Gestae , or a more carefully orchestrated piece of political theater, Octavian could now claim to be the people's choice for the war against Cleopatra. It was not a legal position, but it was an unassailable one. [[29]] In prospect, the war between Antony and Octavian promised to be the largest civil conflict ever conducted by the Romans.

Arrayed against each other were the resources of the entire empire, East against West. The not inconsiderable resources of study case Ptolemaic Egypt, the last surviving major Hellenistic kingdom, were also in the mix. In the black toni morrison, end, however, the components of thesis writing, war ended not with a bang but with a fizzle. The massive forces moved against each other and toni, converged in Greece, as had Caesar and Pompey at the outset of an earlier great conflict. The two sides encamped on the north side of the Ambracian gulf, near the promontory of Actium . You Write A Personal Narrative Essay? Cleopatra's presence proved problematic for Antony, and there were defections to Octavian. Meanwhile, Antony and Cleopatra managed to get their ships blockaded in the gulf by Octavian's fleet, under Agrippa's able command. In an attempt to break out on 2 September, 31 BC (almost five years to the day since Sextus' defeat at matters toni morrison, Naulochus) Antony was decisively defeated. Rubric? In ancient accounts, Cleopatra and then Antony fled the matters toni morrison, battle prematurely.

The land forces never engaged, but Antony's men defected to Octavian en masse. Everything had been decided in a few hours of naval warfare. [[30]] The victory of Octavian was complete. Antony and Cleopatra fled to Egypt. Octavian made his way there via Syria, securing the loyalty of all as he went. Division Or Analysis Essay? Antony's forces and former supporters defected in toni morrison droves. On reaching Egypt and Alexandria in the summer of 30 BC, Octavian faced Antony's forces on land and sea. A great battle seemed imminent -- until Antony's navy and cavalry defected en masse before the very eyes of their general and his infantry were defeated (1 August, 30 BC). Antony and mfa creative in europe, Cleopatra committed suicide, and passed from historical reality into black toni, the realm of romantic legend.

Octavian had Caesarion and thesis, Antony's eldest son (Antyllus) executed, and toni morrison essay, he annexed Egypt as a province of you write narrative Rome, ending the Ptolemaic period of that country's history. He was now sole master of the entire Roman world. If, indeed, it had been his intention from the start to reach this position, it must have been a particularly rewarding day. Toni Essay? For fourteen years he had played a careful, dangerous, and patient game. Now it was time to writing, secure the future, for himself and for Rome. Morrison? [[31]] From Octavian to how do you write a personal essay, Augustus: A New Order Established. In the wake of Actium , however, there was work to be done.

After taking Egypt and settling affairs there, Octavian stayed away from Rome as he saw to the organization of the East. For the most part, Antony's arrangements were left in place, as long as old loyalties were suitably redirected. Octavian returned to Rome and Italy, amid tumultuous celebrations, in August of 29 BC. Large numbers of veterans were settled (perhaps 25 legions totalling 40,000 men or more) both in Italy and the provinces, this time without complaint, since the vast wealth of Egypt allowed for ample compensation. When he entered Rome, he celebrated three triumphs over three days (over Dalmatia, Actium, and Egypt).

Legally, his difficult position of 32 BC had been bypassed and Octavian held the consulship every year from 31 BC onwards (until 23 BC). Just as important, however, was the non-legal basis for his dominance, later expressed by Augustus as universal consent. The roots of this consent must lie in the oath of 32 BC, now extended in black matters toni essay principle, if not in practice, to embrace the division or analysis, entire empire and all its armies. Octavian was, as he later put it, in complete control of affairs precisely because everyone wanted him to matters toni morrison essay, be and, just as significantly, because he was the last man standing. There is political posturing in college rubric his claim to universal consent, to be sure, but possibly also some kernel of black morrison truth. He had ended the civil wars, and all hopes for a peaceful future now rested with him and him alone. In light of this, the senate and people voted him numerous honors in 29 BC, some of which Octavian judiciously refused, consonant with his image as respecter of tradition. A Personal Essay? [[32]] Octavian's holding continuous consulships would be insufficient as a mode of administration in the long term, especially if, as he intended, the toni, old order was to be seen to be restored. He needed, somehow, to mfa creative writing in europe, find a firm place simultaneously within and matters toni essay, above established norms. His position at division or analysis, the head of affairs therefore needed careful consideration, and this no doubt explains the eighteen-month gap between his return to Rome in August 29 BC and the so-called First Constitutional Settlement of 13 January, 27 BC which, with the broadest of brush strokes, began painting the portrait of the new order.

Memories of black toni morrison Caesar's fate must have loomed large. Writing Programs? Despite that dictator's huge popularity among the masses, his complete victory over his enemies in civil war, and black matters morrison, the devotion of his troops, he had been laid low by a few dozen disillusioned aristrocrats. Among the uppermost considerations pressing on Octavian, therefore, must have been the need to writing, appease the sensibilities of the elite. In addition, the divided loyalties of highly politicized armies had been a plague on the Late Republic. This situation too would require remedying. Morrison? These two issues, in study case fact, were at the heart of the First Settlement, staged in matters essay the senate on 13 January, 27 BC. How Do A Personal? [[33]]

On that day, Octavian entered the black toni, senate and, to the shock of rubric those not in the know, surrendered his position and retired to black matters essay, private life. The senators, possibly confused, reacted with indignance and insisted that Octavian remain at the helm of the state. Division Or Analysis Essay? After a show of black matters toni reluctance, Octavian graciously accepted a share in the running of the state, gaining command of analysis rubric Spain (except Baetica), Gaul, Syria, Cyprus, and toni, Egypt while the senate and people kept the rest. Within his extended provincia , granted for ten years, Octavian could appoint legates to administer regions on his behalf. Modern scholars have failed to essay, reach agreement on the exact legal status of Octavian's command over his provinces (was it by virtue of imperium consulare or proconsulare , imperium maius or aequum ?), but the case for imperium proconsulare is the stronger; it also had precedents, in the form of the extraordinary commands of black morrison Pompey or Caesar in the Late Republic.

This situation would have appealed to Octavian's desire to appear to be maintaining traditions while also doing nothing alarmingly new or innovative. Other honors and privileges were also forthcoming, at a second meeting on 16 January. Here Octavian was named Augustus, a word ringing with religious (augur) and social ( auctoritas ) meaning but not suggestive of overt political dominance. C. Julius Caesar Octavianus now became Imperator Caesar Augustus. Other honors carried more symbolic meaning (laurels placed on the door of his house; award of the corona civica for saving the lives of master thesis citizens; the Shield of Virtues erected in matters toni morrison his honor) but they were no less significant for that: they helped establish Augustus's pre-eminent place in master thesis the state and craft the beginnings of an Augustan ideology. By means of this settlement, Augustus was simultaneously commander, leader, savior. [[34]] In the summer following the settlement, Augustus left Rome to tour Gaul and Spain. The journey kept him away from matters morrison essay, Rome until 24 BC--probably a wise choice on his part, to be out analysis essay college rubric of the public eye while the morrison essay, new arrangements took root. Master Opinion? While he was away his aides Agrippa and Maecenas supervised matters in Rome. The summer after his return, probably in June or July, the toni morrison, Second Constitutional Settlement was staged.

At around this time a conspiracy was unearthed and two principals, Fannius Caepio and study case, Varro Murena, were executed. Black? In the absence of evidence, scholarly debate has raged about the timing, aims, methods, and members of the conspiracy: was the writing, Second Settlement a reaction to the conspiracy, or vice versa? Or were the matters toni morrison, events unrelated? In the end, the conclusion has to be left open, but the case for the conspiracy's occurring after the settlement seems the stronger, though any causative links between events remains little more than putative. The outline of the Second Settlement itself is clear enough, even if several details remain debatable. Augustus relinquished the consulship (which he had been monopolizing since 31 BC) and was only to take it up on two further occasions in the rest of his life, for dynastic reasons. In return, he received an empire-wide grant of proconsular power ( imperium proconsulare ) for five years. It is debated whether this imperium was greater ( maius ) than that of any other governor or equal ( aequum ) to it. Five decrees found in Cyrenaica, dated to the period 6-4 BC, show Augustus intervening in the internal affairs of components of thesis writing this province. The implication is that his imperium overrode that of the governor on the spot (and so was maius ), though the possibility that it was co-extensive with it must also be allowed (making the imperium aequum ). Whatever the legal details, by virtue of toni this grant of imperium in 23 BC, he could intervene in the affairs of any province in the empire.

Unlike other governors, he was also given dispensation to retain his power within the city limits of essay college Rome (the pomerium ), probably for purely practical reasons: otherwise, every time he left the city, his proconsular power would need to be renewed. In relinquishing the black matters morrison, consulship, Augustus lost certain powers and privileges within the city of Rome and its polity (his proconsular power notwithstanding). Thesis Opinion? These were now compensated for by a grant of tribunician power ( tribunicia potestas ), also for five years, that allowed him all the rights and privileges of a tribune of the people, without actually holding that office: he could summon the people, propose legislation, veto meetings and proposals, and so on. With both his tribunician power and proconsular power, Augustus now had the ability to direct affairs in every wing of domestic and foreign administration. Black Matters Toni Morrison Essay? These two powers were long to remain the writing programs in europe, twin pillars of the Roman emperors' legal position. [[35]] While the major settlements of 27 and 23 BC established the bases of Augustus's position, further refinements were necessary. As with the settlement of 27 BC, Augustus soon left Rome for the East (22-19 BC). Before he left, he was forced to refuse offers of the dictatorship or perpetual consulship pressed on him by the people, who appear to have completely missed the subtleties of the Second Settlement the year before.

Over the coming years, he received, piecemeal, some significant privileges and honors. In 23 BC, for instance, he was given the black matters, right to analysis essay college, convene the senate whenever he saw fit ( ius primae relationis ). In 22 BC, he was appointed to oversee Rome's grain supply (for how long is unclear). In 19 , when he had returned from the East, he was given censorial powers for five years. When Lepidus finally died in 13 or 12 BC, Augustus became chief priest ( pontifex maximus ). Finally, in 2 BC, he was granted the matters toni, title Father of his Country ( pater patriae ), a title of which he was immensely proud. It is not hard to see why, since the title placed Augustus in a relationship with the Roman state analogous to that of a paterfamilias over his charges: he was to be in mfa creative complete control of everything. In addition, there was his membership of all the colleges of matters morrison priests, numerous symbolic privileges (e.g., immunity from taxes), and the matter of auctoritas . This personal quality, impossible to translate into or analysis essay, English with a single word, was a combination of authority and black matters toni essay, influence derived from one's social and political position, family, abilities, and achievements.

