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Tobacco Smoking: Free Formal Persuasive Speech Sample

Smoking academic essay

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Should Smoking Be Banned In Public? PTE Academic Essay

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Tobacco Smoking: Free Formal Persuasive Speech Sample

richard ii essay This study guide is intended for students taking exams at GCE Advanced (A2) and Advanced Supplementary (AS) level in smoking academic the UK, but is conflicting perspectives essay letters, suitable for smoking academic essay university students and the general reader who is how much to print and bind, interested in Shakespeare's plays. Please use the hyperlinks in the table above to navigate this page. If you have any comments or suggestions to make about this page, please contact me by clicking on this link. This guide is written to smoking support your study of Richard II . The guide indicates the terms in analysis which examiners will expect you to understand the play. Smoking Academic. It should be used in conjunction with study of Richard II in performance, as far as possible, and analysis of the smoking, text in one or more editions designed for study at your level. What other resources should you use? This depends on your own aptitude and how much a dissertation readiness for study.

But any serious Advanced level student should expect to use at least some of the following: Editions of the play: The most authoritative version is the Arden edition. Most students will find this challenging, although the introduction is well worth reading. Essay. The New Cambridge edition is good (but uses archaic spelling of names) while sound editions are published by Penguin and Macmillan. For critical writing about the play, you should use the Casebook anthology (Ed. Nicholas Brooke, Macmillan, 1973): read the introduction, and study essays selectively, but those by bushs resume E. H. Kantorowicz and A. P. Rossiter are strongly recommended. The introductions to the Cambridge and Macmillan texts are recommended, especially Cambridge edn. pp. 16-43 ( Structure, Imagery, Language and Staging ) and Macmillan pp. 4-14 ( When degree is shak'd - the smoking academic, political background ) and pp. What To Italicize. 23-37 ( People and pattern in Richard II ). At a more basic level the guides from Brodie's Notes (Pan, 1985) and York Notes (Longman) may help you.

For general background information about Shakespeare, Ms. Marchette Chute's Shakespeare and his Stage (University of London, 1953) is smoking academic, hard to beat. Literature reference: Useful handbooks for the general study of English literature include The Cambridge Guide to English Literature and The Oxford Guide to English Literature , J. A. Collage Book Reports. Cuddon's Dictionary of academic Literary Terms (Penguin, 1982) and Richard Gill's Mastering English Literature (Macmillan, 1985). Use these books effectively: do not try to to italicize in an essay read them for extended periods like a story (unless you have unusual intellectual powers!) Study for smoking academic short periods, then write down simple statements of what you want to remember, or questions to raise in class discussion. Other people's study guides (like this one) are never as effective as your own. You may wish to use any or all of the following ways of owning your study of this play: Customize books/guides with pencil markings, icons, inserts or highlighting. If you have access to suitable computer software, ask for copies of files, and adapt them for your learning. Letters. Make audio tapes of parts of the smoking essay, play and your comments on them, as well as recording spoken essays. Put essential information/quotation on Post-It notes, and display these where you will see them frequently. Richard II is the first play in a series of four (the others are Henry IV, Parts i and ii and Henry V ), the second such series which Shakespeare wrote (the first - perhaps his very first work - was the three parts of Henry VI, followed by Richard III ). In these Shakespeare examines questions of politics (especially kingship, authority and order) which we meet in others of his plays.

Here, however, these issues are considered in relation to real events as known to the writer or his public. At this point, it makes sense to consider whether Shakespeare is a truthful or inaccurate historian, and what a history play is. If you don't know, find out! As a term to describe a category (kind) of play, tragedy (which means goat song in classical Greek!) originates in Athens in what to italicize ancient times. Aristotle (a philosopher and smoking scientist, but no playwright) describes rules or principles for the drama which tragedians should follow. These rules have proved helpful as a working description, but should not be seen as absolute: Shakespeare, in practice, ignores them more or less. Comedy is a term applied to to print and bind the humorous plays of Greek (e.g. Aristophanes) and essay later Roman (e.g. Book. Terence) dramatists.

For Shakespeare, a comedy is a play with a happy ending - it may or may not be comical in the modern sense of being humorous. In trying to arrange Shakespeare's work into categories (as for smoking essay publication in book form) editors have produced a third category, of histories . More recently critics have noted that Shakespeare's latest plays do not fit any of these categories easily. Thus we have problem plays (or tragi-comedies) in scientific inquiry essay Measure for Measure and All's Well that Ends Well and pastoral plays or romances in Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest . You should know that these labels were not consistently or even commonly applied in Shakespeare's time. Plays classed as tragedies (such as Macbeth ) may have a clearly historical subject. Academic. Many of what to italicize our #147;histories#148; were advertised as tragedies at the time of their performance. This has led to pointless arguments, as to essay whether Shakespeare wrote Richard II or Richard III as history or tragedy: the dispute implies a distinction which may not have existed for the writer. For the modern student it does, however, pose a question which is worthy of consideration: how historical subjects may allow the playwright to develop tragic themes. When our play appeared in print the title page read: The Tragedie of King Richard the bushs resume, Second.

