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Archaea and Their Use in essay Making Biofuels. Archaea and Their Use in Making Biofuels. Archaea in the Ancient Past. Need essay sample on Archaea and Their Use in Making Biofuels ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for you for only $12.90/page. From fossil evidence, scientists say that 3.5 billion years ago the oldest known living creature on shelley earth appeared in its oceans. It was a bacterium, classified as a primitive prokaryote, a single celled organism.
This origin of electric guitar essay, life, a single cell, was so simple it had no compartments and was just made of nucleic acids and mary thesis proteins with a thin cell membrane, very much unlike most modern day bacteria. They were adapted to the environment then which was much different from today it was a world with very little oxygen, and electric guitar high ocean water temperatures among others. These ancient bacteria were first called archaebacteria (from the Greek word meaning ancient ones) and are generally believed to be the thesis descendants of all living things on guitar essay earth. They are still found today in harsh environments such as 2 km deep in oceans or in boiling springs such as in the Yellowstone National Park in the United States. (Priest,1994) Archaea in recent times. Later scientific studies and findings showed that the architecture report term archaebacteria is not correct because these organisms are not really bacteria. Initially thought to belong to the same classification as bacteria , both being prokaryotes , archaea was later classified separately , thus the three kingdom domain that is recognized today is this : bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes are one celled organisms that have no nuclei and electric guitar other cell components, but with ribosomes RNA 70 S which makes them not sensitive to broad spectrum antibiotics.
They also have and no peptidoglycan in illiad essays their cell wall . Eukaryotes have nuclei, other cellular organelles, and ribosomes RNA 80 S. Electric! Algae, fungi and essay in market medieval popular protozoa belong to this class.. Guitar! These are one celled organisms without nuclei and other cellular structures, Their cell wall has no peptidoglycan, and they reproduce by binary fission. Nutritionally this class or organisms is yourself essay medical so diverse they can be chemoorganotropic or chemoautotropic. Further genomic studies in recent times verify that archaea may be the most ancient lineage of organisms, and that perhaps all further forms of life evolved from it.(Wang et al 2007). Originally archaea were thought to exist only in extremely harsh environments. Later they were found also in all habitats and it is now estimated to contribute up to 20% of total biomass on electric guitar essay earth. Archaea may be differentiated into 3 groups based on their physiology. Architecture Thesis! However this classification is not a very strict one, as some members may exhibit common characteristics of two or more groups. This rough delineation is useful though as it provides an important information for ecological studies. Electric Essay! Halophiles which include the genus Halobacterium live in extremely salty environments with up to describe school, 25% salt or more. Thermophiles on the other hand can withstand very hot locations and some can even thrive in hot springs or inside volcano craters.
If the organism has optimal growth at more than 80°C, it is called a hyperthermophile. There have been reports of organisms surviving up to 121°C. There are some thermophilic bacteria that can withstand high temperatures, but once the pH goes down to pH 5, only archaea are known to proliferate. Acidophiles are reported to withstand pH 0 and even lower . In latest studies, it was discovered that archaea exist not only in mesophilic and thermophilic environments but surprisingly also in very low temperatures too. Methanogens of the archae family that produce methane gas, were found in essay cold sediments and outline school other low temperature environments. Archaea in guitar essay the world’s very cold oceans can come up to 40% of the microbial biomass. Because of their abundance in nature, and their presence since three billion years ago, more studies are needed to fully understand the physiology of illiad essays, these organisms and how they exert influence on the biogeochemical cycles of the oceans (interestingly, some marine archae were found to be able to nitrify, and this is a previously unheard trait of archaea so far.). In the last decade, the biotechnology industry has shown a lot of interest in organisms of the Archaea Kingdom. As previously stated above, many of these ancient prokaryotes can live in some of the guitar most hostile environments on the planet, such as hyper-saline lakes, acidic hot springs, and near-boiling deep ocean vents which have extreme environments of temperature, salinity, pressure, pH, radiation or oxygen tension. They can be found in volcanic hot springs, alkaline lakes, deep seas, oil wells, black smokers and highly acidic solutions that seep from ores and mine refuse piles.
Even in describe yourself essay school extra harsh locations such as in mines 5 miles underground, having no light, water or air, in nuclear wastes, in geysers or beneath Antartica’s ice, amazingly, countless species of bacteria can still survive. There is another type of archaea that produce methane under anaerobic conditions, and electric essay these are called methanogens.. They may also be found in wetlands . It is said that these organisms produce the methane found in flatulence. In marine sediments methane production by microorganisms happens below the top layers when sulfate substrates become too low. In anaerobic environments methanogens remove products of anaerobic respiration. These could be hydrogen and other fermentation products. The gas methane that is produced is combustible and is also a biofuel. In areas beneath landfills and garbage waste areas where oxygen and other electron acceptors such as nitrates or sulfates are absent, methane gas is research paper also formed by these archaea strains. Methane in large quantities can also be converted to methanol or even ethanol using specific catalytic reaction processes. The term extremophiles is also used for the group of organisms of the archaea kingdom which have existed in such diverse and extremely harsh environments.
Because of these special properties, they are important research subjects for ecological studies. Essay! They survived by developing unique strategies for stabilising their nucleic acids and other macromolecules in vivo, having new pathways of chemical transformation and energy transduction processes, and extremely heat-stable proteins( Ahring 2006).. Because of illiad essays, studies done on the proteins involved in the molecular adaptation of these organisms, scientists are now working on applications in industrial processes, one of the most important of which is on biofuels production. All these varied characteristics of archaea led to a growing scientific interest in discovering their mechanisms of survival and how, thru gene transfer technology these traits can be transferred so they can help solve current energy and environment concerns of modern man. Despite their potential, the electric use of extremophiles in production operations has so far not been as straightforward as hoped. It was found that when they are not in architecture report their natural habitat they can have very low cell yield. Understanding their physiological characteristics and optimal cultivation conditions is essential to obtain the highest possible yields and obtain their maximum potential. Pressing Need for Biofuels. The great concern on global warming, the greenhouse effect and related climate based phenomena has come upon us in the last two decades. It is generally accepted that human activity that generates carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases contributes to electric essay, the problem. Outline Middle! Energy requirements derived from fossil fuels such as crude oil or coal generates such environment sensitive gases.
Thus the drive to turn to renewable energy sources such as the sun, the wind, and even waves. Plants are also a huge resource to provide biofuels that emit cleaner emissions, thus giving man another better option. Plants also absorb a lot of the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide during their growth period, thus helping decrease this gas in the atmosphere. Development of these alternative sources of energy, aside from resulting in a cleaner environment, has the added advantage of making man less dependent on finite fossil derived resources which are often imported and controlled by economic, geographic, logistic and political factors on a national level. Essay! Production of fuels and even other chemicals from locally grown plant material supports political and economic independence, a CO2 neutral energy production keeping dollars within the country. This is illiad essays very important especially for remote and low income agricultural areas and guitar developing countries. In addition to illiad essays, all these, fossil based energy sources are finite and are not expected to last long. Electric Essay! Indeed there are several pressing reasons to look for alternative fuel sources if we are to act in a strategic way towards our world’s energy requirements for the next decades. It is estimated that worldwide, about 27% of energy requirements is illiad essays used for transportation. The segment is also growing at the highest rate. (Antoni 2007). This makes transportation fuels a good target to electric, zero in on the direction to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
To date however, only illiad essays a limited selection of electric guitar essay, energy-rich chemical compounds, including some liquid alcohols and esters, can be produced by describe school, microbes. This is because there are standards which have to be met regarding quality of the biofuels and strict compliance with the other criteria necessary for modern fuels are required. These include suitability for safe storage, capability to power transport engines and high energy efficiency in combustion engines. For air transport the energy density of the fuel also has high importance because the fuel comprises a significant fraction of the load of the aircraft. Much work still has to be done in this area to enable production of more types of fuels by microbes. Biomass fuels have been used throughout man’s long history. Most of them were alcohols produced by the fermentation of substances like starch or sugars, others were plant oils. Aside from electric guitar, serving as fuel and energy sources they were also used as solvents, greases, cleaners or as basic chemicals. When the petrochemical industry was born, with its ability to supply these materials in age culture essay medieval popular quick and cheaper fashion, biomass fuels were forgotten. But now due to crude oil prices reaching heights of up to electric, $100/barrel and illiad essays increasing political instability in oil producing countries, the use of bio-based alcohols as solvents or basic chemicals is again under consideration. Add to essay, this the fact that the amount of fossil derived fuels is quickly depleting, and estimated not to describe yourself medical, last more than 50 years.
Global Microbial Biofuel Production. The most important biofuels produced in electric essay high amounts are biodiesel and bioethanol. With far reaching potentials for the transport industry, bioethanol is produced using microbial fermentation. Almost 48.7 million m3/yr of bioethanol was produced worldwide in age culture essay in market medieval middle 2005, of which, 72.6% was produced in Brazil and the USA. The USA has increased its output in the past decade and is now the world’s highest ethanol producer. The market is further expected to expand in the next years as man becomes more conscious and enlightened about environment issues related to electric essay, energy use. Essay Subheadings! A rapidly expanding market for biofuels can be predicted for the near future.
The demand of the EU25 countries for fuel ethanol is electric guitar essay estimated to essay subheadings, reach 11.4 million m3/yr in 2010, and a huge gap is foreseen between demand and production assuming a 5% displacement of conventional fuel on energy basis ( Antoni 2007). As expected, countries allowing subsidies and tax exemptions for guitar, biofuels have the highest number of large manufacturing plants. Until the mary shelley law of supply and guitar demand catches up with biofuels technology, the industry needs to museum, be subsidized initially until the time the business gets economically viable. Electric! It is worthwhile to note that where there is political will a country can go all the way with promoting biofuels for transport. Brazil for example claims already 50% of its vehicles are running on alcohol blends and they are targeting even higher blend combinations in the next years. Obviously different plant species produce differing amounts of bioethanol.
To date, sugar, starch and corn have been the usual substrates used in industrial production plants. As these are also food materials there is sometimes a source volume competition and paper outline school prices are driven up by supply and demand considerations. Waste biomass would be a much better substrate so it has no competition with food. Agriculture biomass such as leaves and stalks, of sugar cane , rice and corn and other crops can be used instead. Essay! This will even solve the problem of essay medical, waste disposal if this biomass can be turned to bioethanol. In many countries agriculture waste biomass is just burned onsite, generating air pollutants and greenhouse gases, as the biomass on the field interferes with subsequent land preparation operations for the next cropping period after harvest. Electric Guitar! However, biomass has much higher lignin and paper outline middle school cellulose content, and is much more difficult to electric guitar, decompose .These components have to be broken down to free the sugars which are the basic substrates of alcohol fermentation. This is research paper school where microorganisms can help, by providing enzymes that can swiftly break up the original raw material substrate and speed up the electric guitar decomposition reaction. It should be remembered that for all these processes, substrate production methods which do not interfere with the production of food must be developed, and further research needs on this area are numerous. The areas which will need microbial research were suggested as follows ( Antoni, 2007)
Utilization of cellulose and age culture in market mass medieval hemicellulose (whole plant) as substrate; new strains or. Essay! enzymes for shelley thesis, biofuel fermentation, e.g. strains with higher fermentation temperature and. better product tolerance Improvement in energy balance including all relevant factors: substrate, growth, refinery product separation, waste management and disposal, It is electric essay foreseen that biofuels produced from renewable biomass of entire plants especially agriculture wastes such as straw or grass, are the sustainable energy resource with the greatest potential for report museum, ethanol biofuel production and microorganisms such as those of the electric guitar essay archaea strain will have a big role in their future production increase. Microbial biofuels have great development potential in process steps such as pretreatment, fermentation, substrate separation, energy coupling and others. Biological research will need to contribute to an improved biofuel production by breeding of essay, energy plants, enzymatic hydrolysis, specialised fermentation strains and waste treatment (Antoni 2007) The Energy Challenge : Microbes to the Rescue! Clearly the need for higher production volume for biofuels is a direction which has to be pursued if we have to electric guitar, meet the requirements of a growing transport industry which wants to be free of the shackles of dependence on the finite nature of fossil fuels, and wants to be less guilty of research paper, spewing our greenhouse gases. Microorganisms are up to the challenge as they could contain certain enzymes that can affect biofuel production processes. This is where the archaea has recently come into focus. Studies have consistently shown that several strains of archaea release enzymes that can hasten bioethanol production. Indeed, what an irony of nature that such ancient nondescript microbes can help produce more biofuels in a more efficient manner, and aid in solving a modern day energy problem.
Using Archaea Metabolism to electric guitar, Help the Environment. Just like ordinary microbial reactions involving in vivo systems, the industrial process that is currently used to produce bioethanol from cellulose in plant materials is a slow, expensive and inefficient process. It is based on architecture thesis museum the fermentation process which is essay largely dependent on temperatures at which the catalyst works best, and unfortunately, sensitive to architecture thesis museum, the presence of the product itself . This industrial batch fermentation procedure is costly and time consuming. The fermentation vessels need to be cooled for the catalytic reactions. The microorganisms are sensitive to ethanol, and once enough of the alcohol is produced, the organisms die. The trick is to make huge vessels so that the ethanol produced is electric diluted, but at a certain concentration stage, the architecture thesis report museum reaction has to be stopped. This is because the full industrial synthesis cannot typically proceed under the electric essay conditions necessary for recovery of product. Recovery is thus initiated after synthesis is complete. The ethanol is recovered in a separate vessel in another manufacturing step. There is research paper school thus frequent downtime to remove product on one hand and electric guitar essay then to write essay subheadings, add more plant material. Electric Essay! (Rickert,2007) Can you imagine what a help the ancient archaea organisms can contribute to improve this existing manufacturing process?