It was, most importantly, an informal virtue: it could not be voted to anyone by thesis opinion the senate or the people. In this way, the extent of Augustus's auctoritas reflected the extent and success of toni essay his life's work, and it helped him get a lot of business done without constantly invoking his legally-conferred powers. Augustus simply had to make known his preferences for matters to transpire accordingly, so that, for instance, candidates for office whom he favored invariably got elected. No wonder he was proud to boast that he surpassed all in components of thesis auctoritas . [[36]] The complex edifice of the Augustan Principate was, at heart, a sham. But, like any successful sham, it was one that people could believe in. Essay? Above all, there was political genius in Augustus's slow and careful acquisition of overarching authority in every area of public life. Study Case? At every step of the way--from the toni essay, oath of master 32 BC through the morrison, constitutional settlements and the honors and privileges conferred upon him piecemeal--he could present himself as the components, passive partner. On all occasions, the senate and matters toni, people of Rome voluntarily conferred powers, privileges, and honors on him. He sought nothing for himself; he was no Caesar. Indeed, he often expressed reluctance to accept offices and honors that struck him as excessive, and occasionally he refused them outright.

In sharp contrast to Caesar, Augustus constantly had one eye on aristocratic sensitivities. Furthermore, none of his cardinal powers were conferred for life but, rather, for fixed periods of five or (later) ten years. That these powers were never rescinded when they came up for renewal is entirely beside the writing, point: there was the illusion of matters choice. That is what mattered. The vocabulary Augustus chose to express his power, too, was a model of tact: leading citizen ( princeps ) not dictator, authoritative influence ( auctoritas ) not command ( imperium ). Throw into the equation his modest lifestyle, affable approachability, routine consultation of the senate, and genuinely impressive work ethic, and we have in Augustus one of the greatest and college rubric, most skillfully manipulative politicians of black matters any nation in thesis any age. The Nature of the matters toni morrison, Principate and study case, The Problem of the Succession. After Actium, Augustus moved on the succession problem quickly. He began to show signs of favor to his nephew, Marcellus. He himself only had one natural child, Julia, his daughter by his second wife, Scribonia. Matters Morrison? The first sure sign of you write favor to Marcellus was his participation in Augustus's triple triumph of black matters toni 29 BC.

In 25 BC, Marcellus was married to Julia, forming a closer family link with Augustus. The following year, Marcellus became aedile and, on master Augustus's request, was granted the privilege of sitting as an ex-praetor in the senate and of standing for the consulship ten years in matters advance of the thesis, legal age. By 23 BC he was widely considered, in Velleius's words, Augustus's successor in power ( successor potentiae ). Then, a surprise. Augustus fell seriously ill in 23 BC. As he lay on what he thought was his deathbed, he handed an account of the state's resources to the consul Cn. Matters? Calpurnius Piso, and his signet ring to Agrippa. The symbolic message was clear: Marcellus was too young; experience was yet preferred at the top.

Augustus recovered from his illness, but later that same year Marcellus fell ill and was not so fortunate. He was nineteen when he died and was entombed with all due pomp and ceremony in Augustus's family mausoleum. [[38]] The career of Marcellus, short though it was, already revealed the elements of Augustus's methods: he was to use family links (marriage or adoption) in conjunction with constitutional privileges (office-holding and the privilege of standing for of thesis writing office early) to morrison essay, indicate his successor. His inspiration appears to have been his personal experience: as Caesar had presented Octavius to the public at his triumphs of components of thesis writing September 46 BC, so now did Augustus display Marcellus at his own triumphs in August 29 BC; as the senate had Octavius granted the right to black matters toni morrison, stand for the consulship ten years in advance of the legal age in 43 BC, so Augustus had the same right granted to master, Marcellus in 24 BC; and just as Caesar had bound Octavius to him by a familial link, so now did Augustus with Marcellus's marriage to Julia (although such political alliances through family ties had long been a staple of the Roman nobility). Each event had its precedent; it was their combination that was significant. [[39]] Marcellus was soon replaced by Agrippa. Matters Toni? Shortly before Marcellus's death, Agrippa had left for division essay the East. In the face of Marcellus's earlier preferment, the sources abound with rumors of Agrippa's voluntary departure in high dudgeon or of his forcible exile, but such speculations are demonstrably without merit. Agrippa had been favored when Augustus was ill in 23 BC and subsequently went East with a grant of imperium proconsulare , a share in Augustus's own powers. This is not what Augustus would have done with a man of whom he was suspicious or who had fallen in any way from favor.

Augustus had business in the East, to which he was shortly to attend personally, and Agrippa was doubtless sent ahead to pave the way. Black Morrison Essay? Maecenas, Augustus's other chief advisor and no friend of Agrippa, is programs reported to have commented in 21 BC that Agrippa had now been raised so high that either Augustus must marry him to Julia or kill him. Augustus chose the former route. Black Matters? Julia was married to Agrippa in that year. Components Writing? Until his death in 12 BC, Agrippa was clearly intended to be Augustus's successor. Aside from matters morrison, his marriage to Julia, in 18 BC Agrippa's proconsular power was renewed and, more significantly, he received a share of tribunician power (renewed in 13 BC). [[40]] By virtue of these powers and privileges, had anything happened to Augustus in the years 21-13 BC, Agrippa would have been ideally placed to take over the reins of thesis government. Matters Morrison? Coins of the period 13-12 BC depict Agrippa as virtual co-emperor with Augustus, although the latter was always the senior partner. This straightforward interpretation of the situation in analysis rubric these years has been complicated by black morrison essay Augustus's treatment of Agrippa and Julia's sons, Gaius (born in 20 BC) and Lucius (born in 17 BC). When Lucius was born, Augustus adopted them both as his own sons and they became Gaius and analysis essay, Lucius Caesar.

A further complication is added when the ongoing careers of Augustus's stepsons, Tiberius and Drusus, who were also advanced over essay these years, are taken into consideration. The intent behind these labyrinthine machinations appears to have been to create a pool of eligible candidates, headed by a frontrunner. Any other princes as were advanced in the background are best considered as insurance against fate or as indicators of Augustus's preferences for the third generation of the study case, Principate. In this way, Agrippa was to succeed Augustus, but the adoption of Gaius and Lucius signalled Augustus's desire that one of black them succeed Agrippa (which one was to be preferred remains unclear, given subsequent events). A Personal Narrative Essay? Tiberius and Drusus, as imperial princes, can be expected to have enjoyed high public profiles and earned various privileges, but they were very much on the backburner in these years. Notions of Regency (Agrippa over black matters toni morrison essay Gaius and Lucius) or paired succession (Gaius and Lucius, Tiberius and Drusus) proposed by modern scholars seem remoter possibilities. [[41]] Augustus's vision for the succession can be seen in action again in components of thesis 12 BC, when Agrippa died. Julia, now widowed a second time, was married to Tiberius the following year.

Tiberius was Augustus's stepson and the most senior and experienced of the secondary princes in the imperial house. Toni Essay? As such, he was a natural choice. Not long afterward, Tiberius left for campaigns in Germany and Pannonia, possibly with a grant of proconsular imperium . In 7 BC he entered his second consulship and the following year his position was made plain when he received a large commission in the East and a grant of tribunician power. In short, between 12 and 6 BC Tiberius was upgraded to take Agrippa's place in Augustus's scheme and was installed to be Augustus's successor. But it was to be a rocky road indeed that led to his eventual succession in AD 14.

In 6 BC Tiberius unexpectedly retired to Rhodes, despite his prominent public position. Augustus, apparently angered by Tiberius's action, had little choice (Drusus, Tiberius's brother had died in Germany in division or analysis 9 BC). He appears to have relied on his increasingly robust health to see his adopted sons Gaius and matters toni morrison essay, Lucius Caesar to their maturity. But fate intervened once more and both young men died, Lucius in analysis essay AD 2 and black matters toni essay, Gaius two years after that. Writing? In a burst of dynastic activity in June of AD 4, Tiberius was rehabilitated and matters morrison essay, adopted by components Augustus, as was Agrippa Postumus (the youngest child of Julia and Agrippa); Tiberius was constrained to adopt his nephew Germanicus . Again, debate has swirled around these arrangements but, following the suggestions made above, it is probably best to avoid notions of regency or paired succcession and see here an attempt by Augustus to re-establish a pool of princes from which to morrison essay, draw candidates, with Tiberius as the favored successor and Germanicus to come behind him. The adoption of Agrippa Postumus remains puzzling, but he was still only a teenager at the time and the move may have been intended only to secure his prominence in future succession plans. Germanicus , twenty years old at the time of writing his adoption by Tiberius , was clearly the black matters, frontrunner for the third generation of the Principate. Division? Through him, also, Augustus could hope for a Julian heir to the throne, but it is far from clear whether this remote consideration played any decisive role in Augustus's thinking. [[42]] The succession issue was not a happy one for the imperial house and carried in its train some domestic tragedies.

Aside from the deaths of the various princes, Augustus banished his own daughter Julia in 2 BC and her daughter, also named Julia, in toni morrison essay AD 8. In AD 6-7 Agrippa Postumus was disinherited and banished to the small island of Planasia, only to be murdered shortly after Augustus's death. The banishment of Julia the Elder is emblematic of analysis college this group of events. Black Matters Toni? Julia's marriage to you write a personal narrative essay, Tiberius had not been successful and she appears to matters morrison, have sought solace in the arms of various noblemen and equestrians. In 2 BC her indiscretions were brought to Augustus's attention and, enraged, he banished her to the island of Pandateria. She never returned to Rome.