The modern student has better access to smoking detailed and accurate accounts of the events depicted in the history plays than Shakespeare did. We do know, however, that he had a good outline knowledge of the history, and that at points he referred to known sources which are extant (that is, still available to us). Most school editions of the plays will list these. It is clear that in places, Shakespeare will change details to suit his needs as a dramatist. There is a good example of this in Richard II and it cost to print and bind the Henry IV plays: as he wishes to present Prince Hal (later Henry V) and Henry Hotspur Percy as rivals for power in the realm, Shakespeare depicts them as of the same age; in fact, Percy was a contemporary of Henry IV, old enough to be Hal's father.

In these same plays, we meet a character called Mortimer (after Richard's death, Henry IV's rival claimant to smoking the throne): two (related) historical Mortimers have been conflated (made into one) to suit the purposes of the drama. There is a genuine question for scholars in reports how far the smoking, change was knowingly made, but it seems Shakespeare will not let the facts get in the way of a good story! The dramatic form enables Shakespeare to present characters who voice all kinds of opinions, from which we may, if we wish, attempt to infer the playwright's own view. Such inference is at best tentative: it may lead to thesis literary a muddled attempt to understand the plays in academic essay terms of a modern political outlook. Thus, individualists like Richard II or Hotspur (Harry Percy) are seen as dashing and scientific romantic (in 19th or 20th century terms) while the pragmatic Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) is seen as devious and dishonest: almost certainly these are judgements which would not have occurred to Shakespeare or his audience. Shakespeare writes at a time when a period of peace at home has created the very conditions in England which have allowed the smoking academic essay, professional theatre to emerge and flourish, but where this peace is threatened by the ageing queen Elizabeth's lack of an heir. There is no doubt that his plays (history, comedy and tragedy) all reflect a horror of anarchy and a preoccupation with finding a balance between toleration of harmless pleasure and and bind restraint of smoking academic essay harmful lawlessness. In order to explore these themes, Shakespeare locates his stories in other (real or imagined) times and places.

In referring to his own times (as at the end of Richard III and the very late history Henry VIII ) he is careful to praise the Tudors generally and Elizabeth particularly, as he also does by and bind implication in A Midsummer Night's Dream in the figure of the childless Titania. In the second history cycle, beginning with Richard II , Shakespeare considers the king's divine (God-given) right to rule. Though given by God, this right may be forfeited by smoking academic the king's failure to exercise it (this is Richard's fault). Technically, Henry is neither usurper nor rebel, because Richard freely abdicates. While he lives, however, Richard will always be a figurehead for what to italicize new rebellions of the discontented.

Henry, seeing this, reluctantly gives the hint which leads to Richard's murder. This is the murder of a man only (he is no longer king) yet the murderer receives not thanks but banishment from the smoking essay, kingdom, on pain of how much does a dissertation death: Henry's genuine grief at Richard's killing is something most modern audiences find difficult. In the two parts of Henry IV , we see how Henry, though his claim to the throne is weaker (on paper) than that of his rival, Mortimer, proves his right to rule by uniting the country, resisting many attempted revolts and providing a model heir, in academic his son, Hal. Feeling guilty for Richard's death, Henry intends to launch a crusade, but never finds a safe time. He wrongly thinks Hal to be a delinquent and, even more wrongly, admires Hotspur, the son of his friend-turned-enemy, Northumberland. When Hal becomes king, he has no blood on his hands, and the intended religious crusade becomes more a national expedition of conquest.

Henry V is a celebration of Hal's almost legendary exploits in France, culminating in the great reversal of the odds at thesis literary analysis Agincourt. In this play, Shakespeare shows a great interest in essay dramatic rhetoric and in symmetry or balance . For the audience (then as much as now) it has two potential weaknesses: these are the lack of comic interludes, and the lack of literary analysis action. Of the smoking essay, second of bushs resume these, since there is academic essay, action of analysis a kind, but much of it ritualized, ceremonial or in formal gesture , more must be said later. The plot of the academic essay, play in outline is that of the contrasting fortunes of the principals: King Richard , at the height of his powers, banishes Henry Bolingbroke (Bullingbrook, in early editions) Earl of Derby and bushs resume Duke of Hereford, and heir to the estate of John of Gaunt , Duke of academic Lancaster. Henry is banished as a result of reports Richard's treachery: his (and Richard's) uncle, the Duke of Gloucester, has been killed by Thomas Mowbray, Duke of Norfolk, almost certainly on Richard's orders. Bolingbroke accuses Mowbray of treason, a charge he denies, but which is to be proved or refuted in smoking essay a tournament. Richard sets the time (St. Lambert's Day) and place (Coventry) for the tournament. He presides over it but halts it at the last moment: if Bolingbroke wins, Richard's guilt will emerge; if Mowbray wins, he will have the king at a disadvantage. So Richard banishes both, but remits the sentence to a shorter time in Henry's case. On the death of Gaunt, Richard seizes his estates to how much does to print and bind fund a military expedition to Ireland.

Powerful lords, notably the Northumberland Percy family and other northern lords, observing Richard's mismanagement of the country and smoking his unjust dealing, encourage Henry to return in how much it cost to print Richard's absence (in Ireland). The forces Richard has left to guard against such an event either melt away or join Henry, who justifies returning before his sentence is complete by a technicality: he was banished as Hereford; he returns as Lancaster. Richard's actions have been influenced by his favourites, three of whom Henry executes. On his return, Richard virtually surrenders to Henry. While Henry is reluctant to assume the office of king, Northumberland pushes him to exploit his power and popularity, and essay Richard is all too ready to abdicate.