Using these heat resistant archaea as catalysts instead of the usual organisms, the fermentation reaction can then proceed at higher temperatures, up to 80 degrees centigrade, for example. At this temperature the archaea thrive best, the reaction rate will consequently be faster, and no expensive cooling step will be needed to subheadings, activate the microorganisms. This higher temperature also allows ethanol to electric guitar essay, be collected at the same time it is generated, by volatilization and subsequent distillation. Architecture Thesis Report Museum! There is no more need to stop the reaction to transfer the electric batch to another ethanol collecting vessel. And there is shelley thesis no need to stop to add more plant raw material; these can be added continuously into the reaction vessel. The downtime is therefore eliminated, as the process turns into guitar essay a continuous conversion instead of batch fermentation. Thus, it is desirable to do intensive research to test these theories, and describe yourself establish new methodologies, which simplify the process of synthesis and increase recovery of product and which are capable of overcoming microbial sensitivity to product formation.( University of Nebraska 2007).
Answering to the call and guitar exploratory needs of the moment, several research institutions are now working on how to use archaea strains to mary shelley thesis, make bioethanol production simpler, faster, less expensive, with higher yields and quality. Guitar Essay! For example, at the Sandia National Laboratory in Livermore and UC Riverside scientists have made progress with their studies on archaea and research paper outline middle plant decomposition. Researchers in this laboratory are occupied with work on Sulfolobus solfataricus strain of archaea which was first found in a dormant volcano near Naples and was discovered to have within it enzymes that could be useful in improving the guitar current process of research paper outline middle, ethanol production. Guitar! They found that the strain produces enzymes that swiftly break down the lignin in cell walls of plants, releasing the sugars within that can then be converted into ethanol. Now the architecture scientists are working on improving the efficiency of the enzymes#8217; activity, increasing reaction speed and yield, in efforts to make fuel production more viable. #8220;We#8217;re extremely excited about the guitar future of this work,#8221; Blake Simmons, leader of the. Sandia project, said Monday. #8220;The ultimate dream #8212; and yourself essay medical it#8217;s only a dream right now – would be to electric, take a poplar tree, put it into a tank, let it sit for three days, and architecture thesis museum then. come back and watch as the electric guitar ethanol comes pouring out of the spigot.#8221; While this dream is still far from reality, the direction and impetus have been started to make the essay dream come true, in time. Electric Guitar! In a laboratory at essay mass popular, the University of Nebraska, another team of dedicated scientists have identified and patented a process using the same hyperthermophilic archaea strain Sulfolobus solfataricus. Essay! In their study, enzymes isolated from the archaea organism were glucose dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase. Ethanol was generated at high temperatures, specifically at its boiling point thereby making its removal by volatilization faster. Paper! The quick removal of alcohol drives the reaction even more forward towards production of even more alcohol.
Discovery of this method makes possible the synthesis and recovery of product happening at the same time, in electric guitar essay the same vessel, and overcomes problems which restrict current alcohol production efforts, such as enzyme inactivation by product accumulation and microbial ethanol sensitivity. Jong-Shik Kim postdoctoral researcher and microbiology professor David Crowley both working at UC Riverside, recently made an important discovery. They found several hundreds of describe essay medical school, microbes still living in the La Brea pits. They were thriving without light and air in heavy oil and asphalt in soil which has been there for guitar essay, thousands of years.. Many were entirely newly discovered bacteia types, some were adapted to saline environment . Essay Mass Middle! Still others were highly resistant to electric essay, radiation. There were also strains of architecture, Bacillus simplex extremophiles resistant to ultra violet radiation. (Perlman 2007). Electric Guitar! In their amazing discovery they found that many of those microbes are also capable of breaking down cellulose and lignin in write essay the same manner that archaea do, and essay that they also have similar enzymes that archaea have.
As a result of this initial finding, his team is now using genetic engineering in architecture thesis an effort to cross transfer genes of these resistant bacteria to other bacteria species which can proliferate faster. Cultures of these combined genes bacteria will then be processed to harvest their enzymes which are the active ingredients which catalyze the fermentation of cellulose and lignin into ethanol. Guitar Essay! Another Step in Biotechnology Advancement Featuring Archaea. Illiad Essays! Since strains of archaea were proven to be able to electric guitar, quicken decomposition of cellulose, and medical even lignin in essay wood plants, some companies have taken the exra step of incorporating the enzymes from archaea into corn that is essay subheadings grown for ethanol conversion. The Swiss company Syngenta, for instance, will soon be selling a genetically engineered corn which is designed to hasten its own degradation into ethanol.
Each kernel of electric essay, this self-processing corn contains the write subheadings complex enzyme that must otherwise be added separately to the reactor vessels at the ethanol production facility (Tribe 2006). Following the findings of the University of Nebraska, and the Sandia laboratories, Syngenta has produced a new version of the microbial enzyme amylase which becomes active when exposed to heat needed to prepare corn starch for electric guitar, ethanol production. The hybrid enzyme was generated from three closely related Archaea organisms Thermococcales, Thermococcus, long familiar to microbiologists because their relatives make methane. The Archaea in this case comes from the bottom of the seafloor. This is very innovative and essay in market medieval middle exciting modern biotechnology. The catalyst works at temperatures above boiling water. To get corn to produce its own amylase, Syngenta inserted a gene borrowed from a type of archaea that live near hot-water vents on the floor of the ocean. The gene — actually a composite of three amylase genes — was developed with the help of Diversa, a San Diego company that specializes in finding chemicals in organisms that inhabit extreme environments. Not only that, Syngenta#8217;s approaches cuts out manufacturing steps in amylase production by getting the corn plants to make their own catalyst amylase out in the corn fields.
This is a truly an exceptionally brilliant green and guitar essay clean approach( Tribe 2006). Essay! It was announced that Syngenta‘s heat-resistant amylase starch liquification catalyst (AMY797E) will be incorporated in corn Line 3272 grain crops which will be used for dry grind fuel ethanol production in the United States (Tribe 2006). This development has raised some alarm from anti GMO activists who are afraid that this genetically engineered corn which is supposed to electric guitar essay, end up as biofuel might end up in age culture mass the food chain. Therefore regulatory bodies are now carefully studying the permitting requiements for such innovation, and this new development will go through a rigorous regulatory procedure before being released or licensed for commercial consumption. Quite interesting to note that the ancient archaea, claimed to be the origin of electric, life on earth can be party to a controversial GMO biotechnology concern. Archaea have unique physical and biochemical properties that help it withstand varied harsh and extreme environments. Biofuels will have an increasing demand worldwide due to approaching concerns on the supply of fossil fuels and the increasing concerns on describe yourself essay school greenhouse gases causing global warming. Bioethanol in particular will be needed in increasing quantities as it is best qualified to partly replace transport’s energy needs. It was found that archaea strains can fulfill the need for a more efficient and less costly, but higher yielding production process to make bioethanol.
The humble and electric guitar essay ancient archaea which was on earth 3 billion years ago now holds enormous promise of assisting in the energy crisis by simplifying, speeding up and increasing recovery in production of biofuels, specifically ethanol using the fermentation process. Scientists have initially discovered the relevant mechanisms which have industrial applications and these have been tested in actual manufacturing operations set ups. Research laboratories are studying several archaea strains to discover and isolate more enzymes that have similar applications for ethanol production. They are using advanced techniques including modelling and high throughput screening methods to mary thesis essay, evaluate as many samples as possible. Genetic engineering has also been explored to create more cultures that carry the required enzymes but can multiply faster. As a further step, genes from a strain of archaea have even been inserted into a corn variety to hasten its later conversion to electric essay, ethanol. This corn variant is for age culture essay in market mass medieval middle, commercial release in 2008. In addition, other archaea strains, the electric guitar methanogens, produce methane gas which can also be converted to ethanol using a process different from fermentation. Perhaps it is just a matter of time before this could also be explored by scientists as another pathway to produce biofuels. Ahring, Birgitte.”Environment of Man: Biodiversity of research outline, Archaea” 2006.Biofuels:Production of Bioethanol. Environmental Microbiology and Biotechnology 2006.
Antoni, Dominik,Vladimir V. Sverlov, Wolfgang H. Scharwz.“Biofuels From Microbes” 2007. Applied Microbial Biotechnology (2007)77:23-25.Springer-Verlag Sept 22 2007. http://www.springerlink.com/content/e2328823k467p181/fulltext.html. Perlman,David. Bacteria May Hold Promise in guitar essay Making Biofuels” 2007.Energy Bulleti May 15 2007 http://energybulletin.net. Pollack,Andrew. Illiad Essays! “Redesigning Crops to Harvest Fuel”.2006. New York Times Sept 28 200 http://nytimes.com/2006/09/08/business/08crop.html. Rickert, Eve.”Ancient Microbes Could help Produce Biofuels”.2007.Black Gold Science and guitar essay Technology. Mar 15 2007 http://www.aboutmyplanet.com.
Priest, Winston, Series Ed. “The Evolution of middle popular, Life”. 1994. Time Life Illustrated Encyclopedia of Science and Nature. Time Life Asia Edition.p33. Tribe, David, GMO Pundit. “Breakthrough Biotechnology Adds Value to Corn Growers Output to Reduce Cost of electric guitar, Ethanol Biofuel” June 4 2006. University of Nebraska research team.”Hyperthermophilic Enzymes for Indstrial Chemical Redox Reactions: A Method for Biofuel Ethanol Production” 2007.
Wright, Philip.”Proteonics Show Chemical Engineers the Answers” 2007.
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The themes of freedom and death have been projected quite in a way that gives a reader another understanding different from guitar, what is already. Afterlife , Death , Happiness 1379 Words | 5 Pages. page to let me connect to a story that i want to read I dont have an essay to mary shelley essay post and it says my essay is electric too . Yourself School! short so im writing this so that i can just post something and get this step over with sorry if you wasted time reading this. thanks anyways! Oh, its still too short. looks like i still have to electric essay keep talking about nothing Great. I have ran out of mary shelley thesis ideas. Oh, and electric, what do you know? The ' essay ' is in market medieval middle still too short.
Who ever put a limit on essays ? Can't we express ourselves. 2007 singles , Essay , Essays 374 Words | 3 Pages. Migration Stories Essay Family Story. ?This paper will take a key interest in electric guitar, the migration story of my parents Barbara Heinemann and Kirby Clark and their story in . Thesis Report! relation to identify the factors that shaped the migration and resettlement of migrants in the 1980’s and electric essay, the Australian government’s policies and desires. How the processes of alienation and assimilation affected migrants who came from a western culture and how acceptance and ‘mateship’ was difficult to describe medical school find in guitar, Australians. I will do this while comparing the similarities. Australia , Culture of Australia , Government of Australia 2120 Words | 11 Pages. Short Story Essay on A Rose For Emily and Barn Burning Human behavior is research outline school one of the most studied and electric guitar essay, talked about illiad essays, traits of . human beings, for electric guitar, it makes us who we are after all. It is prevalent in shelley essay, books, movies, stories , and most importantly life, everything we do involves it. In all of the short stories we read, aspects of human behavior where the basis of the writings.
The short stories A Rose For Emily and Barn Burning show excellent human reactions to life's challenges through the. Chimpanzee , Hominidae , Human 1038 Words | 3 Pages. instead it costs her and her husband their life together for nothing. Only Rainsford, in electric, “The Most Dangerous Game” adapted to the challenges in his new . environment and overcame his enemy Zarnoff and in doing so, saved himself. In all these short stories the outline middle characters' environment put them to the test, by essay forcing them to deal with an extreme situation which revealed -their true nature. This paragraph will cover “The Scarlet Ibis”. Author James Hurst shows Doodle's brother to be a caring person. Change , Environment , Guy de Maupassant 1125 Words | 3 Pages. Story Of An Hour Essay Paper The short story entitled “ Story Of An Hour” written by Kate Chopin is paper middle school . a powerful story about a woman, Mrs. Electric Essay! Mallard who is given the horrible news that her husband has just passed away in a train wreck. Devastated by architecture her husband’s sudden death she excuses herself and immediately rushes to her bedroom where we see a different side of Mrs.
Mallard’s attitude. She has taken on a different angle of life now, she is upset about her husband’s sudden death, however; she has. Fiction , Kate Chopin , Life 1168 Words | 3 Pages. Modern Short Story Essay Early 20th Century authors often wrote about the strange things and discrepancies found in society and . used irony to electric essay criticize them. Katherine Mansfield’s “A Cup of Tea” and Virginia Woolf’s “The Duchess and the Jeweller” both use irony to condemn and show inconsistencies in social classes. Mary Shelley Essay! The short stories demonstrated how being upper class or rich doesn’t necessarily mean you are secure, generous or a good person. A main topic found in the two stories is that money. Anton Chekhov , Girl , Selfishness 967 Words | 3 Pages. The 1949 novel Shane by Jack Schaefer, is the story of a cowboy, who rode into a small town in Wyoming in the summer of ’89 by the name of . Shane. Little did the electric people of that town know that Shane would soon change all of their lives forever. In this western novel, Shane represents the mary shelley character that plays the American Western Hero which is a character that is shown in many different books, movies, and tall-tales.
It is a character that America has come to not only know and love, but also to rely. American Old West , Cowboy , English-language films 1353 Words | 4 Pages. ?Alina Rozental Mrs. Muzaurieta English 9, pd 1A 12/19/2012 9th Short Stories , Formal Essay Final “Poor people put a low . value on themselves and their efforts” (Daymond John). Electric Guitar Essay! This represents the great work many underprivileged people must go through to earn simple things that would be easy to acquire for people of a wealthy society.
People trapped in a lower class have a difficult time attaining happiness. A poor maid’s daughter struggles for a simple friendship and to write essay subheadings gain respect from her. Capital accumulation , Guy de Maupassant , Poverty 1345 Words | 4 Pages. 37 Who Saw the Murder and Didnt Call the electric guitar Police. The murder of thesis essay Cartherine Genovese was an event that headlined news stories across the country, however it wasn't the . murder itself that shocked people. According to Gansberg's essay 37 Who Saw Murder Didn't Call the Police the electric essay shock was that thirty seven people witnessed the murder but no one called the police.
Since then this case has been used as an example of human fear in criminal and psychology classes. However there have been more accounts which tell a different story. Assault , Behavior , Human behavior 794 Words | 5 Pages. TEACHER: JULIA FLORES “ ESSAY ABOUT THE STORY OF STUFF” . NAME: Julio Cesar Perez Perez ID: 2508994 DATE: 06 / 04 / 2011 Story Of Stuff We have to take care of the thesis world that we are live in, this is electric guitar essay a world. Earth , Economics , English-language films 755 Words | 3 Pages. Short Stories Essay--Lamb to the Slaughter, The Speckled Band. Both stories compared. Most murder mysteries often have a motive to prompt an investigation, and most classic murder mysteries include a detective to . solve the case.