The sources unanimously ascribe Julia's fate to her licentiousness and immorality, but modern scholars have rightly questioned this presentation and study case, seen instead dynastic scheming behind Julia's actions and black essay, subsequent banishment. Whatever the actual degree of Julia's political acumen, the informal and allusive nature of the succession system itself was the root cause of her demise. For, in the Augustan system, an imperial princess who had been married to no less than three indicated favorites (Marcellus, Agrippa, and Tiberius ) and who then brought outsiders into her bed was also bringing them into the heart of the dynasty. That could not be tolerated. That Augustus interpreted his daughter's misdeeds in political terms, at least in part, is suggested by the trial for treason of one of Julia's lovers, Iullus Antonius, and his subsequent execution or suicide; others of her lovers were banished. The same can be said for the fall of Agrippa Postumus and then of Julia the Younger. However murky the details in each case, they can all be seen as victims of the Augustan succession system. [[43]]

In all, then, the succession problem was a difficult one for essay college rubric Augustus, and his solutions only toni morrison essay perpetuated it for all future emperors. Despite the components, internal difficulties engendered by the issue, Augustus was keen to black toni morrison, present a united image of the imperial house to the populace. This is best illustrated by division the Altar of the Augustan Peace ( Ara Pacis Augustae ), dedicated in January, 9 BC, and laden with symbolic significance largely outside the matters morrison, purview of this biography. For our current purposes, most important is the presentation to essay rubric, the people, on the south frieze, of the imperial family--women and children included--as a corporate entity. The message of dynastic harmony and the promise of future stability emanating from the imperial house is palpable. Matters Morrison Essay? The reality, as we have just seen, was rather different. Augustus and the Empire I: the Army. Augustus completed the ongoing professionalization of the Roman military by establishing a force of 28 standing legions (three were to be lost in Germany in study case AD 9), made up of volunteer recruits. For the citizen soldiers of the legions, service was for a prescribed period (first 16, then 20 years), on a regular wage, and with fixed rewards upon discharge. After 14 BC, land grants were discontinued in favor of cash pension payments; such payments were funded, after AD 6, by black toni a new public treasury (the aerarium militare ). For the first time, military service became a career choice in and of itself. Augustus also created a non-citizen wing of the army (corresponding to the Republican era's allies and extraordinarii ). These auxiliary troops were formed into cohorts of infantry and wings ( alae ) of cavalry, usually 500 or 1000 strong, sometimes under their own commanders, sometimes under a Roman officer (an ex-centurion or tribune).

Under Augustus, auxiliary units were mostly raised as needed and disbanded when the or analysis essay, campaign(s) ended; some units were incorporated into the new permanent force, on terms of black matters toni morrison essay service similar to those for the legionaries. Augustus also regularized the organization and terms of service in the Roman navy and created the or analysis, praetorian guard, a personal force which he discreetly and tactfully billeted in townships around Rome. Black Essay? [[44]] Augustus was careful to channel the loyalties of this new professional army solely in his direction. The troops' loyalty to master, Augustus was assured by their taking a personal oath of loyalty to him and by his role as their sole paymaster and matters essay, guarantor of their rewards on discharge. In short, he was their patron.

The army's commanders on-the-ground were handpicked legates of Augustus; its campaign commanders were often the likes of Agrippa, Tiberius , or Gaius Caesar, that is, members of Augustus's own family or immediate circle. Writing? He also kept the black matters morrison, army busy in major campaigns in Spain, the Alpine regions, along the Danube and Rhine rivers, across the Rhine in Germany, and in numerous small-scale actions all along the empire's frontiers. Where active campaigns were not prosecuted, as in rubric Gaul or in the East, the black matters morrison essay, army was used as a means of aiding political settlements (as in the return of the Parthian eagles in a personal 20 BC or the black matters toni, meeting of C. Caesar and the Parthians on an island in the Euphrates in study case AD 2) or as a garrison over local populations (as in Gaul). While Augustus did not go so far as to station the legions along the matters, frontier as a defensive garrison force (as was to happen in later ages), he at least removed them from the center of power and began the process of keeping them in the vicinity of the frontiers. Although Augustus appears to some scholars to have been aiming at mfa creative, establishing scientific frontiers along the Rhine/Elbe and Danube lines, the matters toni essay, whole issue of his foreign policy--indeed, whether even such a policy existed--remains most unclear.

For the scientific frontiers view to be true, certain problematic assumptions are requisite, not the least concerning the Romans' cartographic capabilities and their appreciation of geographic realities well beyond their immediate purview; it is also questionable to what degree the administration of the empire in general adhered to clearly conceived policy on anything, rather than reacting ad hoc as circumstances and local conditions dictated. On the whole, then, we should probably avoid notions of Roman imperial policy on the model of division essay modern national policies. One of the chief political values of Augustus's campaigns was that it kept his new professional army busy--idle trained killers can be a somewhat destabilizing element in society--and afforded him considerable personal military glory, which further reinforced his claim to the loyalty of the troops. [[45]] The importance to Augustus, as well as to the state, of his monopolization of army loyalties is revealed in black matters toni essay two suggestive incidents in 27 BC, when the Augustan order was still in its infancy. Essay? At this delicate time, M. Licinius Crassus, grandson of the great Late Republican magnate, raised a serious problem for Augustus. As governor of Macedonia he had undertaken successful campaigns south of the Danube in 29-28 BC and had personally killed the enemy leader in battle. In 27 BC, then, he was awarded a triumph but he went further: he claimed the ancient honor of spolia opima (the most honorable spoils), awarded to a Roman commander who had slain his counterpart with his own hand. These honors, involving the dedication of the black matters essay, enemy commander's captured panoply to Jupiter Feretrius, had only been earned on three prior occasions in all of Roman history.

Since Crassus's claim to the spolia opima would have raised Crassus into the uppermost echelons of how do you write essay military glory, it had the potential to confuse the soldiers' loyalty toward Augustus. So Augustus blocked the claim on a technicality. Crassus held his triumph and promptly disappears from our records. (It is unlikely that he was killed but, rather, that his public profile died a death in the face of Augustus's displeasure, a good example, if true, of the workings of auctoritas .) Not long afterward, another governor proved problematic. Matters Toni Essay? C. Cornelius Gallus had been appointed the first prefect of Egypt on its annexation in 30 BC. Like Crassus, he had embarked on mfa creative campaigns to surpress revolts and to attack neighboring people. Black Matters Morrison? He then celebrated his successes with statues of how do you write a personal narrative essay himself and matters morrison, bragging inscriptions, one of which has survived. Enraged, Augustus let it be known that he no longer considered Gallus his friend. Charges were immediately brought and proposals laid that Gallus be convicted in absentia , exiled, and study case, his property given to matters morrison, Augustus.

His social status and political career in ruins, his very life perhaps in danger, Gallus committed suicide (possibly in a personal essay 26 BC). Both of these men had behaved fully within the boundaries of republican precedent but had failed utterly to appreciate a fundamental rule of the new order: there was to black toni morrison, be no military glory but Augustus's. In contrast, Agrippa, for so long Augustus's right-hand man, repeatedly refused honors and study case, triumphs granted to him; all his victories were celebrated by Augustus. [[46]] Augustus and the Empire II: Administration. In the sphere of external affairs, many of the matters toni, army's conquests were formed into new provinces, especially along the south shore of the Danube (Moesia, Pannonia, Noricum, and Raetia) and the Alps (Alpes Cottiae and Maritimae).

In the East and in Mauretania in North Africa, client kingdoms and principalities were allowed to exist, sometimes in study case very complex arrangements, as with the Tetrarchs in Palestine or the numerous lesser kingdoms that dotted the interior and eastern reaches of Asia Minor. From 27 BC onward these provinces were divided into those that fell into the vast provincia of essay Augustus (the imperial provinces) and those that were retained by the senate and people (the senatorial or public provinces; see above, From Octavian to Augutus: A New Order Established). When the disposition of the provinces is examined (as it stood on Augustus's death in AD 14), it shows that the rubric, imperial territories outnumber the matters toni essay, public ones by a factor of almost two, and that all but one of the empire's twenty-five legions then in service fell under the emperor's command. Further, the Cyrenaica decrees reveal the emperor making decisions about the essay rubric, internal operation of black matters toni morrison this, a public province. Thesis? Such interference on Augustus's part was legitimated by the improved imperium proconsulare granted him in the settlement of 23 BC and brings into matters toni morrison, question any notions of components of thesis writing joint rule by senate and princeps (so-called dyarchy). Ultimately, all the provinces were Augustus's concern. [[48]]

Overall, it is fair to say that the provinces, whether public or imperial, benefited enormously from Augustus's reign. Black Matters Toni Essay? Not only had he brought them peace, he also brought them good government. Legates in imperial provinces were appointed by Augustus for periods of three years or more depending on local conditions, whereas proconsuls in the public provinces continued to rotate annually. Mfa Creative Writing In Europe? The men varied in rank from senators (proconsuls, usually of praetorian rank, in public provinces; legates of praetorian or consular rank in imperial ones) to equites (governing as prefects, as in Egypt and essay, some of the smaller, unarmed provinces). Whatever their status, under the new order governors had no reason to extort from their provinces the how do a personal, huge sums of money that Republican-era proconsuls and propraetors had used to bankroll their domestic political careers, since the success of those careers now depended less on victory at the polls and more on the emperor's favor. Indeed, extortion in the provinces could be positively dangerous, as it raised suspicions about the nature of one's ultimate ambitions. These strictures applied no less in the public than in the imperial provinces, since all governors were now answerable to black toni essay, a single source of authority in a way they had not been under the Republic. This does not mean that rapacious governors entirely disappeared as a breed but that, for the most part--the disappointments of Gallus and essay rubric, Crassus aside--Augustus's gubernatorial appointments were sound.

We hear of no major failings in the management of the provinces during his reign and certainly nothing on essay a par with the rapacious activities of the division or analysis essay, likes of Caesar or Sulla under the toni morrison essay, Republic. Augustus, by virtue of proconsular power, could also intervene directly in any provincial dispute, as he did famously in Cyrenaica. Hardly surprising, then, is the fact that of all the emperors, Augustus's image is the most commonly found in the provinces, even long after his death. The remarkable period of mfa creative writing programs peace and prosperity ushered in by Augustus's reign is known not only as the Pax Romana but also as the black morrison essay, Pax Augusta . How Do A Personal Essay? [[49]] Augustus, as the protector and guardian of Roman tradition, also sought to inculcate a return to that tradition by means of legislation: by matters toni morrison essay new laws passed at my instigation, I brought back those practices of our ancestors that were passing away in our age ( RG 8.5). Thus, for instance, he passed laws limiting public displays of extravagance (so-called sumptuary legislation) in the manner of the old Republican senate, and he attempted through marriage regulations to put a cap on divorces and punish childlessness and adultery among the elite.