Once he has given up his throne, Richard, imprisoned in birthday Pomfret (Pontefract) castle becomes a problem which Henry can only solve by murder, though he wishes to have no part in it. The play ends with an anticipation of Henry's worries about academic essay, his son, Hal, who has acquired a reputation for foolish and degenerate behaviour. Although he shows us how Henry gains and Richard loses power, Shakespeare is careful not to express a single judgement on the (real) events he depicts. Rather, a range of viewpoints can be found, of which more must be said later. Shakespeare wrote plays to be seen in a complete performance which would (for Richard II ) last about two hours. The play would be performed by conflicting perspectives birthday daylight (between about two and four o'clock) in the purpose-built open air theatres, or with artificial light (lanterns and candles) in essay private houses of wealthy patrons. The plays were not written to be read or studied and copies of the text were originally made (hand-written) for the use of the performers. It is inquiry essay, important to smoking academic essay bear this in mind when you are required to study the play as a text (with extensive editorial comment) on which you will be examined. Shakespeare's company was the most successful of its day, and his plays filled the theatres.

Many (most?) of the audience in a public performance would lack education and conflicting perspectives essay letters be technically illiterate, but these were people for whom the spoken word was of greater value than is the case today: they would be more attentive, more sensitive to patterns of verse and rhyme, and to imagery (word pictures). Academic Essay. Shakespeare's scenes represent changes in time or place, but not of scenery, which would be minimal or non-existent. Basic stage furniture would serve a variety of purposes, but stage properties and costume would be more elaborate and suggestive. A range of gestures and movements with conventional connotations of meaning was used, but we are not sure today how these were performed. In order to understand a play, we have to work harder than did the Elizabethan audience.

To see a play entire (in the theatre or on film), without interruption save for the interval, may be needed for to italicize in an essay us to appreciate Shakespeare's strong sense of narrative drive, and to see how the text is not the work but a (loose) blueprint for performance . On the academic, other hand, study of text and collage editors' notes may be necessary for smoking essay us to appreciate some of the attitudes the contemporary audience brought into the theatre. Such notes may explain images and highlight patterns or structures which otherwise we might not hear, or explain semantic change (changes of meaning) in words or phrases used by the playwright to convey important ideas to his audience. The instant pleasure of experiencing a work of bushs resume art (say a feature film or soap-opera or first-person novel) which uses conventions and a range of cultural references which we at once understand is unlikely ever to be found by smoking essay us in watching Shakespeare in performance. What is amazing is that so much is still accessible, and that by adapting the delivery of lines, and giving some visual clues, performers can make the plays work today. The division of plays into thesis analysis, five acts is more apparent to the dramatist (to whom it gives an idea of how the play's narrative structure will appear in performance) than to essay the audience (though modern audiences often know act and scene numbers). For the student, the numbering of acts and scenes is of enormous importance in identifying a given point in the narrative.

When quoting a passage, always give act and scene number, while line numbers are helpful, too. When you begin revision, make a mental map of the play, so you know what occurs in each scene. What To Italicize Essay. List the scenes down the page. After the scene number write no more than ten words about essay, what happens. Follow this with a phrase from a notable speech. e.g. I, iii: The tournament - halted; the bushs resume, disputants banished: . such is the breath of kings (line 214) II, i: Death of Gaunt - Richard seizes his estates: This royal throne of kings. (line 40) IV, i: The deposition scene: Are you contented to resign the crown? (line 199) These are only suggestions.

Choose a speech which is a clue to you. For an outline which you can adapt or customize, click here. The structure of the play in acts. This is not rigid or mechanical, but there is a fairly simple scheme one can see, whereby Richard's fortunes decline as Bolingbroke's go up (he gains ascendancy). But the play ends with hints of trouble to come for the new ruler. You also should be aware of the relationship between public/ceremonial and academic essay private/intimate scenes or episodes.

Finally it is worth making a plan of each act, identifying episodes/speeches in bushs resume which the principal themes are presented. None of this is a guarantee of success in an exam. It is essential preparation, to give you the material you need to succeed. General comment on each act of the play. This act establishes a pattern which Shakespeare more or less sustains for the whole play, of alternating scenes of a public or formal character with private, informal or intimate scenes. This is important in academic establishing a sense of the characters we meet as occupying a public rôle or office and of the private person behind the public face.

This will be an important idea in this play, as in the subsequent Henry plays. The ceremonial of the opening at bushs resume Richard's court and the third scene (the aborted tournament at Coventry) alternates with two intimate scenes: in the second scene we see Gloucester's widow unable to move the patient Gaunt to vengeance, while the last scene of the act shows the cynicism of Richard in smoking academic essay private with his flatterers. This marks another contrast: in private, Gaunt speaks with exemplary honour and complete integrity, but Richard's private conversation reveals his public ostentation to be showy and insincere - he emerges as a cynical opportunist, ready to disregard the law to collage book reports offset his financial imprudence and wishing the valiant Gaunt into an early grave. For the contemporary audience this last would be the most offensive of his errors: to the Elizabethans, Gaunt, like his grandson, Henry V, is a national hero, of smoking legendary stature - it is almost as if we have seen Richard planning to deface a public monument. A lot of the characters in the play have several names or titles: while this helps speakers avoid repetition it can confuse the modern audience.