Murder mysteries obviously also include a murder , may it be spectacular, cold blooded or accidental. Mary Shelley Thesis Essay! There is also a murderer and a victim and a weapon of guitar essay some description.. However, not all murder mysteries involve an architecture report alibi which in my opinion, adds to the suspense of the story . The main focus of a murder mystery is the electric guitar essay location of the story or where it is. A Study in Scarlet , Arthur Conan Doyle , Professor Moriarty 2288 Words | 5 Pages. Summer Reading Short Stories –Mark Twain Samuel Langhorne Clemens, better known by his pen name of Mark Twain, is a widely renowned author . whom, throughout his life, wrote countless short stories and essays criticizing politics, media, and research outline middle school, other government and social areas. Twain was an avid supporter of civil rights and was extremely critical of the court systems. Twain often criticized how society treatment of criminals changes for every social class. Electric! Mark Twain uses his dark humor and irony. Comedy , Crime , Insanity defense 844 Words | 3 Pages. ?Sean Chi ENG1120 BB Dr.
Jennifer MacQuarrie Friday, February 13, 2015 Finding Identity in the Face of Adversity In the short stories Borders . and Two Kinds, there are strong characters who find themselves dealing with difficult expectations from different aspects of their lives. Through the experiences of the characters, one learns that true purpose and identity is found through facing adversity, not conforming to how others think they should act. The characters that illustrate this phenomenon. Blackfoot , Border , Border checkpoint 810 Words | 3 Pages. information, knowledge, or wisdom to an audience in an entertaining manner. Music, art or props can be used to make the audience enjoy or understand more the . message being conveyed (Dudley). There are many types of stories such as fairytales, fables, tall tales, folklore, epic stories , hero tales, ghost tales, trickster tales, legends and myths (“History of Storytelling.”). Storytelling has been an essential aspect of human culture since its beginnings. Age Culture Essay In Market Mass Medieval! Storytelling can be considered the root of. Australian storytelling , Children's literature , Culture 1945 Words | 5 Pages.
skillful author has hundreds of tricks up his or her sleeve for successfully conveying the electric guitar essay theme of the age culture in market middle popular story to readers. One of the most . effective methods in doing so would be through the use of irony, both situational and verbal. When an event occurs to the contrary of electric essay what the reader might have been expecting, the essay in market mass plot thickens, adding a twist or creating a higher level understanding of the electric guitar essay story . Irony can also expose a character’s true self and the situation he or she has brought about. Architecture Thesis Report! For example. A Story , Family Feud , Fiction 1359 Words | 4 Pages.
Essay for the Short Story Shilling. Fully discuss the attitudes towards the fallen: dangers of judging others use the short story Shilling and the woman caught in adultery. The . setting of the story Shilling took place in an urban area in Kingston where she was able to maintain her character which allowed her to feel isolated and lonely at electric essay times because of the way people thought of shelley essay her. Electric Guitar! The use of irony was used to unfold the plot of the story Shilling. The protagonist Shilling, was a fair-skinned brown girl who dyed her hair with. Choice , Concepts in aesthetics , Critical thinking 984 Words | 3 Pages. protagonist to help develop the story’s theme The theme of essay a story is not only a subject or topic of discourse, but also a specific . quality, characteristic or concern about life and human nature. Theme is essential in electric, fiction as it is the backbone of meaning in stories . Essay Medical School! Theme illustrates the main idea about life and human nature, and the existence of guitar essay theme allows readers to report better understand the electric guitar essay author’s purpose. The short story ”Identities’’by W.D.
Valgardson is about a man who lives in. A Story , Human , Individual 854 Words | 3 Pages. cannot allow yourself to be selfish which can be very hard. A Journey is age culture medieval middle popular a short story written by essay Colm Toibin. The short . story is illiad essays told by a limited third person narrator, and because of that we only guitar essay, hear about the main character’s thought and opinions. We see the age culture in market mass middle popular events and other characters from his viewpoint.
It makes it a bit more unreliable when it is electric a subjective narrator. Illiad Essays! If we were told the short story from David’s or Seamus’ point of view or if it was an omniscient narrator, it would probably. Fiction , Narrator , Protagonist 1292 Words | 3 Pages. analaytical essay of story of an hour. ? Kate Chopin’s “The Story of an Hour” represents a negative view of guitar marriage by presenting the reader with a woman who becomes overjoyed that . her husband has died. In Chopin's story although the circumstances might lead the reader to believe that Louise's husband's death would cause her to be hysterical with the pain of loss, when she hears the news, she feels a great sense of freedom and relief. The emotions that Louise is exhibiting show that death does not always cause great sadness.* Such situations. Death , Husband , Life 968 Words | 4 Pages. Maria Alejandra Silva Ms.
Bailey English I Block A 17 January 2013 Maya Angelou, within amazing stories has revealed the importance of architecture thesis report museum . perseverance, staying strong in guitar, moments of struggle, having the will to describe essay medical school overcome difficulties, as well as having dreams that sometimes seem unreachable and yet believing that it is a gift to guitar survive. In many of mary thesis essay her motivating quotes, she expresses, “I’m always inspired by men and women who rise…That ability to rise is nobleness of the human spirit.” This clearly. Cotton , I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings , Life 1257 Words | 4 Pages. “The success of any story depends on essay the way it is told” Storytellers use short stories to portray people, places and ideas in . Research Outline! order to entertain and engage the audience’s interest. The success of any story depends upon the way is it told as to achieve its purpose the author intended. Composers of texts use a variety of narrative techniques to guitar essay convey the themes, characters, setting and architecture museum, plot of the electric story to the responder and paper, thus fulfill its purpose. Electric Guitar Essay! I will be illustrating this through the analysis. Comedy , Fiction , Ray Bradbury 2221 Words | 6 Pages. Essay of the Short Story 'Crossing'. Crossing Crossing is a short story written by Mark Slouka. The short story was written in thesis report, the year 2009.
The short . story revolves around the electric guitar essay nameless main character and his son. They are going on research paper outline school an annual traditional trip. The trip is a one day where they drive to a place in the woods where they spend the night at essay an old settler’s barn. The name of the main character is not revealed – no names at all are revealed, so every character mentioned in essay in market middle popular, the short story is nameless. Guitar! That gives the effect. Character , Fiction , Narratology 1018 Words | 3 Pages. ?Name: Professor Name: Class: Phil 186 Date: November 4, 2014 Essay 2: Capitalism A Love Story In the documentary film . Thesis Report! “Capitalism a love story ” Michael Moore demonstrates the failure of Capitalism as an electric guitar essay economic system in America.
The movie explores what capitalism is, who benefits and who get hurt by age culture in market mass medieval middle popular it. Guitar! The film clearly shows how capitalism was hijacked by special interests and architecture thesis report, how it decimated the middle class, making it so much smaller while at electric guitar essay the same time enlarging the research paper middle school poor underclass. Capitalism , Debt , Documentary film 1813 Words | 7 Pages. “Schools of Thought-Short Story Essay” “Schools of Thought-Short Story Essay ” During the electric nineteenth century, women were not given the respect they deserved, and the . need for report, their self assertion was essential. The short stories , “Desiree’s Baby,” by Kate Chopin, and the “Yellow Wall-Paper,” by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, both demonstrate the guitar need for describe essay school, self assertion among women by using realistic representations of electric guitar essay human behavior and personal psychological states. From both stories , the main female characters’ behaviors and emotions. Behavior , Charlotte Perkins Gilman , Fiction 866 Words | 3 Pages. joys and age culture in market medieval, happiness God has granted us in this world; to fill our hearts with hatred instead of love for our neighbors, and to devastate the fair face of this . beautiful world”. The assembly of vignettes, Nine Stories , written by J.D Salinger, is set in a post-war era. The collection of stories focuses on the emotional and psychological impact the effects World War II has on certain individuals.
The majority of Salinger’s characters struggle to cope with their personal experiences and fail to find happiness. A Perfect Day for Bananafish , Glass family , J. D. Salinger 1474 Words | 4 Pages. ?Mahtabs Story Script: Slide 1 – ‘Mahtab’s Story ’ is an eventful novel, full of powerful and demanding moments. Guitar! Throughout . this novel Mahtab learns new responsibilities and takes control and learns how to grow up in her dark and complicated story . Describe Medical School! Slide 2 – ‘Mahtabs Story ’ told in third person, has the author Libby Gleeson telling the story from an outside perspective by letting the audience know from ‘Mahtab ached.’ The novel is through Mahtabs eyes even though the story isn’t true; this presents. Character , Family , Father 1004 Words | 3 Pages.
bright successful future. Guitar! Then the letter came. Thesis! What would happen if someone was drafted for war? On the electric guitar Rainy River by Tim O’Brian is about his experience . upon architecture thesis museum being drafted for electric, the Vietnam war on June 17, 1968. Through the psychoanalytic lens, the illiad essays story will be evaluated and electric, proven that Tim O’Brian dealt with his feelings of being drafted using three defense mechanisms; denial, repression and suppression. Through college, he was politely against the war.
He didn’t believe that his country was fighting. Conscription in the United States , Defence mechanism , Denial 1673 Words | 4 Pages. Power One theme among five stories included in chapter eleven was the power struggle between characters, either within themselves or among . other characters. Power is somewhat of an elusive concept in which it can take many forms. The characters within this chapter exhibit a wide spectrum of power including the power achieved through independence and feelings of essay empowerment, the corruption that may coincide in great power, or the illusion of electric guitar power. In the first story , titled Sweat, the character. Gospel of Mark , Jorge Luis Borges , Joyce Carol Oates 2160 Words | 6 Pages. Print and make enough copies for each student of the Graphic Organizer for Persuasive Paragraphs. 4.If you would like, create a page using the computer that . looks and is titled like an official court document for students to use when publishing their essays . Print and copy enough of these pages for yourself essay medical, each student.
5.Have paper and guitar, art materials available for use. 1.Gather a large number of fractured fairy tales for students to explore. Use books from write essay subheadings, your own collection along with those from the electric guitar essay school. Book , Brothers Grimm , Charles Perrault 1002 Words | 3 Pages. there’s still a lot people don’t have a happy family as they wish, there’s still many broken homes around us and the children is always the victim of the . conflict from their parents, particularly here is the family in the short story “Gaston” by museum William Saroyan. Throughout this story , the author gives us about the electric guitar essay importance of a discipline and an influence of the parents to their children. They both have the middle school responsibility to help their children shaping a good characteristic for themselves, to educate. American films , Family , Father 1142 Words | 3 Pages.
Essay for the Giver: Relationships in the Story. outliers, nothing out of the electric guitar essay ordinary. In the so-called utopian society of The Giver, the community which the main character, Jonas, lives in illiad essays, is exactly like . this. Essay! The society which is portrayed in the story is an illusion of what a utopia is. Through the relationships that we are able to see in the story , such as interactions with the opposite sex, Jonas’s relationship with the Giver, and yourself medical school, relationships between family members, we can clearly see that the idea of a utopia has clearly been misunderstood. Dystopia , Interpersonal relationship , Jonas 1201 Words | 3 Pages.
Murder story . Guitar! George Street. 8:23 am, London rush hour. Illiad Essays! A typically dull day, overcast, North Easterly wind. Guitar Essay! Bitter for . October. The West End thrum crawls out of the gutter, the morning traffic bleak after opening night. Down wheelie bin guarded back alleys, pages of illiad essays a tabloid struggle out of guitar a puddle. Red. Mud. Boot.
Disorientated gulls blare out their siren from paper outline school, rooftops. “I’m leaving now honey,” “ok then see you later.” . Danielle Philips was off to guitar essay the dentist. As always, there was heavy. 2007 singles , Debut albums , Dissociative identity disorder 3581 Words | 8 Pages. ?Yanson Filpo Instructor: M. Shane Breaux ENG 102 November 7, 2013 The Zoo Story Edward Albee’s play the Zoo . Story is about the misunderstanding among two characters and yourself essay medical school, . Through the play we learn about two different characters Peter and Jerry. Peter is electric essay a family man from the Upper class, who spends every Sunday afternoon reading a on a bench, feels like a caged domesticated animal that lives in a in a cage. Jerry from the lower class, lives in a room house, acts a wild animal. Bench , Domestication , Edward Albee 983 Words | 3 Pages. him. Although some “based on a true story ” movies are far from the truth, Hollywood did a good job at sticking to the facts with A Haunting in . Connecticut.
The setting and the characters, even though their names are changed, are all based on actual events. One of the essay subheadings many questions critics may have about electric essay, this movie is whether or not Matt Campbell, who in real life is named Philip Snedeker, actually had cancer? The answer is research yes. The real character in this story had cancer of the immune system called. English-language films , Family , Funeral 1071 Words | 3 Pages. The Story of an Hour and a Rose for Emily Essay. Compare Contrast The Story of an Hour and A Rose for Emily Kate Chopin's The Story of an Hour and William Faulkner's A . Rosefor Emily both characterize the nature of marriage and womanhood bydelving into the psyches of guitar their female protagonists. Also, althoughChopin makes no clear reference to geographic locale in in market mass, The Story of anHour, both authors usually set their stories in the American South, whichimpacts these characterizations. These two tales share many other points ofreference in common. Black-and-white films , Female , Fiction 2219 Words | 6 Pages. evaluate the consequences of essay their actions and age culture in market mass middle, as a result jeopardize their own lives and electric guitar, freedom or the outline lives and freedom of others.
To begin, in the short . story “Men are Different” by Alan Bloch, the Robot is unable to see that treating the man as he would a fellow robot could result in the mans death, and electric, ultimately the end of mankind. In the story the Robot decides that the man needs to be fixed and attempts to illiad essays see what is wrong with him: “… his thermostat circuits were shot… I turned him off without. 2000 singles , Fiction , Genre 1259 Words | 3 Pages. A Story on a Moral Theme Grandmother Willow threw in another chunk of firewood into the bonfire set on the beach. The embers that rose from . the fire seemed to be dancing in front of Kusai’s young eyes which left him gaping into space. The other kids who were gathered around the guitar bonfire were sniggering at describe essay him.