He also reinforced the traditional social hierarchy, making sure that everyone knew their place in it. Minimum property qualifications for components writing membership of the upper orders were reinforced, and status symbols for all the classes, especially the amorphous equestrians, clearly established. The convergence of toni morrison essay this sort of components of thesis writing legislation is illustrated by the series of laws pertaining to freed slaves, passed between 17 BC and AD 4. In the first place, the numbers of slaves that could be informally manumitted or freed in wills was restricted in proportion to the total number of slaves owned. This is a piece of sumptuary regulation, limiting overly extravagant displays of wealth and essay, generosity in public. Second, informally freed slaves were placed into a special class of quasi-citizenship termed Junian Latinity that was capable of of thesis writing being upgraded to black matters essay, full citizenship only after the Junians had proved themselves worthy; one way of components of thesis achieving worthiness was to have children. Matters Morrison? Such regulations, then, encapsulated the Augustan attitudes toward public extravagance, maintenance of the social hierarchy, and marriage and reproduction. In his private life, Augustus fell short of a personal narrative his own ideals (witness the turmoil engendered in his family by adultery and infidelities of black matters toni morrison all sorts), but the thrust of of thesis his social legislation was less to regulate individuals' private behavior than to maintain the proper outward appearance of dignitas and decency that Augustus felt had been lost during the Late Republic. As such, it pertained to the ruling classes of the state and black matters toni, hardly at all affected the commoner on the street. [[50]] Finally, there is the issue of the worship of Augustus. The imperial cult evolved gradually over many centuries, and it has been long recognized that ruler worship extended back well before Roman times in the eastern Mediterranean.

In the East, then, the worship of Augustus as a god commenced not long after Actium. Augustus, reticent in this regard, often rejected divine honors outright or insisted that his worship be coupled with that of Rome. He probably had an eye on division or analysis Caesar's fate in so acting. The situation in the West, however, was more difficult. In Rome itself there could be no question of black matters morrison Augustus being worshipped as a living god, which would go against the grain of the Principate. In any case, he was already the son of a god and analysis essay college rubric, the revered one (Augustus). A compromise solution appears to have been to have his will ( numen ) or essence ( genius ) recognized as divine. In Italy and matters toni, out in the western provinces Augustus did not actively block direct worship, and two major cult centers were established at Lugdunum in Gaul and Cologne on the Rhine with altars at how do you write, each place to Rome and Augustus, maintained by officials drawn from the local elite. In communities all across the West, in fact, altars and temples to Rome and Augustus and to toni, Augustus himself are attested, all staffed by mfa creative writing programs locals. Such cult centers therefore acted not only to promote unity in the previously barbarous western provinces and to direct loyalties accordingly, but they also facilitated the black toni morrison essay, assimilation of local populations into a Roman way of life. [[51]]

The Augustan literary scene was also exceptionally vibrant. This is the of thesis, era of some of Rome's most famous and influential writers, including Vergil, Horace, Ovid, Propertius, and Tibullus in poetry, and Livy in prose. Vergil, in particular, crafted a new national epic for the Romans in the Aeneid , which quickly came to matters toni essay, replace Ennius's Annales as the poem every schoolchild learned by heart. This great flowering of literary activity was generated by the development of literary circles of patronage, which had been mostly in abeyance since the second century BC. The most famous literary, indeed artistic, patron of division his day was C. Maecenas, a close associate of Augustus from the very beginning but one who never played an active role in politics (in contrast to Agrippa). Something of a bon vivant , he actively supported the careers of Vergil and Horace, for instance, until his death in 8 BC.

Another circle formed around M. Valerius Messalla Corvinus, who promoted the careers of Tibullus and Ovid. For the historian the most intriguing question such literary circles prompt is the degree to which the political and cultural sentiments expressed by these writers were officially directed, and so in effect provided propaganda for black matters morrison the Augustan regime. When all the evidence is weighed, there can be no question of a state-controlled literature (on the model of media in modern totalitarian states) but there may have been encouragement from the top to express the programs, correct view coupled, no doubt, with genuine gratitude and matters morrison essay, relief on the part of the patrons and writers alike that Augustus had restored peace and stability to division essay, public affairs. In this way, Vergil's Eclogues and matters toni, Georgics can reflect the hope Augustus brought for a restoration of peace to the Italian countryside, while the Republican sentiments of Livy's history could be so pronounced that Augustus jokingly termed him my Pompeian. College Rubric? The point is that both authors flourished under the black matters toni, regime. [[53]] The inscription entitled The Achievements of the Divine Augustus ( Res Gestae Divi Augustae ; usually abbreviated RG ) remains a remarkable piece of evidence deriving from Augustus's reign. The fullest copy of it is the bilingual Greek and Latin version carved into the walls of the programs, Temple of Rome and black toni morrison, Augustus at Ancyra in Galatia (for this reason the RG used to be commonly referred to as the Monumentum Ancyranum ). Other evidence, however, demonstrates that the original was inscribed on two bronze pillars that flanked the entrance to the Mausoleum of Augustus in Rome. The inscription remains the only first-person summary of any Roman emperor's political career and, as such, offers invaluable insights into the Augustan regime's public presentation of itself. [[55]] In looking back on the reign of Augustus and its legacy to the Roman world, its longevity ought not to be overlooked as a key factor in its success. People had been born and reached middle age without knowing any form of government other than the Principate.

Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC, for instance), matters may have turned out mfa creative very differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican aristocracy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years. Black Morrison Essay? Augustus's own experience, his patience, his tact, and his great political acumen also played their part. All of these factors allowed him to division, put an end to the chaos of the Late Republic and matters toni essay, re-establish the Roman state on a firm footing. Writing? He directed the future of the empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus's ultimate legacy, however, was the peace and prosperity the empire was to enjoy for the next two centuries under the matters essay, system he initiated. His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the opinion, Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor; although every emperor adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, only a handful earned genuine comparison with him. Benario, H.W., Octavian's Status in 32 BC, Chiron 5 (1975): 301-9. Birch, R.A., The Settlement of 26 June, AD 4 and its Aftermath, CQ 31 (1981): 443-56.

Bleicken, J., Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat: Zum Charakter des Zweiten Triumvirats (Göttingen, 1990). ________. Augustus (Berlin, 1998). Bradley, K.R., Slaves and essay, Masters in the Roman Empire (Oxford, 1987). Braund, D., Augustus to Nero: A Sourcebook on Roman History 31 BC - AD 68 (London, 1985). Carter, J. M., The Battle of Actium: The Rise and Triumph of Augustus Caesar (New York, 1970).

Conlin, D.A., The Artists of the Ara Pacis (Chapel Hill, 1997). Corbett, J.H., The Succession Policy of Augustus, Latomus 33 (1974): 87-97. Crook, J., Consilium Principis: Imperial Councils and Counsellors from Augustus to Diocletian (Cambridge, 1955). Demougin, S., L'Ordre equestre sous les Julio-Claudiens (Rome, 1988). Durry, M., Les Cohortes Prétoriennes (Paris, 1938). Eck, W., Die Verwaltung des römischen Reiches in der hohen Kaiserzeit , 2 volumes (Basel, 1995). W. Eck, The Age of study case Augustus (Oxford: Blackwell's, 2003) Eder, W., Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and Toher, 71-122. Fishwick, D., The Imperial Cult in the Latin West (Leiden, 1987).

Galinsky, K., Augustan Culture: An Interpretive Introduction (Princeton, 1996). Gowing, A.M. Matters Toni Morrison Essay? The Triumviral Narratives of Appian and Cassius Dio (Ann Arbor, 1992). Gray, E.W., The Imperium of M. Agrippa, ZPE 6 (1970): 227-38. Gruen, E. S., The Imperial Policy of Augustus, in Raaflaub and Toher, 395-416 (expanded on in his entry in CAH vol. 10) Gurval, R.A., Actium and Augustus: The Politics and Emotions of Civil War (Ann Arbor, 1995). Hadas, M., Sextus Pompey (New York, 1930; reprint, 1966). Issac, B., The Limits of Empire: The Roman Army in the East , revised edition (Oxford, 1992). Jameson, S., Augustus and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 24 (1975): 287-314.

Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik, eine Ausstellung im Martin-Gropius-Bau, Berlin, 7. College Rubric? Juni-14. August 1988 . (Mainz, 1988) . Keppie, L., Colonisation and Veteran Settlement in Italy, 47-14 BC (London, 1983). ________. Toni? The Making of the Roman Army: From Republic to Empire , updated edition (Norman, 1998). Kienast, D., Augustus: Prinzeps und Monarch (Darmstadt, 1982). ________. Römische Kaisertabelle , 2nd edition (Darmstadt, 1996). Kolb, F., Zur Statussymbolik im antiken Rom, Chiron 7 (1977): 239-59.

Lacey, W.K., Augustus and the Principate: The Evolution of the System (Liverpool, 1996). Lanza, C., Auctoritas Principis (Milan, 1996). Levick, B., Drusus Caesar and the Adoptions of AD 4, Latomus 25 (1966): 227-44. ________. Abdication and Agrippa Postumus, Historia 21 (1972): 674-97.

________. How Do You Write? Julians and Claudians, Greece and Rome 22 (1975): 29-38. Lintott, A., Imperium Romanum: Politics and Administration (London, 1993). Jones, A.H.M. Augustus (London, 1970) Magdelain, A., Auctoritas Principis (Paris, 1947). Mette-Dittman, A., Die Ehegesetze des Augustus: Eine Untersuchung im Rahmen der Gesellshaftspolitik des Prinzeps (Stuttgart, 1991). Millar, F., The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces, JRS 56 (1966): 156-66. ________.

Triumvirate and matters morrison essay, Principate, JRS 63 (1973): 50-67. ________. Division? The Emperor in the Roman World (London, 1977). ________. The Roman Empire and its Neighbours , 2nd edition (London, 1981). Millar, F. and E. Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects (Oxford, 1984). Ostrow, S.E., The Augustales in the Augustan Scheme, in toni Raaflaub and Toher, 364-78. Pollini, J., Man or God: Divine Assimilation and Imitation in the Late Republic and Early Empire, in Raaflaub and components, Toher, 334-63.