Make sure you know who's who. If not, ask a teacher! Bolingbroke's quarrel appears to us to be as much a quarrel with Richard as with Mowbray. Explain, as far as possible, why his challenge is directed exclusively at Mowbray, but not at the king. Book Reports. Can we see more than one reason for Richard to wish to reconcile the two men? Please note that when Richard says we he speaks of himself (a man) and of his majesty (a metaphysical expression of his kingly office, derived from God). Can you explain the nature of Gaunt's refusal of the Duchess's plea? Why should Shakespeare show us this private conversation at this point? This is the key scene in the act. Note the extreme formality of the language, determined by rules of chivalry, and the number of people on stage, as well as the ceremonial garments and weapons which would appear in such a tournament. All of this is required by the tournament which is to take place: the courtesy of the language conceals the enmity of the disputants.

What is the effect on smoking academic, all this display (of rhetoric, clothing, weapons and action ) of the king's halting of the tournament? Later on, you may wish to consider whether this action, taken to safeguard his position in the short term, is an analysis error from which Richard cannot recover. Here we see Richard with his supporters, three of whom, Bushy, Bagot (who does not speak) and Green, appear for the first time. Can you think why they do not appear in Act I, scene iii? What do Richard's various remarks about Bolingbroke tell us? In the first scene of this act, Richard spurns the advice of the dying Gaunt, and seizes Gaunt's estates to fund his wars in Ireland. Bolingbroke's supporters speak of smoking academic a plan for the exile to bushs resume return in Richard's absence, and the next scene brings news, as Richard's flatterers try to comfort the queen, of smoking academic essay Henry's return and the enormous support he has received. In the third scene we see this support as Bolingbroke and his allies come to to print and bind Berkeley in Gloucestershire, where they are confronted by the Duke of smoking essay York, who has been appointed lord governor in Richard's absence: he rebukes Bolingbroke but is placated by his statement of his limited ambition.

In contrast, the scientific essay, final (brief) scene shows how the forces left by Richard to defend the country have dispersed and gone home. This scene makes clear the power politics of the time. In a country with no standing or professional army, real power lies in the feudal system whereby great lords can rely on lesser local magnates (lords of the manor, sheriffs and so on) to raise armies from their estates, and possess the smoking academic essay, means to pay them for their service. It Cost A Dissertation. Richard has no extensive estates of his own, but Bolingbroke owns the largest of all (Lancaster) and is backed by the major landowners of the north of England, led by smoking the Northumberland Percy family. These have mustered a large army, against which the to italicize, returning Richard will be powerless to smoking academic act. This scene is notable for Gaunt's great patriotic speech (which is often quoted out of its context in the play, and without the last two lines of the long sentence which are required for scientific it to academic make grammatical sense, as they contain the main verb, and bushs resume which give the point of the preceding images). What does this scene tell us of the state of England, the character or Richard, and how far these two are connected? This scene starts with the academic essay, private conversation of York and Gaunt, moves to the public formal interview with Richard, and ends in scientific inquiry the intimacy of the plotting by Richard's enemies.

How does Shakespeare use this scene in which nothing really happens (though some important news arrives) as a commentary on events occurring elsewhere? Do the words of the queen in any way modify our view of Richard, and if so, how? At this time, the queen was only ten: why does Shakespeare present her as an adult? This is Bolingbroke's first appearance in the play since his banishment (we are shown scenes neither of Henry in France nor of Richard in Ireland). Is there any difference in the way he appears to the audience now? What are his plans for Bushy, Bagot and Green, and how does he characterize these three men? Is his quarrel merely personal or more honourable and disinterested? How does this scene serve as an appropriate sequel to scene iii?

The action here moves from Bristol, where Bolingbroke executes Bushy and Greene (not Bagot, who has fled) to essay Harlech, in Wales. Here Richard, returning from Ireland, meets the remnants of his supporters, and learns of the dispersal or defection of others, and passes on to Flint Castle, where he confronts Bolingbroke and submits to his greater force. Although Richard speaks of being deposed, Henry has so far only claimed his right to the title and estates of Lancaster. Collage Reports. In an interlude in York's garden (near St. Alban's) the queen learns from the gardener of Bolingbroke's triumph over her husband. How does the audience see the execution of Bushy and Greene in terms both of Bolingbroke's private concerns and public duty? Compare Bolingbroke's long speech here with that in essay I, i, 87-108: how does the charge against the two caterpillars differ from that against Mowbray? At the heart of this scene is collage book reports, Richard's receipt of bad news and his response to it. The bad news comes in stages (what are the academic essay, important details?) from bushs resume, Aumerle, Salisbury and Scroope. Bushy and Greene stay loyal to the king, and academic essay meet death with dignity: what do we think of Richard's response to bushs resume Scroope's ambiguous statement that the two have made peace with Bolingbroke?

Comment also on Richard's two long speeches beginning at academic essay lines 36 and 144, respectively. Richard's appearance on the ramparts of the castle (using the balcony of the theatre) allows the inquiry, dramatist to academic essay symbolize the king's loss of status as he literally comes down to meet his rival. How does Richard make this explicit in his speech throughout the scene? Comment on the attitudes shown to Richard by Bolingbroke (e.g., lines 31-67) and by Northumberland (who omits his title and chooses not to kneel before the king). Comment on literary analysis, Richard's tendency to reflect (in melodramatic or exaggerated fashion) on his loss of power. There is no reason to suppose that the gardener, as a master of his craft, would be unlikely to smoking compare the government of the country to the tending of a garden. He elaborates the metaphor, to show Richard has neglected his gardening but Bolingbroke has begun to bushs resume pluck up the weeds. Academic. root and all. The reference to caterpillars reminds us of Bolingbroke's earlier description of Bushy, Bagot and Greene. Comment on the introduction of the gardener, as a kind of detached or chorus * figure. How far do we believe in his objectivity, and what weight do his words carry?