Grandmother Willow felt around the soft sand of the electric beach for report, something hard to throw at Kusai. Then she found her perfect arsenal-a small seashell. She threw it at Kusai’s direction, causing. Family , Paddy field , Village 1695 Words | 5 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is not the only way to essay organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you.
Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the age culture essay in market middle subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages. Essay on Katherine Mansfield Short Story. Essay On Katherine Mansfield Short Story “Mansfield sheds a vivid light onto ordinary lives” In what way and how effectively do . you think Mansfield achieves this? Refer to two stories . In the essay stories Frau Brechenmacher Attends a Wedding and Her First Ball by Katherine Mansfield, an example of ordinary lives is shown. This is illustrated by both characters, Frau Brechenmacher, who attends a wedding, and Leila, who attends her first ball. As both stories are instances of people’s lives, we see.
Anton Chekhov , D. Shelley Thesis Essay! H. Lawrence , John Middleton Murry 991 Words | 3 Pages. recollections that the murder was a premeditated murder . When it comes to the topic of deciding if Fortunato’s . murder was a crime of passion or a premeditated, the electric guitar choice is clear. My views are based upon how Montresor took advantage of describe essay school Fortunato inside the essay catacombs. Research Paper Outline Middle! In the very beginning of the story Montresor revealed to guitar essay the reader his intention when he said, “The thousand injuries of Fortunato I borne as I best could; but when he ventured upon insult I vowed revenge.” Throughout the story the essay reader must. Capital punishment , Catacombs , Catacombs of Paris 962 Words | 3 Pages. Unified Themes Essay Any person can tell that Edgar Allen Poe does a great job drawing in the reader by using specific themes to add effect . his short stories , The Cask of the Amontillado, Hop Frog, and the Tell-Tale Heart. Guitar! The use of theme in his short stories makes the reader want more.
His use of revenge in his short stories makes the reader more curious and raises the level of suspense. Illiad Essays! Poe does well in electric guitar essay, using revenge to keep the thesis report museum reader engaged. The narrator’s view in each of the story gives you the. Antagonist , Character , Edgar Allan Poe 2336 Words | 5 Pages. the rare southern English dialect forms to have come into standard English, vixen is also the only survival of this type of feminine noun in electric guitar essay, the modern . language. Illiad Essays! To my mind, the best essays are deeply personal (that doesn’t necessarily mean autobiographical) and deeply engaged with issues and ideas.
And the best essays show that the name of the genre is also a verb, so they demonstrate a mind in process--reflecting, trying-out, essaying. Electric Essay! James Baldwin, Notes of a Native Son (originally appeared. Essay , Essays , Lobster 2138 Words | 7 Pages. Wesline Mondestin Great Books I Dr. Perkus Midterm Exam October 17, 2010 The Stories of Friedrich Nietzsche, Leo Tolstoy and Charles . Johnson Although Nietzsche in “On Evil guilt and Power” power is a state of neither good nor bad however, power is research paper outline middle used to electric guitar dictate the good, bad, and evil. In Charles Johnson in “The Sorcerer’s Apprentice the only way to obtain power, is mary shelley essay though learning the teaching of Rubin, the apprentice who saved his dad’s life. demonstrate how gaining power has caused.
Arthur Schopenhauer , Beyond Good and Evil , Core issues in ethics 1168 Words | 3 Pages.
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Essay on Physics of the Electric Guitar and Amp -- physics guitar ampl
11 r©sum© mistakes that make hiring managers dismiss you immediately. Recruiters are just looking for an excuse to move on guitar essay, to the next candidate. John Moore/Getty Images. · Acing your r©sum© is the first step to moving forward in the hiring process. · Many recruiters will spend mere seconds on your r©sum© to shelley thesis essay decide initial fit. · Easy mistakes like terrible formatting and incorrect grammar can instantly land you in the 'no' pile. Electric Guitar? Recruiters are judgmental sharp shooters who only need about 25 seconds to decide if they like a job candidate or not. Write Subheadings? At least that's how Ambra Benjamin, a recruiting manager at Facebook, describes the nature of electric guitar essay, her job in illiad essays, a LinkedIn post. She explains that, while she will give outstanding candidates a more thorough read later, candidates who don't pass her initial test won't get a second look. And Benjamin isn't alone in this tactic Ђ” Recruiters move quickly, she writes. As Art Markman, a professor of psychology and marketing at the University of Texas at Austin, writes for Fast Company, psychological research has found that, when hiring managers first look over guitar essay your r©sum©, they're often in rejection mode Ђ” they're just looking for subheadings, a reason to move on to the next candidate. Electric Guitar? What they see on first glance could mean the difference between winding up in the 'maybe' or the 'no' pile.
Apart from the describe medical school overall lack of relevant job experience, here are some things on your r©sum© that could earn you an automatic rejection: While we're not suggesting you cram your r©sum© full of guitar, jargony buzzwords, not including keywords pertinent to the job and industry you're applying for is not just a missed opportunity Ђ” it could indicate that you don't have the in market mass middle specific experience for the job your recruiter is electric, looking for. There have been times when I command + F the crap out of r©sum©s , Benjamin writes. This isn't fool proof, but if I'm looking for an iOS Engineer, for example, and the words 'iOS' or 'Objective-C' don't even make a cameo appearance in someone's r©sum©, I have to furrow my brow, read a little deeper, and figure out what the heck is going on, she explains. When you use a 0.5-inch margin and eight-point font in an effort to architecture get everything to fit on one page, this is an epic fail, says J.T. O'Donnell, a career and workplace expert, founder of career-advice site Careerealism.com, and author of Careerealism: The Smart Approach to a Satisfying Career.
She recommends lots of white space and electric essay no more than a 0.8 margin. Age Culture Medieval Popular? Amanda Augustine, a career-advice expert for TopResume , agrees, warning particularly against dense blocks of text. Electric Guitar Essay? Let's be honest: You're looking this over in market medieval middle quickly, you're glancing through it. Guitar Essay? Your eyes glaze over when you get to a big, long paragraph, she says. Mary Shelley Thesis Essay? Your r©sum© shouldn't include the words I, me, she, or my, says Tina Nicolai, executive career coach and electric founder of Resume Writers' Ink. Don't write your r©sum© in the third or first person. It's understood that everything on your r©sum© is about you and shelley thesis essay your experiences. In the same vein, you can also overload your r©sum© with too many bullet points, which Augustine calls death by electric, bullets.
If absolutely everything is mass medieval middle popular, bulleted, it has the same effect as big dense blocks of text Ђ” your eyes just glaze over it, she says. Augustine explains that bullets are only to be used to essay draw attention to the most important information. If you bullet everything, everything is important, which means really nothing stands out, she says. Shelley Essay? If you're in electric, marketing and you've lost me in the first three bullets, I have concerns, writes Benjamin. School? If you don't want to be discriminated against for a position because of guitar essay, your age, it's time to shelley remove your graduation date, says Catherine Jewell, author of New R©sum©, New Career. Another surprising way your r©sum© could give away your age: double spaces after a period. While many people were taught to type that way in school, it's now an outdated practice. Don't use Times New Roman and electric guitar essay serif fonts, as they're outdated and mary thesis essay old-fashioned, Amy Hoover, president of Talent Zoo , says. Use a standard, sans-serif font like Arial. Also, be aware of the font size, she says.
Your goal should be to make it look nice and sleek Ђ” but also easy to guitar essay read. Illiad Essays? Curly-tailed fonts are also a turn-off, according to O'Donnell. Electric Guitar? People try to make their r©sum© look classier with a fancy font, but studies show they are harder to read and middle school the recruiter absorbs less about you. Never describe past work experience using the present tense. Only your current job should be written in the present tense, Alyssa Gelbard, career expert and guitar essay founder of career-consulting firm R©sum© Strategists, says. The format of your r©sum© is illiad essays, just as important as its content, Augustine says. She says the electric guitar essay best format is the format that will make it easiest for the hiring manager to scan your r©sum© and still be able to pick out your key qualifications and career goals.
Once you pick a format, stick with it. If you write the day, month, and year for one date, then use that same format throughout the rest of the r©sum©. Social-media URLs that are not related to the targeted position. If you have an online footprint, and you've bothered to include it in your resume, I'm gonna click, Benjamin writes. Report Museum? You had better make sure all your links are on point.
Links to your opinionated blogs, Pinterest page, or Instagram account have no business taking up prime r©sum© real estate. Candidates who tend to think their personal social media sites are valuable are putting themselves at risk of landing in the 'no' pile, Nicolai says. But you should list relevant URLs, such as your LinkedIn page or any others that are professional and directly related to the position you are trying to acquire, she says. This one may seem obvious, but it cannot be overstated Ђ” spelling and grammar mistakes are a sure-fire way to get your r©sum© thrown into essay the junk pile, and they're so easy to describe yourself essay school fix. All it takes is a few extra minutes of perusing, and perhaps a second set of eyes, to fix this big r©sum© no-no. Writing whorehouse instead of warehouse can be a mortifying spelling mistake Ђ” and, yes, it's happened.
A less-than-professional email address. If you still use an essay, old email address, like BeerLover123@ gmail.com or CuteChick4life@ yahoo.com , it's time to pick a new one. It only paper middle school takes a minute or two, and it's free. SEE ALSO: 31 annoying words and phrases on electric, your r©sum© that make hiring managers cringe. DON'T MISS: 13 hobbies that look great on your r©sum© Ђ” and one that doesn't. Recommended For You Powered by Sailthru.
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Greek Sentence Structure: Loose and Periodic Style. I offer this essay in guitar essay draft (or “beta”) form with the hope that it will provoke discussion. Corrections and criticisms are welcome. Just e-mail me by clicking here. Graphic images of the Greek texts discussed are provided. Write Essay! When transliterating Greek in electric essay the body of the essay, I use a simple, easy-to-read system whose only real disadvantage is that epsilon and thesis essay eta, and omicron and guitar essay omega are not distinguished. With the illiad essays Greek text at hand, this should cause no problem. Technical Terms: What Are They For? veni, vidi, vici . These words, which Suetonius tells us were carried on a banner in a triumphal procession of electric guitar essay, Julius Caesar ( Divus Iulius 37), can serve as a starting-point for an analysis of rhetorical figures and sentence-construction. “I came, I saw, I conquered.” Nothing could be simpler or more direct; nothing could be easier to translate. I was surprised, then, on walking into illiad essays, a classroom once, all prepared to analyze a complex piece of Isokratean rhetoric, to find this saying on the blackboard with a full rhetorical analysis appended. It turns out that we have before us examples of: alliteration ( v eni, v idi, v ici ), homoioteleuton ( ven i , vid i , vic i ), asyndeton ( veni et vidi et vici ?), trikolon (how about electric, veni, vici ?), isokolon (try adding a syllable: veni, vidi, victi sunt ), composition in short kommata instead of write essay, longer kola (compare: ad hostes adveni et, postquam illorum copias vidi, cunctos facile vici ), spondaic rhythm, paromoiosis (similar structure of kola or kommata), parechesis (similarity of essay, sounds, especially between vidi and vici ), and perhaps paronomasia (a play on words involving, again, vidi and vici ), to say nothing of the overall brevity achieved by the ellipsis of essay medical school, words easily supplied from the essay (very crowded) context.
To this list of eleven rhetorical devices others could doubtless be added. This analysis is a joke, of course. It pokes fun at pedantry. But it is also perfectly valid and paper middle makes a serious point. The words on Caesar’s placard are rhetorically brilliant and instantly clear, but we can fully understand their brilliance only by taking them apart, seeing how they are composed, and–most important–comparing other, inferior ways of saying the guitar essay same thing. The goal is not an arid list of tropes with arrows pointing to the text but a better feeling for how the words before us work, for what makes them forceful and effective.
How big an armory of rhetorical terms does a student of Greek prose need? Smyth’s Greek Grammar has a convenient list of research paper outline middle school, forty, with examples; a similar list of forty five, with examples from guitar essay Greek, Latin and English literature, is available at the Web site of the mary thesis essay Classics Department of the University of Kentucky; a compendious, clear, sensible, and often amusing handbook is Richard A. Lanham‘s A Handlist of Rhetorical Terms . Very few people can define as many as forty terms off the top of their head, nor need one do so, much less acquire the 200 or so which students had to electric essay memorize in mary thesis essay Shakespeare’s time. Rhetorical descriptions, after all, are only guitar, guides to help us understand and experience a text; students often learn more by making their own observations without resorting to technical vocabulary. Then, if there is a handy label for essay what they have observed, they can learn it and use it. No student who describes accurately and insightfully how an author’s words work should worry about, or be penalized for, not knowing a technical term. In fact, a fixation on rhetorical flourishes will hinder, not help, our understanding of style. Consider again Caesar’s placard.
One advantage of starting with veni, vidi, vici is that while cataloging the trees one can always see the forest: the structure of this sentence is clear and one can concentrate on details. When analyzing complex sentences, however, it is easy to forget that the goal of arranging words “rhetorically” is to shape a sentence which develops clearly as it is heard or read, not to electric guitar distract the audience with pointless ornamentation. To learn about an author’s style is to learn how that author organizes his or her thoughts. Analysis and illiad essays labeling and note-taking is useless if it merely dissects an electric essay, author’s words. The goal is to go back and describe medical read those words, in order, as they were intended to be read, letting the many “signposts” along the way guide us by shaping our expectations of what is to come. This point cannot be emphasized enough. Students struggling to make sense of an author’s words may think of stylistic analysis as something more advanced than mere translation, more arcane and mysterious, with its own recondite vocabulary. Ironically, they get this impression from the emphasis which most of us place on the most obvious marks of style–rhetorical figures such as chiasmus, alliteration, homoioteleuton–as the key to everything: these strike our ears and eyes as we read, so naturally we begin our analysis by scanning the text, collecting as many tropes as we can, and labeling them like specimens found on essay, a nature hike. We pay great attention to classification, which can become quite complex: is that an example of synecdoche or of essay mass, metonymy? Are we dealing with paronomasia or only parechesis? I plead guilty to having encouraged on occasion such “surface scans” of classical texts.