Prince, S.R.F., Rituals and Power: The Roman Imperial Cult in Asia Minor (Cambridge, 1984) Raaflaub, K., and L. J. Samons II, Opposition to Augustus, in black matters morrison Raaflaub and Toher, 417-54. ________. and M. Toher (eds.), Between Republic and you write narrative, Empire: Interpretations of Augustus and his Principate (Berkeley, 1990). Ramage, E.S., The Nature and Purpose of Augustus's Res Gestae (Stuttgart, 1987). Rawson, E., Discrimina Ordinum: The Lex Julia Theatralis, PBSR 55 (1987): 83-114 (reprinted in her Roman Culture and Society: Collected Papers [Oxford, 1991], 508-45). Rich, J.W., Cassius Dio and the Augustan Settlement (Warminster, 1990).

Reinhold, M., Marcus Agrippa: A Biography (Rome, 1965). Roddaz, J.-M., Marcus Agrippa (Rome, 1984). Salmon, E.T., The Evolution of black Augustus's Principate, Historia 5 (1956): 456-78. Schlüter, W. The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest: Archaeological Research at Kalkreise near Osnabrück, in J.D. Creighton and R.J.A.

Wilson (eds), Roman Germany: Studies in mfa creative programs Cultural Interaction (Portsmouth, RI, 1999), 125-59. Shotter, D.C., Augustus Caesar (London, 1991) Simon, E., Augustus: Kunst und Leben in Rom um die Zeitenwende (Munich 1986). Southern, P., Augustus (London, 1998). Syme, R., The Roman Revolution , rev. Black Matters Toni Essay? ed. (Oxford, 1952). ________. History in Ovid (Oxford, 1978). ________. The Augustan Aristocracy (Oxford, 1986).

Talbert, R.J.A., The Senate of analysis rubric Imperial Rome (Princeton, 1984). Taylor, L. R., The Divinity of the Roman Emperor (Middletown, 1931; reprint, New York, 1979). Von Premerstein, A. Vom Werden und Wesen des Prinzipate. Matters Toni Morrison? (Munich, 1937). Ward-Perkins, J.B., Roman Imperial Architecture , 2nd edition (Hammondsworth, 1981). Weigel, R.D., Lepidus: The Tarnished Triumvir (London, 1992). Whittaker, C.R., Frontiers of the Roman Empire: A Social and Economic Study (Baltimore, 1994). Williams, G., Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? Augustan Literary Patronage, in components writing Raaflaub and Toher, 258-75. Zanker, P., The Power of black morrison essay Images in the Age of Augustus (Ann Arbor, 1988). NOTES (throughout the notes, items in the bibliography are referred to in abbreviated form) [[1]] The chief ancient sources for the life of division or analysis essay Augustus (mostly available as Penguin Classics or in the Loeb Classical Library) are: Appian B. Civ . books 3-5; Dio, books 45-56; Cicero, Philippics and some letters; Nicolaus of Damascus, Augustus ; Plutarch, Mark Antony ; Suetonius, Augustus ; the Res Gestae Divi Augusti (see the edition by P.A.

Brunt and J.M. Moore [Oxford, 1967]). Black Toni Morrison Essay? Fragments of the biography of Augustus by Nicolaus of Damascus (fl. Mfa Creative Writing Programs? ca. 20 BC) are especially valuable, since this work is widely accepted as preserving elements of matters toni Augustus's lost De Vita Sua (covering the years down to 25 BC; Suet. Narrative Essay? Aug . Matters Essay? 1-18 appears also to be based on this autobiography). The surviving text of Nicolaus, however, only treats Octavian's life down to the raising of his private legions in 44 BC (for editions with English translations and division, notes, see J. Bellemore, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Bristol, 1984]; C.M.

Hall, Nicolaus of Damascus: Life of Augustus [Baltimore, 1923]). There are also innumerable references to him in other ancient literary works and inscriptions, and large quantities of iconographic evidence (statues, busts, reliefs, gems, etc). The number of matters toni essay modern accounts is also formidable, with useful and concise introductions to be found in Shotter, Augustus Caesar and Jones, Augustus . How Do You Write Narrative Essay? More thorough and specific treatments include Bleicken, Augustus ; Kienast, Augustus ; Millar and Segal, Caesar Augustus: Seven Aspects ; Raaflaub and Toher, Between Republic and Empire ; Southern, Augustus ; Syme, Roman Revolution ; id. History in Ovid . In the interests of black morrison conciseness, the notes emphasize the thesis opinion, ancient evidence; most of the secondary studies just cited tackle the issues addressed in this article. [[2]] The fall of the Roman Republic has also generated vast quantities of bibliography; see, esp., P.A. Brunt, The Fall of the Roman Republic and Related Essays (Oxford, 1988); M. Crawford and M. Beard, Rome in the Late Republic (Ithaca, 1985); F. Millar, The Crowd in Rome in the Late Republic (Ann Arbor, 1998); E. Gruen, The Last Generation of the Roman Republic (Berkeley, 1974); Syme, Rom. Rev . [[3]] The lack of popular enthusiasm for Caesar's naked autocracy is reflected in a famous incident during the Lupercalia (15 February) in 44 BC. Caesar had twice been offered a royal diadem in front of the crowd.

The crowd, we hear, reacted badly to this spectacle, remaining largely silent, despite the presence of black a pro-Caesar claque in their midst. Only when Caesar refused the crown did the crowd cheer wildly. See Dio 44.11-12; App. B. Civ . 2.109; Plut. Caes . 61-62. Suet.

Caes . 79.2 only alludes to thesis opinion, the incident. [[4]] Ancient accounts of Augustus's birth and early life are seriously marred by fantastical prophesies of future greatness, so that the historical reality is hard to weed out. He seems, however, to have lived a largely uneventful first nineteen years. Black Toni Essay? See Dio 45.1-2; Suet. Aug . 1-8; Nic. Aug . 2-5; Tac. Dial . 28.5 Cicero's letters provide the only contemporary evidence for Augustus's early career, and are indispensable for components of thesis writing that, but provide little information on his early life. A note on names: Augustus was born C. Matters Essay? Octavius, became C. Julius Caesar Octavianus (usually abbreviated Octavian in you write a personal modern sources) in black toni 44 BC, and was renamed yet again as Imperator Augustus Caesar in writing 27 BC. Matters? Following standard practice, I shall refer to him by his appropriate name in writing programs each period.

[[5]] Association with Caesar: Nic. Aug . 7-12. Aftermath of murder: App. Black? B. Civ . Division? 3.9-11. Octavian seems to have arrived in Italy in early April or late March: Cicero, in a letter from morrison essay, Astura dated 11 April, inquired of study case Atticus how it went ( Att . Toni? 14.5.3 = SB 359). Note that the influential Caesarian L. Munatius Plancus had taken note of the young Octavius prior to master opinion, Caesar's murder, so the young man had not gone entirely unnoticed by black toni essay the elite; see Cic. Fam . 10.24.5.

[[6]] For ancient narratives of the events here described, see App. B. Civ . You Write? 3.11-98; Dio 45.5.1-46.52.4; Nic. Black Essay? Aug . 16-31; Suetonius ( Aug . 8.3-12) presents a conflated and rather confused account. Augustus's own summary of this phase of master opinion his career ( RG 1.1) is matters morrison restricted to the simple and tendentious assertion he successfully championed the liberty of the republic when it was oppressed by the tyranny of a faction. [[7]] Technically, however, the adoption was not made official until October/November 43 BC. That is why, it seems, Cicero comments that, when he met Octavian at Puteoli on 22 April, 44 BC, his followers call him Caesar, but Philippus [Octavian's stepfather] does not, so neither do I ( Att . 14.12.2 = SB 366); the Liberator M. Junius Brutus also refers to Octavian as Octavius (Cic. Study Case? Ad Brut . 17.5-6, 25.1, 2, 7, 8, 11; dated June and July 43 BC). In contrast, L. Munatius Plancus, a Caesarian, calls Octavian Caesar in letters roughly contemporary with Brutus's (e.g., Cic. Fam . Black Toni Morrison Essay? 10.23.6, 10.24.4-8). The political importance of the name was beyond doubt to contemporaries. [[8]] Cicero first met Octavian in Naples on 19 April, 44 BC, one day after Octavian had arrived in the city ( Att . 14.10.3 = SB 364).

A few days later, on 22 April, he had decided that Octavian's influence on events could not be good, since his supporters were threatening death to the Liberators ( Att . How Do A Personal Essay? 14.12.2 = SB 366). [[9]] For his part, Cicero paid little attention to Octavius, at least initially: on 12 April, 44 BC he wrote to Atticus ( Att . 14.6.1 = SB 360), As for Octavius -- it's neither here not there. [[10]] Appian ( B. Matters Morrison? Civ . 3.14-21) puts windy speeches into both their mouths: Octavian asks for his inheritance, Antony refuses by components claiming the money is tied up in litigation, largely spent already, or not yet counted. Matters Essay? In contrast, Dio (45.5.3) merely comments that Antony insulted Octavian, despite the latter's deference and failure to demand his inheritance. Regardless of the details, in both accounts the meeting was not successful. [[11]] Cicero, in letters to Atticus dated 11 and thesis, 18 May, 44 BC ( Att . 14.20.5 = SB 374, 14.21.4 = SB 375, and 15.2.3 = SB 379), makes reference to Octavian addressing a contio in Rome and preparing to give games (see Dio 45.6.4). C. Matius, an obscure but affluent Caesarian, saw to the games at Octavian's request (Cic. Fam . 11.28.6). [[12]] See App.

B. Matters? Civ . 3.27, 30; Dio 45.9.3. [[13]] All of this took place in October and November 44 BC, as Cicero's letters make plain ( Att . 16.8.1-2 = SB 418; Fam . Writing? 12.23.2). Black Matters Toni Essay? See also App. B. Civ . Essay? 3.40-48; Dio 45.12. [[14]] Cicero, however, had been from the outset doubtful about toni morrison Octavian's nature and components of thesis, intentions; see Att . Black Matters Essay? 14.12.2 = SB 366 (April 44 BC) and in europe, 16.9 = SB 419 (November 44 BC). Needless to say, it was also to the political benefit of the Liberators and their supporters (Cicero among them) to matters essay, keep the Caesarian leadership quarrelling. [[15]] Cicero's speeches against Antony, called the Philippics , have survived. In Philippics 3-5 (dated 20 December, 44 BC - 1 January, 43 BC), Cicero secured Octavian's appointment as propraetor from the senate. See also Cic. Fam . 10.28.3 (dated 2 February, 43 BC) [[16]] App. B. Civ . 3.49-73; Cic.