*In the classical drama of ancient Athens, the chorus is a group (of people, animals or spirits) which observes the in an, action on stage, and academic comments about it to the audience. The function of the chorus is to suggest or challenge the audience's understanding. Shakespeare rarely uses a chorus as such (he does, for instance, in Romeo and Juliet ), but often transfers its functions to a character in the play (Iago, Puck, Lennox). Where the previous act moves hundreds of miles in four scenes, this act is a single scene, arguably the most important in the whole play, set in Westminster. It divides into three clear episodes: First Bagot (who has evidently been spared by Henry in return for his information) accuses Aumerle of a part in book Gloucester's murder. This leads to essay a series of accusations and rebuttals, compounded by literary analysis a series of challenges (Bagot, a commoner, may not answer Aumerle's challenge, so Fitzwater takes it up, only for Surrey to challenge him, while another lord issues a further challenge to Aumerle). To help clarify matters, Bolingbroke repeals Norfolk's banishment, only to learn that Mowbray has died. In the second part, York, supported by Northumberland but opposed by Carlisle, presides over Richard's abdication and Henry's accession.

In a brief sequel, the Abbot of Westminster, ostensibly holding Carlisle under arrest, invites the smoking academic, bishop and how much does to print Aumerle to supper, to smoking essay learn of how much does it cost to print a plot against Bolingbroke. In what way is Bagot's appearance here surprising? How does the scene compare with I, i in terms of the way in which the challenges are issued and smoking essay taken up? How does Bolingbroke's handling of the challenges compare with Richard's earlier? What is the effect on the audience of Henry's words about Norfolk here? How does Shakespeare express contrasting political attitudes in the conduct of Northumberland and Carlisle in this episode? Comment on the importance of book reports York, as an honest man, in the audience's eyes, here.

How much does Bolingbroke say in this scene (as opposed, say, to Northumberland)? What is the reason for this, and what is its effect? At line 222, Richard asks: What more remains? What is our view of Northumberland's insistence on smoking academic, Richard's answering accusations of analysis crime, and Bolingbroke's decision (line 271) to save Richard from this humiliation? Is Northumberland insisting merely that justice be seen to be done, or gloating over a defeated enemy? What is the effect of Richard's use of the mirror in this episode? What do you find interesting in Richard's rhetoric here? In what ways does this episode remind us of the end of II, i? In what ways is it significantly different from the earlier scene? Do we see this plot as more or less justified than the earlier one? Why (apart from the audience's historical knowledge) does the abbot's scheme seem unlikely to prosper?

It is appropriate that the final act of the play should both conclude the academic, depiction of Richard's struggles, and tell of the beginning of Henry's difficulties. Thesis Literary Analysis. Richard, en route, for the Tower of London, takes his farewell of Isabel (who is to return to her native France), only to learn that Bolingbroke has decided to send him, instead, to Pomfret (Pontefract). York discovers his son, Aumerle, to be privy to a plot to kill Henry, and rushes to inform the king, who is also troubled by stories of the smoking academic essay, riotous behaviour of his son, Hal (who does not appear, but is the chief character of the three plays which follow in this cycle). The plot is frustrated, Aumerle pardoned and Carlisle banished. On a hint from the king, Sir Piers Exton murders Richard, but is banished for what in an his pains. Troubled by academic feelings of guilt, but, for scientific inquiry the moment, safe from his enemies, Henry declares his wish to go on essay, a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, though later (in the book, next play) he speaks more of a crusade. How, in describing her husband's plight, do Isabel and Richard provide a résumé of the changing fortunes of the former and current rulers? Comment on Richard's prophecy of Northumberland's rebelling against Henry.

Both Shakespeare and academic the audience know that the earl did rebel, but, within the world of the play, as in historical fact, Henry did not have prior knowledge of this (though eventually he is scientific essay, able to see it coming). The two parts of academic essay this scene express in quite different ways York's belief that it is the will of God that the failed king, Richard, give way to the new ruler, Henry. Noting that York has paused, in his distress for Richard, the duchess summarizes the collage book reports, gist of academic his speech so far, allowing him to describe the popular acclaim of Henry, and the contemptuous rejection of bushs resume Richard. On Aumerle's entry, his nonchalant remarks about the proposed tournament at Oxford conceal his real interest, which is discovered when his father seizes the letter he sees his son to be carrying. How does the audience view the smoking academic essay, conduct of the two parents and their son in this episode? What is the effect of the king's conversation with Percy about his son? What is the audience's view of Henry's situation on the arrival of his cousin, uncle and aunt, and bushs resume of how he deals with this? How important is York to the audience as a touchstone or measure of correct political judgement? The short scene iv is by way of an essay explanation of what is to follow.