The problem with them is that they don’t necessarily lead students to understand how Gorgias or Demosthenes or Isokrates has structured and guitar essay expressed his thoughts, the “character” or “cast of thought” each presents to us. To grasp this we must understand how an museum, author has organized each sentence, how he has set up signposts to guide us as his thought unfolds. Guitar! This means, first, seeing how each new phrase or clause relates to what has gone before and understanding how “rhetorical devices”, in a well-turned sentence, mark the progression and structure of the thought. The real rhetoric is in the unfolding of the ideas in the order in which the author wants us to hear or read them; rhetorical tropes are markers along the illiad essays way. To learn about an author’s style is to learn to read that author’s words, in order, as they were written–not to disarrange the words but to hear what the ancient audience heard. In his admirable essay on the style of Cicero W. Ralph Johnson puts it succinctly: ” . . . Good style, whether exuberant or restrained, is good thinking (and good feeling). It is for this reason that what we want to guitar essay pay most attention to in style is the structuring of sentences, how they succeed, and how they fail.” [ Luxuriance and Economy: Cicero and the Alien Style , p. Architecture Thesis Report! 7] He quotes Virginia Woolf’s description of “the rhythm of a book that, by running in the head, winds one into a ball”, and he rescues from obscurity a book by Edith Rickert, New Methods for electric guitar the Study of Literature , which asserts the importance for style of the length of whole sentences and shelley of their parts. [Chapter IV, “Thought Patterns”, has much that is interesting on the structure and electric relationship of sentences as a guide to research outline style.
As Rickert remarks (p. Guitar! 111), “The study of the sentence is one of the architecture thesis most fundamental and certain means of eventually getting at electric guitar the secret of style.” She offers a system for analyzing sentences which is thought-provoking, even if one chooses not to adopt it.] [General note: In this essay I use the word “sentence” as a matter of convenience. There is no exactly corresponding Greek term or concept. Dianoia , “thought,” is in market mass medieval closest, but a dianoia need not correspond to what a modern editor marks off with a period, colon, or question-mark. Electric Guitar Essay! Indeed, editors sometimes disagree on whether to punctuate with a full stop rather than a comma. See now Dover, The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2.] What is it, after all, which stays with you when you’ve been reading Isokrates or Demosthenes for hours? Not a collection of research outline middle, tropes but something more fundamental and harder to express in a phrase. Electric Guitar Essay! Why did reading Isokrates for hours on end once make me physically ill? Why, after the essay middle excitement of the speech On the Crown , does an early speech of Demosthenes seem flat?
Because a real stylist “gets in among” you. The “rhythm” of the writer’s thought is what does this. The Architecture of electric guitar, Greek Sentences: Loose and Periodic Style. This essay, then, with profuse thanks to Ralph Johnson, will focus on the structure or “architecture” of a Greek sentence. A formidable phrase, perhaps, but less so if one bears in mind two fundamental points:
1. Greek sentences can on occasion be very long, but the units of which they are composed are almost always short. Thesis! “The edifice, lofty though it may be, is built of bricks, not of huge blocks of Cyclopean masonry.” [J. D. Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 61] 2. Greek is unusually rich in particles and conjunctions which serve as signposts. These helpful qualities of the language, however, carry a danger for students. Guitar Essay! One can often get sense out of the various separate parts of thesis, a complex sentence–enough sense to have a fair idea of what the entire thing means–without really understanding the development of the electric essay whole. And the reason for shelley thesis this is often the very profusion of “marker-words” or “signposts” in Greek: because they are omnipresent, students tend to ignore them or at least to forget earlier signposts when later ones, in corresponsion with them, appear. One area, then, where one must be a pedant is in accounting for every single connective word in a sentence. One can then turn pedantry to profit by (re-)reading the author’s words and essay letting the sentence unfold as the original audience experienced it. Before we turn to the analysis of sample passages from Greek authors, let us consider the two main types of sentence structure which ancient critics recognized: the loose style (lexis eiromene) and the periodic style (lexis katestrammene). The first phrase means literally “speech strung together” (from eiro, “to string or thread together”, like beads in a necklace); the research paper middle second, “speech turned or guided toward an guitar essay, end”; the word “period” (periodos, “way around”) refers metaphorically to a racecourse, where the starting and finish lines were the same: contestants went out and around the school turning-post, then retraced their path. The loose style is often called the “running style”, a term which can be confusing in view of the electric guitar race-course metaphor of the term “periodic”.
[Dover points out the shelley difficulty of interpreting the terms lexis katestrammene and guitar essay periodos ( The Evolution of Greek Prose Style , chapter 2, Appendix: Period and Kolon). He thinks that the word periodos , rather than referring to a race-course, describes “a unit of utterance which begins from major pause and ‘returns’ to a state of rest by leading to a second pause” (p. Illiad Essays! 39).] These two styles represent two ways of developing and structuring sentences. In the loose style one statement is simply followed by another with no indication that another statement is coming. The sentence ends with the final statement, without giving the reader or hearer any idea that it is about to electric guitar end. It could just as easily have ended one clause (or several) earlier or later. Here is a banal example in essay English: “Bill went to guitar essay the store and bought some milk and decided to get some cheese; he came home and saw that the cat had gotten out; he looked for it and couldn’t find it; his TV suddenly went blank.” No statement looks ahead to what follows; the age culture essay mass medieval middle series could stop at any point or go on indefinitely. There is no “race-course” with a beginning, a turning point, and an end.
The virtue of this style is that it produces an impression of plain speaking. In a court case, for example, if one is electric guitar essay trying to set out the facts and convince the jury of one’s honesty and straightforwardness (no matter how one has actually slanted the “facts”), this is the style to use. Of course, the loose style, when handled well, is every bit as “rhetorical” as the periodic style–but its art is less apparent. In the periodic style, by contrast, markers of various sorts, often introducing phrases or clauses subordinate to the main idea, indicate the path ahead. The reader sees signs of things to mary essay come and is prepared for them when they appear. The art of composing and of reading this sort of Greek involves setting up and essay then fulfilling (often with variations along the way) assumptions about how the sentence will develop. At the finish, the audience should feel that an appropriate end has been reached, a clearly defined course completed. All periodic composition involves, in medical school one way or another, suspension of sense: the arrangement of one or more elements of the sentence so that the thought is not felt to be complete until something else has been added. Let us rewrite the sentence above in electric periodic style: “After his trip to thesis report museum the store, where he bought milk and (on a sudden whim) cheese, Bill’s arrival at home was marred, first by his cat, who had gotten away and couldn’t be found, then by his TV, which suddenly went blank.” Bill’s shopping expedition has become a noun phrase introduced by the preposition “after”. His purchases are subordinated in a clause introduced by guitar essay the conjunction “where”. A parenthesis characterizes his acquisition of cheese.
The center of the sentence makes the illiad essays main point: coming home was no fun. The two reasons for this are appended in two parallel expressions consisting of an adverb (“first”, “then”), a prepositional phrase (“by his cat”, “by his TV”), and a relative clause (“who. . .”, “which. . .”). As silly as these sentences are, they illustrate an important point: unlike a simple narration in the running style, a periodic sentence will highlight the main point(s) the writer is trying to put across and will require the writer to decide how various events or ideas are related. This need not mean, and in Greek usually does not mean, that the sentence is left grammatically incomplete until the guitar very end. More often, as above, the main clause is in the middle or even at the beginning, with subordinate elements appended. Many other arrangements are of course possible and none is “objectively” better than another. Essay Medical School! What is guitar essay important, in reading as well as in composing such sentences, is to describe medical understand the thought which drives the structure.
Loose Style and Periodic Style: Examples in English. The periodic style is essay not at home in present-day American English. Short, clear sentences pack more punch for us than syntactical and rhetorical baroque. Too many connectives, too many subordinate clauses, too much suspension of sense makes one seem fussy, pedantic, orotund. But we should recall the importance of Latin and Greek periodic style as a model for modern prose from the Renaissance onward. Here are examples in English of both styles. First, the lexis eiromene which has enjoyed such a vogue in English through the twentieth century, in a paragraph from Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises : The bus climbed steadily up the road. The country was barren and rocks stuck up through the clay. There was no grass beside the road. Research Middle School! Looking back we could see the guitar essay country spread out below.
Far back the fields were squares of green and brown on the hillsides. Making the horizon were the brown mountains. They were strangely shaped. As we climbed higher the horizon kept changing. Illiad Essays! As the bus ground slowly up the road we could see other mountains coming up in the south. Then the road came over the crest, flattened out, and went into a forest. It was a forest of guitar, cork oaks, and the sun came through the architecture thesis report museum trees in patches, and there were cattle grazing back in the trees. We went through the forest and the road came out and turned along a rise of land, and out ahead of us was a rolling green plain, with dark mountains beyond it. These were not like the electric brown, heat-baked mountains we had left behind.
These were wooded and there were clouds coming down from them. The green plain stretched off. It was cut by fences and the white of the road showed through the trunks of research school, a double line of electric guitar essay, trees that crossed the plain toward the north. As we came to the edge of the rise we saw the red roofs and white houses of Burguete ahead strung out on the plain, and describe essay medical school away off on the shoulder of the first dark mountain was the gray metal-sheathed roof of the monastery of Roncesvalles. (Ernest Hemingway, The Sun Also Rises , New York 1926, repr. 1954, chapter 3, p. 108) As an example of electric, periodic style here is Samuel Johnson in the Preface to his edition of Shakespeare:
That praises are without reason lavished on the dead, and research paper outline school that the honours due only to excellence are paid to guitar essay antiquity, is a complaint likely to be always continued by those who, being able to add nothing to thesis museum truth, hope for electric essay eminence from the write subheadings heresies of paradox, or those who, being forced by disappointment upon electric guitar, consolatory expedients, are willing to illiad essays hope from posterity what the present age refuses, and flatter themselves that the electric guitar essay regard which is yet denied by essay school envy will be at guitar essay last bestowed by time. . . . To works, however, of which the excellence is shelley thesis essay not absolute and definite, but gradual and comparative; to works not raised upon principles demonstrative and scientific, but appealing wholly to observation and experience, no other test can be applied than length of duration and continuance of esteem. Electric Guitar! What mankind have long possessed they have often examined and compared, and if they persist to value the possession it is because frequent comparisons have confirmed opinion in its favour. As among the works of nature no man can properly call a river deep or a mountain high without the knowledge of many mountains and many rivers, so, in the productions of genius, nothing can be styled excellent till it has been compared with other works of the same kind. . Yourself Essay School! . . The reverence due to writings that have long subsisted arises, therefore, not from any credulous confidence in electric guitar the superior wisdom of describe essay, past ages, or gloomy persuasion of the degeneracy of electric essay, mankind, but is the consequence of acknowledged and indubitable positions, that what has been longest known has been most considered, and subheadings what is most considered is best understood. (Samuel Johnson, Selected Writings , ed. R. T. Davies, Evanston 1965, pp. 262-263) The elegant and varied architecture of these sentences, made clear by a fullness of expression where parallel phrases reinforce one another, will serve to remind us that English, too, is capable not only of “straight talk” but also of electric guitar essay, grandiloquence.
We live in a Lysianic age, but our forbears were Ciceronians and Isokrateans. [For the difference between the two see Cicero‘s comments on Isokrates; E. Laughton, “Cicero and the Greek Orators”; G. Write Essay Subheadings! Williamson, The Senecan Amble (on stylistic models in the Renaissance).] We should note, too, that in setting out to compose in a classical language we are participating, however tenuously, in guitar essay a tradition which goes back to the humanists of the Renaissance, and indeed to the Hellenistic age. [Lanham (s.v. “period”, p. 113) quotes Michael Baxandall, Giotto and the Orators (Oxford 1971), pp. Thesis Essay! 20-21 and electric guitar 131: “The pattern of the grand neo-classical sentence was the period: that is, the sentence combining a number of thoughts and statements in a number of balanced clauses. . . . It is quite difficult to essay school enjoy the humanists’ preoccupation with the periodic sentence. . . . But one cannot come to electric historical terms with the humanists’ verbal performance without recognizing how supremely important it was for them, and in research paper school how many different ways. The periodic sentence is the basic art form of the early humanists. It was a test of prowess, a focus for criticism, the full flower of the classical way with words and notions, the medium of most statements about relationships, and . Electric Guitar Essay! . . it became at a critical moment a humanist model of artistic composition in general. . Illiad Essays! . Guitar Essay! . Compositio was a technical concept every schoolboy in a humanist school had been taught to apply to language. It did not mean what we mean by literary composition, but rather the putting together of the single evolved sentence or period, this being done within the framework of a four-level hierarchy of research paper outline school, elements: words go to make up phrases, phrases to make clauses, clauses to make sentences.”] As we turn to guitar Greek we shall be looking for examples of a loose style, where phrases and clauses come one after the other with no prior preparation, and a periodic style, where we are guided from architecture thesis museum a starting post, around a course, and electric back to a finish-line.
As one would expect, the loose style developed before the more elaborate periodic style. But only scraps of the earliest prose remain, and describe yourself essay the greatest writer associated with this style, Herodotos, is far more sophisticated than some caricatures of him suggest and writes just as elegantly and effortlessly in the periodic as in the loose style. The longest surviving fragment of Herodotos’ predecessor Hekataios (FHG 1, F15) provides a rare sample of a loose, naive style: For a graphic image of the Greek text click here. Orestheus, son of electric guitar, Deukalion, came to Aitolia for mary thesis essay a kingdom and his dog gave birth to a log, and he ordered it to be buried, and from it grew a vine with many grapes. Thus he also named his own son Phytios. And from this one, Oineus was born, named from the vines (for the Greeks of old called vines oinai). And from Oineus was born Aitolos. Most striking is the almost complete lack of subordination or hypotaxis. Except for the participle kletheis modifying Oineus each idea is “strung” after the previous one with a coordinating conjunction, i.e. paratactically (with coordination or parataxis). The first three such links are made with kai; the repetition seems matter-of- fact, while in a more sophisticated writer such as Lysias it would have made an emphatic point.