Fam . 11.8.2 (Cicero to Decimus Brutus, dated late January, 43 BC), 10.30.4 (letter from division or analysis essay, Ser. Sulpicius Galba serving with consuls at Mutina, dated 15 April, 43 BC), 10.33.3-4 (letter from C. Asinius Pollio, dated late May, 43 BC); Cic. Phil . Matters Morrison? 14; Dio 45.12-46.38. Cicero's quip, reported back to him by Decimus Brutus in a letter dated 24 May, 43 BC ( Fam . Or Analysis Essay? 11.20.1) was that the youth [Octavian] should be praised, decorated, immortalized (the Latin-- laudandum, ornandum, tollendum --is deliberately ambiguous: tollere can mean both raise up and destroy). [[17]] App.

B. Civ . 3.74-95; Cic. Fam . 11.10.2, 11.13.1, 11.14.2 (correspondence to and from Decimus Brutus, dated May, 43 BC), 10.23.6 (letter from Plancus, dated 6 June, 43 BC). Octavian's election to the consulship took place on 19 August (as attested in the Feriale Cumanum , InscIt 13.2.278ff.), though his demand for the consulship appears to have begun in June (Cic. Ad Brut . 18.3); Dio 46.39-49. Black Matters Toni Morrison Essay? On Cassius and Brutus in the East, see App. B. Civ . 3.26, 63, 77-79, 96; Dio 47.20-36. [[18]] Overtures to Antony: App.

B. How Do You Write A Personal Narrative? Civ . 3.80-81. Meeting and formation of the triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 3.96-4.3 (Appian places the meeting at black toni morrison essay, Mutina); Dio 46.54.3-55.5. Passage of the lex Titia : App. Thesis Opinion? B. Civ . Black Morrison? 4.7; Dio 47.2.2. The terminal date of the opinion, triumvirate is unequivocally established by black matters essay the Fasti Colotiani . On the legalities of the Second Triumvirate, see Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat ; see also Millar, Triumvirate. [[19]] See App. B. Civ . 4.8-9 (text of proclamation) and writing programs, 4.10-51 (anecdotes of the proscribed); see also Dio 47.9-13.

Death of Cicero: App. B. Matters Toni? Civ . 4.19; Dio 47.8.3-4; Plut. Cic. 46-49. Plutarch ( Cic . 49.5) preserves the moving anecdote of Augustus, years later, unexpectedly confronted by you write a personal narrative his compliance in toni essay Cicero's murder. When visiting one of his grandsons, the fearful child attempted to conceal the book of Cicero he was reading. Of Thesis Writing? Augustus took the book, read it for some time, and gave it back to toni morrison, the boy saying, A learned man, my boy, learned and a true patriot. Dio (47.8.1), Pliny ( HN 7.147), Plutarch ( Ant . 21), Suetonius ( Aug . 27.1), and you write essay, Velleius (2.66.1-3) unite in black toni blaming the narrative essay, proscriptions mainly on Antony (and Lepidus), the former public enemies out for revenge; there has to be a suspicion of pro-Augustan retroactive finger-pointing here. (Perhaps the later tradition of Octavian's reluctance stems from apologia in Augustus's own Memoirs , now lost.) The final count of the black toni morrison, dead is given by Appian ( B. Essay? Civ . 4.5) as 300 senators and black morrison essay, 2,000 Knights. Southern (57-59) joins Kienast (35) in mfa creative programs arguing forcefully that the proscriptions were motivated by the mentality of the political purge, not financial need. [[20]] Africa: App.

B. Civ . 4.53-56. Matters Toni Morrison Essay? Campaign of Philippi: App. B. Civ . 4.86-139; Dio 47.37-49. Writing? Octavian's limited role in the fighting: Dio 47.41.1-4; Pliny HN 7.148. Re-alignment of the triumviral provinces: App. B. Civ . 5.3, 12; Dio 48.1.2-3. Black Toni Morrison? (Cisalpine Gaul now ceased to analysis essay rubric, be a province and was finally integrated into Italia.) [[21]] On the toni morrison essay, depradations of the soldiers in Italy, see Dio 47.14.4-5. On this settlement, see Keppie, Colonisation , 58-69. On the methods and components of thesis, impact of veteran settlement, see ibid., 87-133. The eighteen towns: App. B. Civ . 4.3 (Appian says the black morrison, towns were remarkable for their wealth and fine lands and division, houses).

It should be noted that where the territory of a designated veteran colony proved insufficient for black matters the requirements of settlement, the territory of neighboring towns would be encroached upon, occasionally to the point of total subsumption (e.g., Caudium, entirely absorbed by the settlement at Beneventum). Thus, many more than the thesis, eighteen towns mentioned by Appian were affected by the settlement process. [[22]] On the Perusine War, see App. B. Civ . Matters Toni Essay? 5.14, 30-51; Dio 48.13-14 . Antony's complicity: App. B. Civ . 5.21-22; Dio 48.28. Execution of programs councilors: App. B. Essay? Civ . 5.48; Dio 48.14.3.

Acquisition of Gaul: App. Mfa Creative Writing Programs In Europe? B. Civ . 5.51, 53; Dio 48.20.1, 3. [[23]] Threatened war and matters essay, Pact of Brundisium: App. B. Civ. 5.52-65; Dio 48.28-30. [[24]] Career of Sextus: App. B. Civ . 2.105, 122, 3.4, 4.25, 36-54 (passim), 83-85, bk. 5 (passim); Dio 47.36.4, 47.49.4, 48.16-20. Date of appointment of Sextus to the prefecture of the fleet: Cic.

Phil . 13.13. Sextus's pact with Antony: App. B. Civ . Master Thesis Opinion? 5.56. Treaty of Misenum/Puteoli: App. B. Civ . 5.67-74 (Appian places the meeting at Puteoli); Dio 48.36-38. The scene at the latter was almost comical (as described by Appian): Antony and Octavian sat on a platform built over the sea close to the land; Sextus had his own, more seaward platform with his ships behind.

A narrow strip of water separated the two platforms. Negotiations were then shouted across the sea until agreement was reached. On Sextus Pompeius, see also Hadas, Sextus Pompey . In Syme's view ( Rom. Rev ., 221), the Peace of Puteoli enlarged the Triumvirate to include a fourth partner, which is something of an overstatement, given its evidently expedient nature. [[25]] Collapse of Misenum/Puteoli agreement and war: App. B. Civ . 5.77-92; Dio 48.45.4-49 . Toni Morrison Essay? Treaty of Tarentum and renewal of triumvirate: App. B. Civ . 5.93-95; Dio 48.54.1-6. Master Opinion? The issue of the duration of the second period of the triumvirate has proven difficult: was it renewed at morrison, Tarentum (September?, 37 BC) retroactively from 1 January, 37 BC (to end on 31 December, 33 BC) or did it run directly from September(?), 37 BC (to end sometime toward the end of 32 BC)? The more convincing case is on the side of the retroactive view: see the excellent summary in Benario, Octavian's Status. See also Bleicken, Zwischen Republik und Prinzipat , 65-82; id., Augustus , 269-70; W. Eder, Augustus and the Power of Tradition: The Augustan Principate as Binding Link Between Republic and Empire, in Raaflaub and how do you write narrative, Toher, 97-98; Jones, 31; Kienast, 55; Southern, 94. In all likelihood, Republican legalities played a lesser part in the considerations of the time than the observable reality of the triumvirate's dominance and, therefore, in the actual operation of its power; see below, n. 29.

On the growth of Octavian's party at this time, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 227-42. [[26]] Final campaign against Sextus: App. B. Civ . 5.96-144; Dio 49.1-18. Lepidus: App.

B. Civ . 5.123; Dio 49.11.2-12.4; see also Weigel, Lepidus . Lepidus's rash actions were, in Syme's words, sparked by a strange delusion ( Rom. Rev ., 232). These events in Sicily were capped by unrest among the legions there, with the soldiers demanding rewards for service. Octavian discharged 20,000 of them on the spot and promised the rest bounties after campaigns in matters toni essay Illyricum; see Appian and Dio locc. citt.; Keppie, Colonisation , 69-73. [[27]] One of the honors allegedly given to Octavian after Naulochus, late in thesis opinion 36 BC, was the tribunician power (App. B. Civ . 5.132). However, Augustus later reckoned his tribunician power from 23 BC, which settles the argument decisively: he did not get it in 36 BC. Dio is probably correct (49.15.6) in saying that he was given a tribune-like protection from insult or injury ( sacrosanctitas ). Black Matters Morrison? Refusal of the pontificate: App.

B. Civ . Study Case? 5.131; Dio 49.15.3; Suet. Aug . 31.1. Burning of the records: App. B. Civ . 3.132. [[28]] Antony's wars in the East: Dio 49.19-30; Plut. Ant . 37-52. Octavian in Illyricum: App.

Ill . 12-28. Matters? Antony's behavior and the Donations of Alexandria (much of college rubric it no doubt drawn from pro-Augustus propaganda): Dio 49.41, Plut. Ant . 54.3-6 (Donations); Dio 50.4-5 (behavior). Cleopatra's ambitions: Dio 50.4.1, 5.4. Rising tensions: Plut.

Ant . 54-55. Agrippa's aedileship and matters morrison essay, munificence instigated by Octavian: Dio 49.43.1-4; Pliny HN 36.121; Roddaz, 145-57 (aedileship); Suet. Aug . 29.4-5; Vell. Pat. 2.89.4 (munificence). [[29]] On the date of the expiration of the triumviral powers, see above n. 25. It is my opinion that many modern scholars, wedded to contemporary paradigms of legally-sanctioned government, have overstated the importance of legalities in establishing the powers of Roman Republican officials; precedent, ritual, and appearance were just as important, if not more so. College Rubric? Certainly traditional procedures and practices were used during the Republic to legitimate magisterial authority, but many of these niceties had fallen by the wayside in the years since Pompey and Caesar. Time and again in the period after Sulla extraordinary powers and black toni, privileges had been voted to generals in recognition of their de facto supremacy. So too now, with Octavian. Technically, his triumviral powers had lapsed.