Why does Henry wish Richard dead? Why should Shakespeare take the trouble, in so few lines, to state twice (what Henry supposedly said twice) the king's exact words, and bushs resume then to give Exton's gloss as to what the words mean? Of what incident in Richard's reign are we reminded at this point? Richard's long soliloquy at the start of scene v is arguably more moving than his earlier comments on his situation, both because it is made in private, and because it is more measured and less excessively self-pitying. How far do you support this view, and why?

What is the academic, point of the groom's words to Richard, and the latter's response to these? Henry's fears about the rebels, which he explains to York, are at once resolved by news brought by Northumberland and Fitzwater, who have executed the ringleaders, save for Westminster (who appears to have died naturally, possibly in prison) and Carlisle, who is banished. This is the cue for Exton's arrival with Richard's body. What is the audience's view of Henry's treatment of Exton? How far are we persuaded by the king's justification of his words and his wish for Richard's death? His desire to earn forgiveness by conflicting perspectives essay birthday letters means of a pilgrimage seems genuine.

What obstacle lies in essay the way of the fulfilment of this desire? How effective, and in what ways, do you find the play's ending? General comment on all acts and scenes of the play appears above. This section deals more extensively with the most critical parts of the in an essay, play. The importance of each scene (and, thus, its likely appeal to examiners) is indicated by the star (#42;) rating: the more stars, the more important! Relationship with the play and its general themes. At the start of the play, these two scenes are dramatically effective in introducing the historical situation and smoking academic characters, and thesis literary indicating the relationship between the essay, public duty and the private concerns of the king and others. The play's first scene outlines the nature of the quarrel between Bolingbroke and does it cost to print and bind Mowbray, which is really a quarrel between the king and the house of Lancaster. We see how the academic essay, king, seemingly fully in scientific inquiry essay control, attempts to reconcile the adversaries, then determines to settle their dispute by essay chivalrous means.

This very public scene is followed by an intimate exchange between Gaunt and Gloucester's widow, in which Gaunt refuses to act against Mowbray, but indicates Richard's responsibility for Gloucester's death: since the king is God's deputy, God's is the quarrel and conflicting perspectives letters it is honourable, in spite of the duchess's pleas, to smoking essay show patience. We see at once a discrepancy between Richard's public persona (the just and powerful monarch) and his dubious actions; this contrasts with Gaunt's dignity and literary loyalty in public and private. To see Richard's behaviour in private, we should look to scene iv of this act. The stage directions at the start of these scenes make the smoking, most important point. Scene i is full of ceremonial, as the stage is filled with nobles and attendants. Scientific Inquiry. The scene has a quasi legal character, which we will see more fully developed in smoking academic essay I, iii. The scene is full of opportunities for display of duty and chivalry - thus both Mowbray and Bolingbroke state their allegiance to Richard, at which point they may be expected to kneel.

It is what to italicize essay, not clear whether Mowbray's I spit at him (l. 60) should be a literal insult. Though Richard eventually appoints the day for the trial by smoking academic combat, it is Bolingbroke who issues the challenge in throwing down his gage, which Mowbray readily takes up. Having heard the charge and bushs resume Mowbray's answer, Richard twice orders Mowbray to give up the gage, but is unable to compel him to do so. Academic Essay. By contrast, scene ii is very intimate and private, with only two characters on stage; Gaunt says little but listens patiently, while conveying the impression that this private interview takes place in the sight of God. In the in an essay, first scene Shakespeare skilfully exploits the etiquette of the court to smoking convey information. As in literary scene iii, we hear the essay, names of the principal characters stated repeatedly. As later they may be known by conflicting perspectives essay letters name or one of their titles, it is useful to hear all of smoking essay these. Although Richard's words are at in an essay this point sustained by the authority of smoking academic essay his office, even here we see very real limits: ultimately his we were not born to sue, but to command is hollow, since his suit has failed (Mowbray has not resigned the gage) and what essay what he commands is simply the time and place of the show-down which Bolingbroke has prompted and Mowbray accepted. Smoking Academic. Given that three of these characters (Richard, Gaunt, Bolingbroke) are closely related, it is also worth noting at every point what form of address is used (intimate: my son, Harry; personal: Thomas Mowbray; familiar: Thomas, Edward or formal: the Duke of Norfolk).

Perhaps most interesting is the title John of Gaunt: this name, associated with his personal history and the subject of a series of puns through this act, apparently has a special honorific status, and he is book, happy to be known by it, rather than the formal Duke of Lancaster. Relationship with the play and its general themes. This is the key scene in the first act. Richard's decision in I, i, to resolve the dispute between Bolingbroke and Mowbray by smoking academic essay means of reports a tournament, seems, when he makes it, to be a grand gesture, demonstrating his power and smoking academic essay prestige. However, it appears only now that Richard realizes the practical implications of his decision: if Mowbray wins, he knows too much for the king's peace of mind; if Bolingbroke wins, Richard will be threatened by bushs resume his increased status. Halting the proceedings and banishing the men lets Richard apparently retain control of things, but also appears to be a violation of the laws of chivalry. As king, Richard is at the pinnacle of a hierarchy of laws and privileges; if he disregards these, as he repeatedly does, for reasons of academic essay expediency, he undermines his own position. As in I, i, Richard, while acting in a superficially authoritative manner, makes a hasty decision. He cannot foresee its consequences, but subsequent events appear to the audience to conflicting perspectives letters result from what happens here.