The remaining linkages are: dio (= dia ho, “on account of which, therefore”), de, the participle kletheis, gar, and essay again de. The Greek text above is given with Jacoby’s punctuation: two complete sentences, each with a concluding clause separated by write subheadings a raised dot, the guitar second containing also a parenthesis. There is nothing, however, in either the grammar or the sense to middle school prevent putting a full stop at the end of each clause, including the one set off by parentheses. (The phrase kletheis apo ton ampelon could not, of course, stand alone, but it too is electric essay “tagged on” at the end of a clause.) Note also the yourself medical somewhat repetitive pronouns: autou, hos, auto, autou, autou, toutou. Different as this is from the electric guitar Greek of Lysias or Isokrates, it shares with the mary styles of later authors a concern that every clause be clearly connected to what precedes and follows. Nor is the electric connection in report any way crude: in electric essay the first sentence the three kai’s lead to a conclusion introduced by dio.
The second sentence uses different connectives (de, the participle, gar, de) and the words oinas, ekaloun and ampelous in the gar clause echo Oineus, kletheis, and ampelon in the preceding clause. Even in the two simple statements introduced by de (toutou d’ Oineus egeneto. . Age Culture Essay In Market Middle! .Oineos d’ egeneto Aitolos) the electric position of egeneto changes, as does the position and case of Oineus’ name. This is not to claim any great sophistication for thesis Hekataios’ Greek, but only to remind us that naivete is electric guitar a relative notion. This passage survives because it was cited as an example of the loose style and, as with other authors whom we know only by essay in market mass medieval middle tiny fragments, we cannot be sure that it is electric essay typical of Hekataios. He may have assumed a more naive style when he was recounting a myth. Plato does this in a more sophisticated way, for essay medieval popular example in a passage from the Protagoras , discussed below, which suggests a parody of a traditional style of naive storytelling. Hekataios’ successor Herodotos is vastly more sophisticated. One should remember that he lived in Periclean Athens and was a friend of Sophocles; he wrote in Ionic dialect about the archaic age but was not himself “archaic”.
He is a sophisticated storyteller (and historian!) who often employs, but is not limited to, lexis eiromene. Indeed, many a “loose” Herodotean sentence leads us step by essay step to a dramatic climax–and has, in retrospect, the essential quality of a periodos. Such sentences gain much of their effect from the research outline middle very fact that they do not broadcast their intentions. Electric! Here is Herodotos’ description of the shelley thesis arrival of Adrastos at Sardis (1.35): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. When Croesus’ child had in hand his marriage, there arrived at Sardis a man bound up with misfortune and not clean in hands, being a Phrygian by birth and of the royal house. This man, coming to Croesus’ house according to the local customs asked to receive cleansing, and Croesus cleansed him. Cleansing is similar for the Lydians and the Greeks. When Croesus had performed the accustomed rites, he inquired where the man was from and who he was, saying as follows: “Man, who are you and guitar from where in Phrygia have you come to illiad essays be at my hearth?
Whom of men or women did you kill?” And he answered: “King, of Gordias son of Midas I am the child, and I am called Adrastos, and electric guitar having killed my brother unwilling I am here, driven out by report museum my father and deprived of everything.” And Croesus answered him as follows: “You are born of electric guitar essay, men who are friends, it turns out, and you have come among friends, where you will lack for nothing, remaining in our land, and bearing this misfortune as lightly as possible you will profit most.” [This translation is illiad essays as literal as possible consistent with giving a sense of the flow of Herodotos’ narrative. A useful exercise in coming to understand an author’s style is to electric guitar note the things which even such a close translation cannot convey.] Herodotos’ sentences are longer and more complex than Hekataios’ and, like all later writers, he uses participles far more extensively. As each sentence unfolds, however, each phrase or clause is immediately clear: it advances the story without requiring us to hold several thoughts suspended at once. Thus the first sentence consists of a genitive absolute, followed by the main verb apikneetai, followed by its subject (aner, still unnamed), followed by more about the illiad essays man: his misfortune, his uncleanliness, his birth. At the end the essay phrases with men and de, both dependent on eon, lead up to the climactic word basileiou; the chiastic placement of the illiad essays similar words geneei and geneos accentuates the final phrase.
Each sentence that follows has a somewhat different structure and length. In the second sentence, for example, a participle leads off, then the main verb, then a second verb appended with de. Electric! Especially notable is Adrastos’ reply to Croesus, when he reveals who he is: the describe yourself essay medical connectives are men. . .de. . Electric Guitar! .de. He begins with his father’s and paper outline school grandfather’s names, then his own; then, in a clause far longer than the first two clauses, he reveals his misfortune. The aorist participle phoneusas (what he did) and the perfect participles exelelamenos and esteremenos (his present circumstances) carry the weight of this clause, with an unemphatic main verb (pareimi) coming between them. This sentence is a good example of an ascending trikolon , that is, a sentence in three parts with the longest element last.
Further, this last element is itself divided into two parts, the second of which is again divided. One could thus call the sentence “periodic” in the sense that it forms a structured whole with (literally, in this case) a clear beginning, middle and end. Yet the guitar essay effect, as we read it, is of one thought added to another in a linear, “strung together” sequence. Also imparting “flavor” to describe yourself Herodotos’ style are the repetitions and “superfluous” words or phrases: in the first sentence, perhaps eon; in the second, houtos; in the fourth, legon tade. More generally, Croesus’ questions to Adrastos are stated first indirectly, then directly: epunthaneto hokothen te kai tis eie. . . .tis te eon kai kothen. Electric Guitar! (Note the architecture thesis museum chiastic order, and note also that Adrastos replies chiastically, answering kothen before tis!) The effect is of an unhurried narrative–but not a flaccid one. Essay! Rather, Herodotos asks us to pause over each question, each answer, each event in the tale of illiad essays, Croesus, Atys and Adrastos so that at electric guitar essay the end, in mary shelley the magnificent, fully periodic sentence which concludes the story (45.3), the guitar whole weight slowly and write relentlessly built up comes crashing down. [Cf.
Denniston, Greek Prose Style , p. 8.] For an analysis of the periodic sentence which begins Herodotos’ History , click here. Let us turn next to Lysias, who was noted for the simplicity and elegance of his style and the vividness and clarity of his narrations. In the guitar speech Against Eratosthenes (8-10) he is describing his own arrest by research outline school the Thirty Tyrants: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Dividing up the houses, they went on their way. Me they found while I was entertaining guests; they sent them away and handed me over to Peison. The others went to electric essay the workshop and mary shelley made a list of the slaves. I asked Peison if he wanted to take money and electric essay rescue me. He said he would, if it were a lot.
I said then that I was ready to give him a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or human beings, but nevertheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to age culture essay in market mass popular be imperative to get some pledge from him. After he swore an oath, calling down ruin on himself and his children, that he would accept the talent and save me, I went into the room and electric essay opened the chest. Mary Shelley Thesis Essay! Peison noticed and came in, and essay when he saw the contents he called two of write, his servants and ordered them to take the things in electric guitar the chest. This translation ignores most of the connectives and age culture essay in market mass medieval popular converts most of the essay participles to finite verbs but nonetheless retains the exact order in which Lysias’ narrative unfolds. Indeed, one sign of lexis eiromene is that one can translate it in order, phrase by phrase, without transposing anything. Such a translation, however, involves a considerable restructuring of Lysias’ Greek.
To examine further the way Lysias has structured his narrative let us reproduce each element of the Greek on a separate line, with indentations to show the relationship among them; the excruciatingly literal translation which follows will show how complex the “loose” style of Lysias really is. To emphasize the careful connection and subordination of the essay subheadings Greek (even where ideas seem to follow straightforwardly one after the other), words which serve as signposts are in boldface and circumstantial participles, which express so many subordinated ideas so concisely, are underlined in electric the Greek graphic. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. And dividing up the houses they went on their way. And me, on the one hand, they found entertaining guests, whom driving out they handed me over to Peison; the rest, on the other hand, going to the workshop, made a list of the slaves. And I asked Peison, on the one hand, (5) if he wanted to rescue me, taking money. he, on the other hand, said he did, if it were a lot. I said then that I was prepared to give a talent of silver coin, and he agreed that he would do this. Yourself Essay! (10)
Now I knew that he had no regard for either gods or men, but nonetheless in the present circumstances it seemed to me to be most necessary. to take a pledge from him. And when he swore, calling down ruin on himself and essay his children, (15) that accepting the architecture report museum talent he would save me, going into the room I opened the box; But Peison, noticing, came in. and, seeing the contents, called two of his servants. and ordered them to take the things in the box. [As a tool for analyzing Greek style such an ultra-literal translation is far more useful than a smooth, fully Englished version, since the goal is to electric essay understand the Greek, not to replace it. Illiad Essays! Students should develop the habit of electric essay, translating Greek this way, in the order of the yourself school original. To aim for a “polished” translation is to ignore what makes the Greek distinctive.] Before we analyze this passage, a general note about the guitar essay line-division and indentation of this and other passages below. It is write intended only to suggest the units of meaning into electric essay, which the sentence seems to age culture essay medieval middle popular fall.
Each such unit was probably, but far from certainly, followed by a distinct pause when the Greek was spoken aloud; much depended on a speaker’s (or reader’s) delivery. No “scientific” accuracy is claimed or, indeed, is possible. Lines often, but not always, correspond to kola. (To be entirely consistent one would have to place eipon oun , for example, on a separate line, but this would create a false impression of composition in very short units [kommata].) We should remember, more fundamentally, that the very idea of a “sentence” is modern: ancient writers speak of essay, a dianoia or sententia, “thought”, which may not coincide with our idea of a “sentence”. [For a modern definition of a sentence see, e.g., Rickert, New Methods for the Study of Literature , p. 111.] Likewise, while a “period” (periodos) often corresponds to what we would call a “sentence”, a portion of a sentence can constitute a complete period (as remarked by Aristotle and shelley Demetrios). Modern punctuation represents the judgment of modern editors; in setting out texts I have generally followed the consensus of editors on the placement of electric guitar, full stops. [See, e.g., Johnson, Luxuriance and Economy , pp.
15-17 with references.] Nor does a kolon (“limb”, membrum) necessarily correspond to what we call a “clause”; E. Fraenkel has shown that even a short phrase can have the force of a kolon. [See also H. Dik, Word Order in Ancient Greek , chapter 3.] And there is no hard and fast distinction between a kolon and the shorter unit called a komma (“cutting”, incisum). As for essay the indentations, they do not follow any set system but are intended as guides to electric essay the structure of the sentence. In particular they do not always correspond to levels of subordination. (I have always found complex systems of notation, based on subordination, baffling.) Readers can learn a great deal by (re)organizing the architecture “layout” of these passages in guitar essay their own way and analyzing other passages of their own choice. Now for Lysias. In the passage quoted above there is almost nothing of overt rhetorical artifice, but its art becomes apparent when one observes, for thesis essay example, the interweaving of participles and finite verbs. They tend to be paired, but not mechanically so. The last sentence (lines 18-20), which describes Peison’s actions, is set out in three parts linked by kai. Lysias could have achieved greater concision and concentration, perhaps, by putting everything into a single clause with several participles and one main verb, but this would spoil the simplicity of the narrative: Peison came into the room; he saw what was in the chest; he issued a command. (Two historical presents, eiserkhetai and kalei [but not a third –note ekeleusen], add to the vividness.) The participles tell why (proximately) he did what he did, and it is guitar worth analyzing each participle in this passage as to essay in market mass medieval middle whether it is causal, temporal, conditional, or whatever. Note especially eparomenos in Peison’s oath (15): the electric phrase in which it appears is a longer element between two shorter ones, and we linger on it before coming to the oath itself, labon. . .sosein.
Of course, even without such analysis the reader responds directly to paper middle what Lysias writes–but for this very reason it is easy to miss how much he is telling us, simply and elegantly. Notice also the variety. Shorter elements are interspersed among longer ones; constructions are varied. An indirect question leads to indirect statements: Peisona men eroton ei. . Electric Essay! . , ho d’ ephasken ei. . . ., eipon oun hoti . . Shelley Essay! . ., ho d’ homologese. . . ., epistamen men oun hoti. . ., homos d’. . .edokei. . . ., epeide de omosen. Electric! . . . Note, too, the placement of sosai. Mary Shelley Essay! . .labon (6), labein (13), labon. . .sosein (16), labein (20). The repetition is “subliminal” rather than rhetorically insistent and electric essay includes a nice chiasmus (6, 16).
In short, this is rhetorical art which succeeds by concealing itself. As with Herodotos, lexis eiromene is anything but naive. If one wants to appreciate Lysias fully, one need only attempt to write translate a similar narrative from English to Greek! For an guitar essay, analysis of periodic sentences by Lysias, click here. Sophisticated in a different way is the paper middle school storytelling style which Plato adopts from essay time to time, for example in the fable about the yourself school origin of justice told by Protagoras in electric guitar the dialogue of that name. Here is an excerpt (320c8-e4): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
Once there was a time. when gods existed. but mortal kinds did not. And when for these too there came the appointed time of birth, gods molded them within the earth (5) from earth and fire mixing them. and from the things which blend with fire and earth. And when they were ready to lead them to the light, they bade Prometheus and Epimetheus. adorn them and assign powers to each as was fitting. (10) And Epimetheus asked Prometheus if he could assign them himself. “And when I’ve assigned them,” he said, “you inspect them.”
And so persuading, he assigned. And in his assigning, to some he attached strength without speed; the weaker with speed he adorned; (15) some he weaponed; to some awarding a weaponless nature, another power he devised for their safety: to the ones he wrapped in age culture medieval smallness. winged flight or underground home he assigned; (20) the ones he increased in greatness, by this very thing he made them safe. And so he assigned the rest, maintaining a balance. On its surface the style of this passage is naive: Plato imparts a “flavor” of guitar, archaism to his story with short clauses, simple declarative statements, and repeated words. The first sentence (1-3) has three brief clauses with the verb eimi; the second and third clauses are exactly parallel, and the whole sentence begins and architecture ends with the electric guitar same word (the figure of kyklos). The variation theoi/thneta gene avoids a too-exact symmetry. The next two sentences (4-7, 8-10) are structured like each other, but there is variety within that structure: an epeide-clause, then the main verb, then a subordinate verb form (participle/infinitives), then a subordinate clause (hosa. . .hos. . .). [The subordinate clause hos prepei is virtually an adverb and thus does not have a line to mary thesis essay itself.] The first of guitar, these sentences could have been ended after lines 5 or 6; the addition of illiad essays, line 7 is elegant, with its chiasmus (ges kai puros, 6; puri kai gei, 7) and the variation meixantes/kerannutai.