No one, however, not even the Antonian consuls for master 32 BC, C. Sosius and Cn. Domitius Ahenobarbus, were going to point that out publicly; although the content of Sosius's anti-Octavian speech of 1 January, 32 BC has not survived, that he focused on the expiration of the triumviral powers is morrison unlikely, since the lapse applied to Antony as well. The reality of Octavian's pre-eminence in the West overshadowed the strict legalities of his position. Components Writing? On ritual, ceremony, and appearance in Republican magistracy, see D.J. Gargola, Lands, Laws and Gods: Magistrates and Ceremony in the Regulation of Public Lands in Republican Rome (Chapel Hill, 1995), esp. Black Matters Toni? 16-24; R. Stewart, Public Office in Early Rome: Ritual Procedure and Political Practice (Ann Arbor, 1998).

The 1 January meeting of the senate and aftermath: Dio 50.2.3-7. Opinion? Reading Antony's will: Dio 50.3.1-4.1, Plut. Ant . 58.3-4. Oath: RG 25.2; Dio 50.6.3-4 (where the oath is unmentioned but implicit); Suet. Aug . 17.2. Augustus himself ( RG , loc. cit.) states that the matters toni, oath was voluntary ( sponte sua ), but it may not have been (see Dio and Suetonius, locc. citt.). Syme ( Rom.

Rev ., 284) was convinced the components of thesis writing, oath came before the denunciation of Antony in the senate and the declaration of war and, in a rousing phrase, believed the oath riveted the shackles of [Italy's] servitude. [[30]] Campaign at Actium: Dio 50.10-35; Plut. Black Toni Morrison? Ant . 61-68.3; Vell. Pat. 2.84-85; Carter, Battle of Actium . The forces on each side were monumental: about 30 legions apiece, and study case, Antony had 500 warships to Octavian's 250 (Plut. Ant . 61). For the later reception of the Actian campaign, see Gurval, Actium and Augustus . [[31]] Aftermath of Actium: Dio 51.1-17; Plut. Matters? Ant . 68.4-86. Date of the fall of Alexandria: Fasti Praenestini and Amiterini ( InscrIt . 13.2.107 and 13.2.185).

Cleopatra, according to Plutarch ( Ant . 78-86.3), was taken alive by Octavian, who planned to display her at his triumph. But she had an asp smuggled into how do a personal essay, a banquet she was holding, hidden among a plate of toni figs. (The asp bit her on the arm, not the breast, according to Plutarch [ Ant . 86.1-3] and Dio [51.14.1-2].) The revolt or plot of essay Lepidus is a shadowy affair: Vell. Pat. 2.88; Dio 54.15.4; Suet. Black Matters? Aug . 19.1. [[32]] Settling affairs in the East: Dio 51.18. Mfa Creative Writing In Europe? Veteran settlements: Keppie, Colonisation , 73-82. Wealth of Egypt used for settlements: Dio 51.17.6-8.

Three triumphs: Dio 51.21.6-9. Toni? By universal consent I was in complete control of affairs: RG 34.1. On 11 January, 29 BC the doors of the Temple of Janus in division or analysis Rome were closed, symbolizing that the entire Roman world was at peace (though Dio is quick to point out the various wars still in black matters toni morrison progress in study case diverse locales): it had only happened twice before in all of matters morrison Roman history (Dio 51.20.4-5). A Personal? Such a symbolic gesture must have had a powerful effect on those who witnessed or heard about it and reinforced the notion of morrison essay Octavian as the bringer of peace. Or Analysis? Honors: Dio 51.19-21. [[33]] None of this is meant to suggest that the system later called the Principate was, in its entirety, planned out and matters essay, effected according to a pre-ordained blueprint, but rather that Octavian, in the run up to the First Settlement, must have given careful thought to study case, his position and acted accordingly. That attitude, in black toni essay fact, had marked his behavior from the narrative, very outset of his career and was encapsulated in his favorite aphorisms, Rush slowly ( festina lente ) and Whatever is done well enough is done quickly enough ( sat celeriter fieri quidquid fiat satis bene ; see, for both, Suet. Black Matters Essay? Aug . 25.4).

These are the mottoes of writing programs a patient and careful planner. Nevertheless, that the Principate emerged piecemeal over toni essay almost three decades was demonstrated long ago by E.T. Salmon in how do you write narrative essay his seminal article, The Evolution of Augustus's Principate; see also Lacey, Augustus and the Principate . Black Essay? Need for a rector : Cic. Rep . Division Or Analysis? 2.51; 5.5, 6; 6.13. As consul in black morrison essay 28 BC, Octavian had annulled all the illegal acts of the triumvirate, effectively wiping the slate clean in that department (Dio 53.2.6); his behavior in this year, with Agrippa as his colleague, was generally traditional, generous, and exemplary (Dio 53.1-2). A new beginning was being heralded, support for it organized, and its nature indicated: later, Augustus himself considered the events of 28 and mfa creative programs in europe, 27 BC as part of a single process of black morrison essay transferring the republic from my power to the dominion of the senate and people of Rome ( RG 34.1). [[34]] First Settlement: Dio 53.3-17.1; RG 34.1-2; Suet.

Aug . 28.1; Vell. 2.89. Settlement staged: Dio 53.2.7. Division of provinces: Dio 53.12; see also Millar, The Emperor, the Senate and the Roman Provinces. Study Case? Debate over legal status of morrison Octavian: Southern, 111-13. Imperium proconsulare is more likely to have been granted for ten years than imperium consulare , which Octavian already held by virtue of his consulship: or was it expected he would be consul every year for the following ten years? On the writing, settlement, see, e.g., Bleicken, 315-42; Rich, Cassius Dio ; Southern, 111-17; Syme, Rom. Rev . 313-30. [[35]] Travels of Augustus: Dio 53.22.5. Illness and recovery: Dio 53.30.3; Hor.

Epist . 1.15; Pliny HN 25.77; Suet. Aug. 81.1. Conspiracy: Dio 54.3.2-3 (who dates the event to 22 BC, so breaking the direct link between it and the Settlement of black matters toni 23); Vell. Pat. 2.91.2; the details are perceptively discussed by Raaflaub and Samons, Opposition to Augustus, 425-27; see also Rich, Dio Cassius , 168-69. Second Settlement: Dio 53.32; RG 10.1; Suet. You Write A Personal Narrative Essay? Aug . 28.1. For the Cyrenaica decrees, see below n. 48.

[[36]] Refusal of dictatorship et al.: Dio 54.1.3-4; RG 5.1-2; Vell. Pat. 2.89.5; Suet. Black Essay? Aug . Writing Programs? 52. Cura annonae : Dio 54.1.3. Toni Essay? Ius primae relationis : Dio 54.3.3. Privileges of 19 BC: Dio 54.10.3-7; RG 6.1; Suet. Aug . 27.5. Father of the Country: Dio 55.10.10; RG 35.1; Suet. Aug . Master Opinion? 58. Priesthoods: RG 7.3.

Auctoritas : RG 34.3; see also Cic. Off . 2.2; Magdelain, Auctoritas Principis ; Lanza, Auctoritas Principis ; a useful overview is now Galinsky, 10-41. Dio (55.34.2) reports that in AD 8, when he had become too infirm to attend elections in person, Augustus would post the names of the candidates for office he favored; it's hard to imagine such candidates failing. Black? Galinsky (42-79) surveys the establishment of the Principate with emphasis on the terminology of power Augustus uses to describe it. [[37]] Continuity of Principate: Suet.

Aug . 28.1-2. [[38]] Before marrying Livia Drusilla in 39 BC, he had been married to Clodia, stepdaughter of Antonius ( PIR 2 C 1057), from 43-41 BC; and then to Scribonia ( PIR S 220), from 40-39 BC. Appearance at triumph: Suet. Tib . 6.4. Marriage: Dio 53.27.5. Aedile/legal age: Dio 53.28.3. Study Case? Successor in power: Vell. Pat. 2.93.1. Deathbed scene: Dio 53.30.1-2; Suet.

Aug . 28.1. Toni Morrison? Death and burial of Marcellus: Dio 53.30.4. Livia 's rumored hand in his demise (Dio 53.33.4.) is entirely unproven; that summer in Rome was considered particularly unhealthy and writing programs in europe, death by illness was widespread (Dio loc. cit.). Marcellus was not adopted by toni essay Augustus: the RG (21.1) refers to him as my son-in-law as does Marcellus's epitaph (Braund, 27). [[39]] Octavius in how do Caesar's triumph: see n. 5. Matters Toni Morrison? Octavius granted right of standing early: App.

B. Civ . 3.51. [[40]] Agrippa goes East: Dio 53.31.2-4; Pliny HN 7.149; Tac. Ann . 14.53.3; Suet. Aug . 66.3, Tib . 10.3. Agrippa's power in the east: Gray, Imperium of M. How Do You Write A Personal Essay? Agrippa.

Maecenas's quip: Dio, 54.6.5. Marriage: Dio 54.6.5; Suet. Matters Morrison? Aug . 63.1. Agrippa's powers: Dio 54.12.4-5 (18 BC), 54.28.1 (13 BC). [[41]] Coins: RIC nos. 407, 408, 414. A Personal Narrative? Gaius and Lucius Caesar: Dio 54.18.1, Tac.

Ann . 1.3. Tiberius and Drusus' advancement: see DIR's Tiberius . As to the Regency or paired-succession propositions (for which, see, respectively, R. Seager, Tiberius [London, 1972], 18-22, 24-26, 29-38, recently restated in Southern, 162, 168; and B. Levick, Tiberius the Politician (London, 1976), 19-67; ead., Drusus Caesar), what ensured that Agrippa the regent would step down when required to do so? What mechanisms realistically existed for depriving an incumbent regent or princeps of his powers? Indeed, if Agrippa did not step down but died in office, what makes him a regent and not an matters toni morrison essay, emperor? The paired accession idea is no more convincing, since Augustus was under no illusions as to the extreme inadvisability, if not impossibility, of attempting to share supreme power (see Suet. Aug . 28.1): his own career as triumvir was illustration enough of that. As it was, joint accessions were not seriously entertained until the second century and beyond, when the Principate was well established, and most were unsuccessful. That Augustus was blind to the danger of presenting two equally qualified and favored candidates to the armed forces is all but inconceivable. [[42]] Death of Agrippa: Dio 54.28.2-3, 29. Marriage of Tiberius and master opinion, Julia: Dio 54.31.2.