His banishing Bolingbroke leads him later to seize Henry's inheritance, which prompts the academic essay, exile's return and effective assumption of how much does it cost power in the realm. This scene can be compared with IV, i, in which Henry presides over events, but in very different manner: where Richard is showy, concerned with the impression he makes, Henry is silent but politically aware. The public, ceremonial character of the tournament is shown in the theatre by use of costume and academic essay properties, and by the arrangement of the actors on essay, stage. The particular garments worn by the king, by his officers, Aumerle and the Marshal, by the heralds, and by the two disputants, indicate at least the importance of the smoking academic, occasion, though the costume may show more exactly the status of the wearer. Actions are formal and ritualized: the marshal approaches the defendant (Mowbray) and the appellant (Bolingbroke) to address them. Weapons are presented to them (at line 100) and trumpets sound flourishes and a charge. The enemies occupy opposite sides of the stage (front) with Richard raised up on a das behind them.

All is prepared for the action of the tournament, which never comes: Richard's intervention (which the audience may expect) alters the character of the proceedings, puts himself literally and metaphorically at the centre of the action, but is somewhat of an anti-climax. Scientific Essay. To halt proceedings, he throws down his warder, which may remind us of the gages thrown down in I, i and IV, i. Any actors not named in the scene will fill the stage as attendant nobles: a helpful sketch of this scene appears in the New Cambridge edition (p. 38). The structure of the scene is, loosely: ceremonial of the tournament, Richard's intervention and academic essay sentence, the reaction of the banished men, reduction of Bolingbroke's banishment, his farewell to Gaunt. The ceremonial quality noted above appears also in the language of this scene, where ritual forms are followed: the defendant and appellant are asked to identify themselves and state their causes. Although ready to express bitter enmity, they are required to speak with dignity, and both show the utmost courtesy to their sovereign, though both know him to be implicated in and bind a dissertation Gloucester's death. Bolingbroke's request, that he kiss the smoking academic essay, king's hand, is relayed by the Marshal, though Richard has doubtless heard it directly, and, to indicate their lofty status there is constant repetition of the full names and titles of both disputants. (Between lines 100 and 112 each occurs three times, with slight variations, Bolingbroke's filling a complete pentameter line of verse!) Also worthy of analysis note are images of discord or imprisonment, references to England and discussion of time and necessity. Finally, here, as elsewhere, it is essay, always profitable to note the forms of address used, whether name, (Bolingbroke) relationship, rank or title (cousin Hereford, Norfolk) or honorific form (my most sovereign liege) - the Elizabethan audience will be alert to the nuances of these, as when Gaunt bluntly addresses Richard as king, at line 225. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In the previous scene we observe Richard with his sycophantic favourites: we are troubled by his contempt for Bolingbroke, and bushs resume his readiness to pay for his Irish expedition through dubious taxation and seizure of Gaunt's estates: that he is concerned for Gaunt's wealth rather than his health is shocking. In this scene we see the contrast between the noble Gaunt who laments the results of Richard's poor administration, and the king's dismissing this honest man as a lunatic lean-witted fool.

Gaunt is motivated essentially by a love for his country and dismay at what it has become under Richard's rule; from his conduct in I, ii and I, iii we know that he subordinates his own concerns (as his brother York does later) to those of the kingdom. Yet Richard accuses him of insolence. Once Gaunt is academic essay, dead, York counsels Richard against the seizure of the inquiry, Lancaster estates, but his remarks, too, fall on deaf ears: both in his rebuke of Gaunt (lines 115 - 19) and his rejection of York's request (lines 209 - 10) Richard gives no reason for his words. He resorts to crude assertion of his authority rather than justify his actions (perhaps because they cannot be justified - he may know this, or may not even have considered it). The brief sequel to this, where Northumberland draws Ross and essay Willoughby into his plotting follows naturally: the men discuss what they have witnessed, articulate other grievances and look for comfort, of which Northumberland duly speaks. Rebellion is shocking to Shakespeare's audience, but it has been well-established by now that Richard is, as we say, asking for it.

The structure of the scene is clear: first, Gaunt, hoping to correct his nephew's faults, foresees the ruin which will come on England if Richard cannot be dissuaded from his folly; this is followed by Richard's angry and contemptuous reaction to Gaunt, and his more polite, but effectively equally dismissive response to the kindly old duke of York. Then comes the conspiracy. The first three sections are public, using the full stage, but the final section involves an intimate huddle and hushed voices, speaking treason. There is no obvious use of properties, and Gaunt's condition requires him to be static as he delivers his judgement on Richard's rule. It should be noted that the king does not hear the famous long speech. His actual rebuke to Richard is interrupted before he can complete it: perhaps we are to understand that Richard, had he been present would not have allowed the royal throne of kings speech to be uttered in scientific essay full. The interest of this scene lies largely in its language. Even so small a thing as the respective greetings of the queen and essay of Richard are significant: where the queen shows respect (noble uncle Lancaster), the king is conflicting perspectives essay birthday, disrespectful (What comfort, man?) and uses his uncle's nickname (How is't with aged Gaunt?).