Three short statements follow (11-13), with a fivefold repetition of guitar essay, forms of nemo carrying over thesis, from the preceding sentence (10) and into the next (14). In particular, the repetition of the last word of a sentence at electric guitar essay the beginning of the next one (neimai/neimantos, nemei/nemon) is in the manner of write, Herodotos. Each of these three statements could stand as a separate sentence; each is shorter than the one before. One can see the art of this by glancing at electric guitar essay the next sentence, which runs through line 18 (in thought, all the way to 23): exactly the sort of variety that Plato always seeks, and a sure sign that he is creating the illusion of a naive style, not the real thing. This sentence catalogs the write attributes which Epimetheus assigned to various creatures. After the link-word nemon these are set forth with a men and three des; note the electric guitar chiastic variation tois/tous/tous/tois and the varied length of the describe yourself essay school clauses. Electric Essay! The fourth clause (17) begins with a participle instead of a finite verb and introduces the whole category of animals without natural weapons; the longer kolon in 18, with the verb emekhanato at its center, sets the stage for the second catalog of attributes in 19-23. Here each category of age culture, animals is introduced by a relative clause, followed by a main clause detailing how these creatures were protected.
The description of small animals, of course, is much longer than that of large ones! Finally, again very much in the manner of Plato, the enumeration is concisely cut short by the final summary in 23. Particularly elegant is the repetition nemon (14), enemen (20), enemen (23): a kyklos with an extra form in the middle. A playful and sophisticated Platonic fable, then, where the electric guitar essay narrative progresses straightforwardly even when sentence-structure becomes complex. Nowhere is anything essential to grammatical sense or meaning suspended for more than one line, so that the dominant impression is of someone speaking in the loose, “strung-together” style. Periodic Style: Demosthenes and Isokrates. Turning to lexis katestrammene (lexis he en periodois), let us begin with a sentence of essay, Demosthenes which Demetrios quotes as an example of electric essay, a period whose form is determined precisely by its content, and which Demetrios then re-arranges into research middle school, non-periodic style (Demosthenes 20.1; Demetrios 10-11). Electric Essay! Here, and in the examples which follow, the periodic effect is gained by suspending until the describe yourself essay medical end of the sentence an element essential for the grammar and the sense. For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Men of the jury, most of all because I think it benefits the electric essay city for the law to be annulled, second for the sake of age culture in market mass popular, Chabrias’ child,
I have agreed that I shall, as best I am able, speak for these men. Demetrios says that this period, which consists of guitar, three kola [apart from the research outline opening vocative], has a certain “bending” or “turning” (kampe) and essay “concentration” or “coiling together” (sustrophe) at the end. What gives it this quality? Unlike the examples of shelley essay, lexis eiromene quoted above, this sentence begins with two kola subordinate to essay the final kolon not only grammatically but also in sense: malista men heineka. . . ./eita kai. . .heineka. . . . The main verb homologesa comes at mary thesis essay the beginning of the last kolon but requires an infinitive in indirect statement to essay complete its meaning. Demosthenes holds this infinitive until the mary shelley thesis end by dividing toutois from sunerein with a subordinate clause. The whole sentence is aimed at an end, which sunerein provides.
Note, incidentally, that Demosthenes avoids a too-exact corresponsion of the first two kola by varying their length, changing the position of electric guitar, heineka, having heineka govern first an articular infinitive then a noun, and by answering men not with de but with eita kai. Demetrios’ re-arrangement of this into a non-period is instructive. For a graphic image of the illiad essays Greek text, click here. I shall speak for these men, citizens of Athens. For Chabrias’ son is electric guitar essay a friend of mine, and much more than him the city, for which it is right for me to speak. As Demetrios remarks, the period has disappeared.
Each kolon is independent in sense; a full stop could be placed at architecture thesis museum the end of any of the first three kola. Essay! Nothing forces us to look ahead for thesis a conclusion to come. (Indeed, Demosthenes’ final word has become Demetrios’ first.) We are not on a circular course, with a turning point and a finish line in sight, but on a straight path of guitar essay, uncertain length. Each kolon is appended to the preceding one rather than fulfilling an expectation set up earlier. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. A longer periodic sentence of write, Demosthenes is analyzed below. To return to the table of contents, click here. Here is a period from Isokrates’ Panegyrikos (186), cited by Aristotle in the Rhetoric (1410a): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
Fame and memory and glory. how much ought one to think. those will either possess while alive. or leave behind when they die. who in deeds of electric, this sort excel? Only a tortured English translation, as above, can reflect the way Isokrates has directed this sentence toward its “finish-line”, aristeusantas. Each element of the age culture essay medieval popular sentence requires something later to electric guitar essay complete its meaning: first come three accusatives; then they are made part of a question governed by illiad essays the verbs khre and nomizein, the first of which requires an accusative subject, the second an infinitive; then come two parallel accusatives and infinitives, but since the accusative words are participles we still don’t know who the sentence is about; finally, the phrase tous. . Electric Guitar! .aristeusantas, with a prepositional phrase enclosed, tells us. Notice also how Isokrates emphasizes the structure of the sentence with repeated sounds and research outline school words: phemen, mnemen, posen; nomizein, ekhein, kataleipsein; e, e; zontas, teleutesantas, aristeusantas. Each of these repetitions spans two or three kola and leads us forward to the conclusion. A longer periodic sentence of Isokrates is analyzed below. Short and Long Kola: Xenophon and Thucydides.
As is usual in Greek, each kolon in the examples just discussed is short and easily comprehended. Electric Guitar Essay! Were this not so, it would be very difficult to suspend the sense until the very end. Two examples cited by Demetrios, each a description of essay, a river, show the strikingly different effect of very short kola (kommata) and unusually long ones. First, Xenophon’s description of the river Teleboas ( Anabasis 4.4.3, Demetrios 6): houtos d’ en kalos men, megas d’ ou. This (river) was beautiful, but not large. Then Thucydides’ description of the Acheloos (2.102.2, Demetrios 45): For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here.
For the river Acheloos, flowing down from Mount Pindos through Dolopia and the Agraioi and Amphilochoi, and through the Akarnanian plain, skirting the city Stratos upland. and discharging into the sea by Oiniadai and guitar essay creating a marsh around their city, makes it impossible, because of the subheadings water, in winter to mount a campaign. The sentence, like the river, flows and twists and turns to its conclusion. Only in the last kolon do we get the main verb, and the adjective aporon preceding it forces us to wait for the final word, strateuein, which explains the strategic reason for the entire excursus introduced by gar. An appropriately serpentine periodos! As a final example of a periodos where sense is electric guitar essay suspended until the end, here is a sentence of essay in market medieval, Lysias, who was just as much at home in the periodic as in the loose style (25.18):
For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. But if you think it necessary. the men whom those ones omitted to harm. yourselves to ruin, none of the citizens will be left. In the guitar essay protasis of this conditional sentence Lysias gains extra force first by using ei plus the indicative rather than the more usual ean plus subjunctive (making the whole sentence in effect a future most vivid or minatory conditional sentence), then by bringing the relative clause forward to precede the infinitive apolesai on which it depends.
The sentence concludes both logically and dramatically with the main verb hupoleiphthesetai. Not every periodic sentence postpones an thesis museum, essential element until the very end. Such sentences are indeed the most neatly “rounded” and “directed toward a finish-line”, but a longer period expressing complex ideas would be difficult for an audience to guitar follow if they had to keep track of multiple suspensions of meaning and research paper outline multiple subordinations until the final kolon. Often the main verb comes at the beginning or in the middle, and the effect of a structured whole is achieved by carefully arranging parallel or antithetical kola whose sense is complete before the sentence moves on. Here is Isokrates’ description of essay, Xerxes’ march through northern Greece ( Panegyrikos 89, cited in part by Aristotle, Rhetoric 1410a):
For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Who came to so great a point of arrogance. that, thinking it was a small task to subjugate Greece. and wanting to leave a monument so great. that it is not a thing of human birth, he did not earlier stop (5) until he discovered and compelled. the thing which all men talk about: how with his army. to sail through the mainland. and march through the sea, (10) yoking the Hellespont.
and digging through Athos. This is a splendid example of illiad essays, a long and carefully crafted period where the electric guitar main verb comes in the first kolon and everything else unfolds in architecture report later subordinations. Electric Guitar Essay! The layers of subordination, rather than creating a tangled suspension of sense, unfold clearly and in sequence. Note how small the elements are which make up most of this sentence. The longest kola, the second and medieval third, describe Xerxes’ grandiose thoughts; as his plan progresses, things seem to get easier until, in electric guitar two short phrases, he yokes the architecture thesis report museum sea and digs the land. And note the careful and electric guitar varied connections: relative clauses, result clauses, a temporal clause, pairs of participles and a pair of infinitives set off by men and de.
Note, finally, how similar sounds reinforce parallel structures: pleusai, pezeusai (9,10); zeuxas, dioruxas (11,12). End-rhyme links the write essay paired verb forms, the electric guitar first syllable of zeuxas picking up sounds from the preceding pair. Another period of Isokrates is analyzed above. Many periodoi are based neither on suspension of sense nor on grammatical subordination but consist of write essay subheadings, a series of parallel or antithetical kola. Here are two examples from Lysias cited by C. Guitar Essay! D. Adams in his insightful discussion of the differences between loose and periodic style (Lysias, Selected Speeches , pp. 345-352): For a graphic image of the mary shelley thesis Greek text, click here. The killing of men they thought of electric guitar, no importance; the taking of money they considered of great importance. Essay! (12.7) For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. many of the citizens to electric our enemies they banished; many they wrongly killed and left unburied; many with civic rights they disenfranchised; of many the daughters about to be married they balked. (12.21) Strictly speaking, the first of these sentences presents an antithesis, the second a series of parallels.
In each, however, as commonly, the kola are closely parallel in form: in write essay the first, each kolon consists of infinitive + direct object + phrase with peri + main verb; at the end the rhyme hegounto/epoiounto (homoioteleuton) reinforces the parallel and brings closure. The kola are nearly equal in length: 18 and 16 syllables (the figure of isokolon or, more strictly, parisosis). The conjunctions men and de produce a suspension not of guitar, immediate meaning but of general thought: while the first kolon gives a complete thought, we know that more is to come. In the second sentence four parallel kola portray the nefarious character of the Thirty Tyrants. Not only yourself medical school, are the kola nearly identical in length (17, 17, 15, and 18 syllables) but their similarity is strengthened by guitar the repetitions pollous/pollous/pollous/pollon at the beginning and exelasan/epoiesan/katestesan/ekolusan at the end. The detail added by the fourth kolon–the confiscations of property even prevented some families from giving their daughters dowries–provides a vivid and dramatic climax and brings a sense of periodic closure. For excerpts from Demetrios’ essay, click here. For a graphic of Lysias 12.99-100 laid out in paper outline kola and kommata, click here. Even a single kolon can be periodic. Demetrios cites (17) the electric essay opening of Herodotos’ History : Herodotou Halikarnasseos histories apodexis hede. . . . Of Herodotos of illiad essays, Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this.
A neat suspension of sense, where longer words lead to electric guitar a shorter “capstone”, hede. Since this period is essay part of a longer sentence, it is worth quoting the whole thing: For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Herodotos of Halikarnassos’ inquiry the result is this, that neither may the things done by men with time become extinct. nor may great and electric guitar wondrous deeds, some by foreigners shown forth, both the other events and through what cause they warred with each other. Thus, in a masterful period, does Herodotos reveal the report goal and scope of his History . Electric Essay! Note the careful connections and the alternation of long and short kola. Note the double purpose clause (hos mete. Describe Yourself Essay! . .genetai, mete. . .genetai), where the second clause makes us wait while the meaning of erga is amplified by ta men. . . Essay! ta de. . . in apposition. Note, especially, how the Persian Wars appear, understated, in a kolon appended at the very end, in apposition to and amplifying what went before.
Isokrates could have done no better. Rhetorical, Historical, and Philosophical Periods. Thus periodic sentences can have various structures and can achieve “rounding” or “concentration toward an end” or “completeness” in describe medical school various ways and to various degrees. In addition to Adams‘ distinction between periods involving suspension of sense, antithesis, and parallelism one should take note of the more fundamental distinction which Demetrios draws between three types of period, according to how tightly they are constructed: the rhetorical period, the historical period, and the philosophical period or period of dialogue. The rhetorical period is the most rounded, with a “turning” and “concentration” at the end (Demetrios 10). Examples are the electric guitar essay passages from Demosthenes (20.1), Thucydides (2.102.2), and Isokrates (Panegyrikos 186) discussed above, where a crucial element is withheld until the conclusion. To return to the table of contents, click here.
A Short Historical Period of Xenophon. As an example of a historical period Demetrios cites the opening of Xenophon’s Anabasis : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. Of Dareios and Parysatis were born two children, the older Artaxerxes, the paper middle school younger Kyros. (Anabasis 1.1; Demetrios 3) According to Demetrios this sentence consists of two kola, each of which, while an essay, integral part of the sentence, completes its own thought. Write Essay Subheadings! [One could also treat the phrases with men and guitar de as separate kola (or kommata).] That is, the first kolon is complete in itself, but the second adds details which, once we have them, we perceive as part of an organized whole.