For more detailed discussion of these events with reference to black matters toni morrison, the ancient material involved, see the DIR's Tiberius , C. and L. Caesar, Germanicus , Agrippa Postumus. See also, Birch, Settlement; Levick, Drusus Caesar; Seager, Tiberius , 35-38. Germanicus, the son of Tiberius' brother Drusus, was himself a Claudian but his marriage to Agrippina (Augustus's granddaughter) offered hope of a Julian heir in the fourth generation. [[43]] Fall of how do you write narrative Julia the Elder: Dio 55.10.12-16; Suet. Aug . 65.1, Tib . 11.4; Tac. Ann . 1.53.1; Vell. Black Toni? Pat. 2.100.2-5. For the political scheming view, see Levick, Julians and Claudians. Fall of Agrippa Postumus: Dio 55.32.1-2; Suet. Aug . Components Of Thesis Writing? 65.1, 65.4; Levick, Abdication; Jameson, Augustus and Agrippa Postumus.

Fall of Julia the Younger: Suet. Aug . 19.1, 65.1. [[44]] For a concise account of the Roman army under Augustus, see Keppie, Making of the Roman Army , 145-71; also Bleicken, 541-63, Jones, 110-16. On the praetorians, see Durry, Cohortes Prétoriennes , esp. 65-89. [[45]] On Augustus's campaigns, see RG 26-27; Keppie, loc. cit. in n. 44. Toni Morrison Essay? On the Varan disaster, see Schlüter, The Battle of the Teutoburg Forest. For an overview of Augustus's foreign policy, see Gruen, Imperial Policy. On the bigger question of frontiers and imperial growth, see Isaac, Limits of Empire , esp. 372-418; Whittaker, Frontiers of the Roman Empire , esp. 10-98 (who includes discussion of ancient concepts of space and master thesis, cartography).

On the reactive nature of black toni morrison ancient government, see Millar, Roman Empire and its Neighbours , esp. 52-80. For the stations of the legions on Augustus's death, see n. 48. [[46]] On the Crassus affair, see Dio 52.23.2-27.3; Livy 4.19-20 (the previous awards of spolia opima were to study case, A. Cornelius Cossus in matters toni morrison the late fifth century BC and M. Claudius Marcellus in of thesis writing 222 BC). On Gallus, see Dio 53.23.5-24.1.

The inscription ( ILS 8995) is worth quoting: C. Cornelius Gallus, son of Cnaeus, Roman knight, appointed the first Prefect of Alexandria and of Egypt after its kings had been defeated by Caesar, son of black a god; he [Gallus] was twice victor in pitched battles during the Theban revolt, within 15 days, in which he defeated the enemy; he took by assault five cities (Boresos, Coptus, Ceramice, Diospolis Magna, and Opheium) and captured the leaders of their revolts; he led an army beyond the cataphract of the master, Nile, into which region arms had not previously been borne either by the Roman people or by the kings of Egypt; he took Thebes, the shared fear of black matters toni essay all the kings (of Egypt); he received ambassadors of the Ethiopian king at Philae and received that king into his protection; he appointed a ruler over the Ethiopian region of Triacontaschoenus. He [Gallus] gave and dedicated this monument to analysis essay college rubric, the ancestral gods and the Nile, his helper. A useful overview of both incidents is provided by matters toni essay Southern (115-17). Augustus arrogated for narrative himself victories won by his generals: the successes of Tiberius and Drusus on the Rhine and Danube in 12 and 11 BC caused him to add two imperatorial acclamations to his titles; Tiberius and matters toni morrison essay, Drusus got none (Dio 54.33.5). Agrippa refusing triumphs: Dio 53.23.4 (general modesty of how do a personal Agrippa), 54.11.6 (over the Cantabri), 54.24.7 (over the Bosporus). [[47]] For a useful overview of this subject, see Lintott, Imperium Romanum , 111-28. On the consilium , instituted between 27 and matters toni morrison, 18 BC, see Dio 53.21.3-5 (quote at 53.21.6); Suet. Aug . Essay? 35.4; Crook, Consilium Principis . On the role of the imperial senate, see Talbert, Senate of Imperial Rome , esp.

Part Three: Functions. On suffect consuls, see ibid., 202-7. Matters Toni Morrison? Newly-created positions: Suet. Aug . 37. On the equestrians, see Demougin, Ordre Equestre . The rosy picture of imperial rule painted by Velleius Paterculus (of equestrian status) reflects, perhaps, not only Velleius's sycophantic personality but also a genuine sense of gratitude toward the imperial regime on the part of his class as a whole. Note also Syme, Augustan Aristocracy . [[48]] Cyrenaica decrees: SEG 9 (1944) 8 = FIRA 1.68. The disposition of the empire's territories on Augustus's death was as follows: Territory Status Type of Governor Legions. Baetica Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Lusitania Imperial legat. Components Of Thesis? Aug. (ex-praetor) - Tarrocensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3.

Narbonensis Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Aquitania Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Belgica Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lugdunensis Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Germany (after AD 9, the area west of the Rhine) Military zone n/a 2 legat.

Aug. (ex-consuls) 8 (4 and 4) (Upper and Lower) Cottian Imperial equest. pref. - Maritime Imperial equest. pref. - Upper Danube region. Raetia Imperial equest. pref. - Noricum Imperial equest. pref. - Lower Danube region/northern Balkans. Illyricum Imperial (11 BC) legat. Matters Morrison Essay? Aug. Analysis Essay College? (ex-consul) 2. Pannonia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 3. Moesia Imperial legat.

Aug. (ex-consul) 2. Macedonia Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Achaea Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Thrace Client kingdom - - Asia Public proconsul (ex-consul) - Bythinia-Pontus Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Galatia Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-praetor) - Lycia Free federation - - Pontus Client kingdom - - Cappadocia Client kingdom - - Several client principalities - - Syria Imperial legat. Aug. (ex-consul) 4. Judaea Imperial equest. pref. Black? - Several client principalities - - Egypt Imperial equest. pref. 2. Cyrenaeca Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Africa Public proconsul (ex-consul) 1. Mauretania Client Kingdom - - Sicily Public proconsul (ex-praetor) - Sardinia Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Corsica Imperial (AD 6) equest. pref pro legato - Cyprus Public (23 BC) proconsul (ex-praetor) - Crete was part of Cyrenaeca. [[49]] For a concise overview of master opinion Augustus's arrangement and administration of the provinces, see Jones, 94-109. See also Bleicken, 391-438; Eck, Verwaltung , 1.83-158. In the regions of Augustus's military activity, of course, matters were not so pleasant; see Dio 56.16.3 on the comment of Bato, leader of the Pannonian revolt of AD 6-9, that the Romans were responsible for the war, since you send as guardians of your flocks not dogs or shepherds, but wolves.

Sulla in the East: Plut. Matters Morrison Essay? Sulla 12.3-9 (pilfering of Greece), 22.5 (indemnity from Mithridates), 25.2 (vast fine extorted from Asian communities). Caesar in Spain and mfa creative writing, Gaul: Plut. Caes . 12.4 (Spain), 29.3-4. Black Matters Toni Morrison Essay? On Augustus's image, see Zanker's seminal work, The Power of Images . [[50]] There remains to be written a comprehensive account of Augustus's legislation and social programmes; most of the standard biographies contain pertinent chapters or sections of chapters (e.g., Jones, 131-43; Southern, 146-52).

On the marriage laws, see Mette-Dittman, Ehegesetze . On the status symbols of the equestrians, see Kolb, Status-symbolik. A good example of how do a personal his stiffening of the social hierarchy was the regulation of seating arrangements at spectacles by social class, enforced empire-wide: see Suet. Aug . 44.1; Rawson, Discrimina Ordinum. Legislation on manumission and freedmen: Bradley, Slaves and Masters , 84-95. Augustus's private foibles: Suet. Aug . 68-71. [[51]] On the morrison essay, imperial cult, see the still classic study of Taylor, Divinity . For regional studies, see Fishwick, Imperial Cult (on the West) and Price, Rituals and Power (on the East). On the growth of the cult in Augustus's lifetime, see Galinsky, 312-31; Ostrow, Augustales ; Pollini, Man or God. On the contemporary worship of Augustus's numen , see, e.g., Hor. Epist . How Do You Write A Personal Essay? 2.1.15; Ovid Trist . 3.8.13.

[[52]] Quote: Dio 56.30.3; Suet. Aug . 28.3. Building projects: RG 19-21, 24. Augustus's building activity and his encouragement of others to morrison essay, munificence: Suet. Aug . 28.2-29.5; Vell. Pat. Components? 2.89.4. Black Matters Morrison Essay? A succinct survey of the Augustan building programme in Rome remains Ward-Perkins, Roman Imperial Architecture , 21-44.

On the much-studied Ara Pacis, see RG 12.2; Dio 54.25.1-4; recent analyses include Conlin, Artists of the Ara Pacis ; Galinsky, 141-55. For a survey of the varied artistic achievements of the period, see Galinsky, 141-224; Kaiser Augustus und die verlorene Republik . [[53]] On the you write a personal narrative essay, literature of the period, consult any standard history of Latin literature (e.g., the Cambridge History of Classical Literature , vol. Morrison? 2, ed. E.J. Kenney, [1982]); for a concise overview, see Galinsky, 225-87.

On Maecenas, see Williams, Did Maecenas 'Fall from Favor'? (note also the individual chapters in Raaflaub and Toher treating Livy, Vergil, Horace, and Ovid). For the definitive presentation of the state-controlled model of study case Augustan literature, see Syme, Rom. Rev ., 459-75. For more moderated views, see., e.g., Galinsky, passim (esp. 229-34). Black Matters Toni Essay? My Pompeian: Tac. Ann . 4.34.4 (the anecdote, ironically, appears in the context of the trial of study case a later historian, A. Cremutius Cordus, charged with maiestas under Tiberius in AD 25 for morrison essay praising Brutus and Cassius in master thesis opinion his history). [[54]] Withdrawal: Dio 55.33.5, 55.34.2, 56.26.2-3, 56.28.1-2; see also Southern, 181-90. Tiberius's position: Suet.

Tib . 21.1; Vell. Pat. 2.121.1. Livia 's alleged involvement: Dio 56.30. Black Matters Essay? Death and burial: Dio 56.29-42; Suet. Aug . A Personal Narrative Essay? 98-101. Will: Dio 56.32; Suet. Aug . 101.4. [[55]] Original position of the RG : RG pr.; Suet. Aug . Toni? 101.4. ). For a recent analysis, see Ramage, Nature and Purpose . Copyright 1999, Garrett G. Fagan. This file may be copied on the condition that the entire contents, including the in europe, header and this copyright notice, remain intact.

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