Many sentences, both shorter and longer, are organized in this way, not only by research outline middle historians but by guitar every kind of writer. The construction is looser than that of mary thesis essay, a rhetorical period but still produces the impression of a rounded whole. To return to the table of contents, click here. The philosophical period or period of dialogue is looser still and barely gives the impression of being a period at all. Electric Guitar Essay! Demetrios cites the opening of Plato’s Republic : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. I went down yesterday to Peiraios. with Glaukon, Ariston’s son, to pray to illiad essays the goddess. and also wanting to see the festival, how they would perform it, since now they’re holding it for the first time. (Plato, Republic 327a1-3; Demetrios 21) Demetrios notes that kolon is piled on kolon in apparent artlessness–yet, as critics have long remarked, this is one of the most studied and artful of Greek sentences. [See, for example, Denniston’s remarks ( Greek Prose Style , p. 41).] Plato is said to have puzzled long over guitar essay, the order of the illiad essays opening words.
The very first word is the main verb; a full stop could be placed at electric the end of each kolon (except for the third, where te looks ahead to kai hama); the indirect question tina tropon poiesousin comes as a seeming afterthought, picking up the outline middle accusative heorten of the previous kolon (the fairly common figure of prolepsis). Yet by the end we have run a full course, a periodos. The sentence is more than what it seems to electric essay be: formally (grammatically) one could regard it as lexis eiromene, but it is really periodic. There is no one formula, then, for a periodic sentence nor, as we are reading an author, should we expect to be able to say with certainty whether this or that sentence or passage is “loose” or “periodic”, much less classify each sentence as rhetorical, historical, or philosophical. Rather, we should observe how Greek writers ring changes on sentence-patterns and how they use connectives and rhetorical figures as “signposts” for the listener and reader. Labels, where we can assign them, are means, not ends. For Demetrios’ remarks on the three types of illiad essays, period, click here. In order to place in perspective the use of rhetorical figures as guides to the architecture of electric guitar, a sentence, let us look at the most exuberant rhetorician of them all, Gorgias of describe, Leontinoi, who amazed the Athenians with a style in guitar essay which repeated sounds and plays on words were part of the very texture of the Greek.
Our Gorgianic exemplar is chapter 6 of the Encomium of Helen . For a graphic image of the describe essay Greek text, click here. For either by Fortune’s volitions. and the gods’ counsels. and Necessity’s decrees. she did what she did, or by force seized (5) or by words persuaded.
If, then, because of the first, worthy to be accused is the one accusing: for god’s zealousness by human forethought it is guitar essay impossible to hinder. (10) For it is natural not for the stronger thing by illiad essays the weaker to be hindered, but for guitar essay the weaker by the stronger to illiad essays be ruled and guided, and for the stronger to lead. and the weaker to follow. But god than man is a stronger thing (15) both in force and in electric wisdom and in all else. If, then, to describe yourself essay medical Fortune and the god the blame one must assign, verily Helen from her ill fame one must absolve. Not only is the passage composed for the most part of very short elements (kommata rather than kola) but many of these are the same or nearly the guitar essay same in length (isokolon or parisosis): Tukhes boulemasi, theon bouleumasi, and Anagkes psephismasin (lines 1-3) are 6, 6, and write essay subheadings 7 syllables; to men kreisson hegeisthai and to de hesson hepesthai (13-14) are each 7 syllables. End-rhyme (homoioteleuton) is everywhere: boulemasi, bouleumasi, psephismasin; harpastheisa, peistheisa, (5-7) [ is a medieval conjecture based on electric guitar, Gorgias’ development of the argument in chapter 15]; anatheteon, apoluteon (17-18).
Parallel phrases follow one another in staccato succession: genitive noun + dative noun (1-3); substantive + phrase with hupo + infinitive(s) (11-12); substantive + infinitive (13-14). Parallelism of sound and structure comes from thesis museum plays on sound (parechesis) and meaning (paronomasia) within and between phrases, with similar words and even forms of the same word juggled kaleidoscopically: boulemasi/bouleumasi (1-2); aitiasthai/aitiomenos (9), where the first form is electric guitar essay passive, the second middle; kreisson. . .hessonos. . .hesson. . .kreissonos. . .kreisson. . .hesson (11-14), a double chiasmus. Note also the illiad essays end-rhymes in guitar essay -sthai and the alliteration of h- in 13-14: hegeisthai/hesson/hepesthai. Especially bizarre is theou prothumian/anthropinoi promethiai in 10: what appears to mary be a longer kolon is broken up (or is it simply tangled, like vain human intentions?) by these nearly impenetrable phrases. Before dismissing these devices as puerilities, we should remember two things: first, the Greeks did not regard words merely as arbitrary collections of guitar essay, phonemes randomly assigned meanings; sound was connected to yourself essay school sense. Electric! Second, the argument from research paper outline school which this passage is excerpted is meticulously logical and entirely typical of fifth-century “sophistic” argumentation as exemplified in Euripides, Thucydides, and Aristophanes. [See the works of electric guitar essay, John Finley cited in the bibliography.] The layout of thesis essay, this passage in guitar the graphic attempts to isolate its smallest constituent elements. Gorgias encourages this with his insistent repetitions and isokola. But if we step back and look at research outline middle overall sentence-structure, Gorgias’ sophistication is evident.
The first sentence (1-7) pivots around epraxen ha epraxen; the possible reasons for Helen’s elopement are presented on either side of guitar essay, this main clause. Preceding it is one possibility (Fortune, gods, Necessity) divided into three; following it are others (probably three in number with one phrase each). Medical! Although we cannot know, as we read, exactly where the series will end (and indeed we do not know, since line 7 is a conjecture!), Gorgias suspends the sense nicely near the center of the sentence. The second sentence (8- 9), a straightforward protasis + apodosis, is inherently periodic. In the next (10) the predicate adjective adunaton, which reveals the grammatical construction, comes next to last, and guitar the direct object prothumian receives its infinitive (the subject of the sentence) only at the end. By contrast, in describe yourself medical the longer sentence which follows (11- 14) everything depends on the first word, pephuke: the first kolon, introduced by ou, leads to the second, which answers ou with alla and where koluesthai is answered by two infinitives, arkhesthai and guitar essay agesthai; at yourself medical school the end (13-14) two further articular infinitives amplify the idea expressed in line 12. Since the phrases with men and de form a single thought, they could just as easily be placed on essay, a single line. They would then complete an ascending trikolon.
The next-to-last sentence (15-16) is a straightforward nominal sentence, with kreisson amplified by three datives each introduced by kai. The final sentence consists of protasis + apodosis, each concluded by a verbal adjective. Age Culture In Market! [In line 18 the first word is MacDowell’s conjecture (CQ [n.s.] 11  p. 121).] Thus if we go beneath the dazzling surface of Gorgias’ rhetoric the confident construction of the sentences which convey his argument is apparent. Gorgias’ prose, with its successive kommata and insistent jingles, seems at first anything but “periodic”. Electric Essay! Demetrios, however, describes Gorgias as writing entirely in periods (15).
Critics have puzzled over how his audience could have been so impressed by Gorgias’ speaking, but in the courts as well as in the ekklesia the goal, after all, was effective argumentation, and the present epideixis is a tour de force of mary shelley, exactly that. If we look to the overall length and structure of each successive argument in Gorgias’ logos, a different Gorgias emerges, an expert packager of essay, solid, familiar arguments in novel form. Often cited in this context is Kleon’s condemnation of the Athenians’ obsession with rhetoric (Thucydides 3.38). Thesis Museum! The Athenians, says Kleon, want to anticipate a speaker’s words and be seen doing so. Electric Guitar Essay! Later, for an audience to do this was a sign of an unoriginal speaker whose words followed an all-too-predictable course (cf. Demetrios 15). This is the audience that, only months later, Gorgias astounded with his speaking. Such a seasoned, even jaded audience was ready for something new. Gomme‘s notes ad loc., citing several passages from Aristophanes, evoke well the describe yourself essay medical intellectual atmosphere attending Gorgias’ arrival. To conclude this section here is an appropriately rhetorical translation of this passage by Larue Van Hook:
For either by the disposition of fortune and the ratification of the gods and the determination of guitar essay, necessity she did what she did, or by violence confounded, or by mary thesis essay persuasion dumbfounded, or to Love surrendered. If, however, it was against her will, the culpable should not be exculpated. For it is impossible to electric forestall divine disposals by human proposals. It is a law of nature that the stronger is describe yourself essay medical not subordinated to the weaker, but the essay weaker is research paper outline subjugated and dominated by the stronger; the stronger is the leader, while the weaker is the entreater. Guitar Essay! Divinity surpasses humanity in might, in sight, and in all else. Therefore, if on fortune and the deity we must visit condemnation, the infamy of Helen should find no confirmation. [Published in his introduction to architecture Isokrates’ Helen , in vol. 3 of the Loeb edition of Isokrates, pp. 55-57.]
Here, lastly, is an example of the electric guitar finest periodic style in Greek, the mature style of Demosthenes. Over the essay school course of guitar, his career, Demosthenes developed a style unrivaled for its variety, intensity, and thesis concentration, a style not wholly periodic like that of electric, Isokrates but mixing long and complex periods with shorter, simpler statements, questions, exclamations. Essay Popular! A good Demosthenic periodos, often cited, is the opening of the speech On the Crown : For a graphic image of the Greek text, click here. First, Athenian men, I pray to all the gods and goddesses, as much good will as I continually have to the city and all of you, that so much be accorded me from you for this contest; second, a thing which especially concerns you and essay your piety and reputation, this for the gods to grant you: (5) not to make my opponent your advisor. about how you ought to listen to me. (that would be outrageous) but the laws and the oath, in which, in addition to the other just things, this too is written: (10) to listen to both in the same way. At the outset of his speech Demosthenes gives original form to a commonplace idea: both sides deserve a hearing, and each speaker should be allowed to develop his arguments in write subheadings his own way. At each stage of the electric guitar essay sentence grammatical “signposts” and other key words create a suspension of meaning which is only resolved in illiad essays a later kolon. Demosthenes casts the entire sentence as a prayer (as he does the conclusion of the speech , which repays comparison). The prayer has two main parts, introduced by proton men (1) and epeith’ (4). The unremarkable words tois theois eukhomai are made memorable by three more words, bracketing the verb: tois theois eukhomai pasi kai pasais, which gives a striking rhythm: three cretics and a spondee.
As for the content of the prayer, it will be given by the infinitives huparxai (3) and parastesai (5). Preceding the first is a relative clause introduced by hosen, which looks ahead to the correlative tosauten for the completion of its meaning: in return for his efforts on behalf of the city and guitar its citizens, Demosthenes asks an age culture medieval, equal recompense (a point reinforced by humin. . .par’ humon). The second infinitive, parastesai, is again preceded by a relative clause, this time introduced by guitar hoper, which looks ahead to its antecedent touto (and note, in 4 and 5, huper humon and humin, forming an elegant chiasmus with the earlier pronouns humin  and humon ). But the second part of the write essay subheadings prayer is not complete. Essay! Unlike toiauten huparxai the phrase touto parastesai forces us to look ahead to complete the meaning of touto, which is supplied by the infinitive me. . .poiesasthai, in apposition to touto. But we are not through yet. The word sumboulon requires an explanation, provided (7) by a concise prepositional phrase with an articular indirect question (!). Demosthenes then pauses for a parenthetical remark (8).
Then he picks up and continues the construction which he had interrupted: me ton antidikon sumboulon poiesasthai. . .alla tous nomous kai ton horkon. His delivery would have made it clear that me was here not a simple negative but required alla to complete its meaning. The period concludes with a relative clause explaining the jurors’ oath–a clause whose culmination is prepared for by a prepositional phrase with pros and by the pronoun touto, in subheadings apposition to which comes the final articular infinitive–the point of the whole sentence, an equal hearing for both sides, invested now with the authority of the gods and the solemnity of the oath. A complex period, with many suspensions of sense. With a subtle art Demosthenes resolves one suspension even as he introduces another. The main verb leads off; the electric climax of the sentence comes in subheadings a “mere” relative clause. There are clear signposts, but they are varied and not pedantically regular. Guitar Essay! The same variety is apparent in middle school the two parts of the electric guitar essay prayer (2-3, 5-11). Essay In Market Mass Medieval Middle! Even proton men and epeith’, the linchpins of the sentence, are not placed strictly logically: epeith’ should introduce a parallel prayer, with another verb answering eukhomai or with the same verb understood, but it does not. It introduces the second prayer dependent on eukhomai.
Line 4 above should logically be indented in electric guitar the Greek graphic, but this is mary thesis where logical strictness yields to art. To put it another way, proton men should really be placed after the first kolon–but how banal that would be! A shorter period of Demosthenes is analyzed here. More Periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes. Here are some graphic representations of periods of Gorgias, Isokrates, and Demosthenes not discussed above. Click here to see Gorgianic periods. Click here to see Isokratean periods. Click here to guitar essay see Demosthenic periods. The distinction between the periodic structures favored by Isokrates and those of Demosthenes is mary essay brought out guitar well by Eric Laughton in his comparison of these orators with Cicero, who is Demosthenic rather than Isokratean (“Cicero and the Greek Orators”, AJP 82  27-49; see especially pp.
41-49). Cf. H. C. Gotoff, “Thrasymachus of Chalcedon and Ciceronian Style.” But when one looks back at age culture mass middle popular the elegant repetitions and subordinations, at the effortless variety of electric essay, Plato’s expression, and especially at the elaborate edifice of 14-23 (nemon . . . enemen), one has, in retrospect, a sense of rounding, a sense that one has been led on a planned path with a clear beginning, middle, and end. It should be no surprise, in a writer so artful as Plato, that even a “loose” narrative has, beneath its surface, more than a hint of periodic style. [For a detailed analysis of Protagoras’ story as an example of paper outline middle, a traditional fable, and a discussion of lexis eiromene in general, see E. Norden, Agnostos Theos, Anhang VII, pp.
366-379. On Greek and Roman fables see Ben Perry’s introduction to the Loeb edition of Babrius and guitar Phaedrus (Cambridge, Mass./London 1965), pp. xi-xxxiv.]
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Find someone who you can practice with until it comes out natural. Landing an offer in essay, a tough economy requires considerable effort. If you can demonstrate you can make an impact in your interview, your name will rise to the top of the pack. Copyright Curriculum-Vitae.In 2013 - Contact : webmaster curriculum-vitae.in. All the Curriculum Vitae templates are at your disposal without any guaranty.
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