The final part of the smoking academic, scene is notable for the business-like giving of information, and the sense of conflicting letters haste and academic essay bustle with which Northumberland speaks, but also for an interesting series of images, whereby we move from a tempest (Northumberland) to (ship)wreck (Ross) to conflicting essay the ships which bring intelligence and will later bring soldiers, and the port in Brittany from which these come. Gaunt's long speech is smoking academic essay, formal and rhetorical: it begins as a series of epithets, most introduced by this (the pronoun occurs seventeen times), to indicate some excellence of England. Gaunt sustains the series but delays the main verb clause, so we wait to hear what it is he has to collage say about this England. When it comes, the effect is of incongruity: Gaunt asserts that this seat of Mars or other Eden now suffers the shame of being bound in rotten bonds of ink-blotted parchment. Smoking Academic Essay. The implied contrast is what to italicize essay, between the military achievements of heroic rulers of the past (Edward III, and smoking his sons, the Black Prince, and Gaunt himself, perhaps) and the ignoble tax-farming and blank charters with which Richard has sustained his spendthrift court. The Elizabethan audience would be struck by the juxtaposition of images of chivalry with those of petty land-ownership and doubtful transactions in law.

Relationship with the play and book its general themes. When Richard leaves the stage in II, i, he informs us that he will leave for smoking academic Ireland the next day. For several scenes now we have observed how others have responded to his absence: Bolingbroke has returned, while Richard's supporters have proved ineffectual to resist him. While Bagot has saved his skin by flight, Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire have paid with their lives for misleading the king. On his return, Richard is at first defiant, then, as he receives more and more bad news, introspective and fatalistic. Conflicting Essay Letters. The audience notes a striking distance between the wisdom of Richard's general comments and smoking academic his inability to rule wisely. Conflicting Letters. While Richard's exploration of the nature of kingship may earn some sympathy, this is lessened by his attack on smoking academic, his friends.

We have just seen them, under sentence of death, exhibit commendable dignity and loyalty to Richard, whose haste to condemn them is undeserved. Scientific Inquiry. Just as he has been politically unwise in following the counsel of his supporters, so he shows a poor understanding of their personal merits. This play is notable for its changing locations, as Shakespeare tries to smoking academic depict events happening throughout the realm. The simplicity of the scientific inquiry essay, stage enables places to be indicated in academic essay conversation (we know that the tournament in I, iii is at Coventry, because we have been told this in I, i, for thesis literary example). Bolingbroke, landing at Ravenspurgh, swiftly crosses the country, and we meet him near Berkeley. In this scene, Richard, returning from Ireland, arrives at Harlech in essay north Wales. The structure of the scene derives from what essay, Richard's initial expressions of confidence (before and after Carlisle's comment and Aumerle's elaboration of it) and smoking essay his responses to the news brought by Salisbury and Scroope. Apart from the scientific inquiry, entrances of Salisbury and academic essay Scroope, there are interesting actions at the start of the scene and near its end. First, Richard appears to embrace the ground (salute. with my hand. greet. Perspectives Letters. do. favours with my royal hands).

Later, as if symbolizing his resignation, he invites his followers to smoking academic sit with him upon the ground, a course of (in)action from which Carlisle duly dissuades him (wise men ne'er sit and wail their woes. . This is one of the most interesting scenes in the play in terms of language, and perhaps the first of those in which Richard, deprived of political power, discovers a new rhetorical power, to dramatize his own loss. It contains many of the play's best-known and often-quoted speeches. In his first long speech Richard appeals to the earth to sustain the rightful order of things by inquiry essay deploying its more sinister agents (spiders. Essay. toads. Bushs Resume. nettles. adder) against Bolingbroke. The request is fantastic (it would be at smoking academic essay home in A Midsummer Night's Dream where such dangers lurk in the Palace wood) and comes ill from one who, as Gaunt has told us earlier, has so neglected his native land's best interest. That the earth is injured by the rebels' horses' hooves is a poetic conceit: it is Richard in fact who is harmed. In the next long speech, Richard compares his return to the rising of the sun (an image to which Shakespeare returns in the next scene, and in Henry IV, Part i , where Prince Hal likens himself to the sun hidden behind clouds). This leads to a definitive statement of the inalienable right of the collage book, king to rule: Not all the academic essay, water in the rough rude sea/ Can wash the balm off from an anointed king. The balm (actually a perfumed mixture of in an balm [balsam resin] and oil) would be difficult (literally) to wash off (no modern soap or detergent being to hand) but its spiritual effect, says Richard, is permanent. Where dangerous creatures are at first invoked by academic essay Richard to harm Bolingbroke, they are now likened unjustly to his supporters whom he believes to have betrayed him (lines 129 - 34). He further offends by comparing them to Judas Iscariot, clearly implying that he is like Christ (he is God's deputy but not His son).

There is no apology when he learns of his error, but Richard reflects on the brevity of life and the certainty of death in a notable speech which also acknowledges the common humanity he shares with his subjects: I live with bread. feel want/ Taste grief, need friends. Relationship with the play and its general themes. Shakespeare has kept Richard and Henry apart since II, i, but we have a sense in the preceding scenes of scientific inquiry their imminent meeting, which occurs here. While Bolingbroke is eager to submit to Richard's authority, yet he demands that his banishment be revoked, and essay his estates restored. Richard is advised by Aumerle to be diplomatic in collage the hope that he may enlist allies against Henry in the future. Although Bolingbroke makes a gesture of academic essay submission to him, Richard seems to accept as certain the collage reports, loss of his throne to academic his rival. This is one of the most interesting scenes in the play in terms of bushs resume its staging (see the smoking, sketch in thesis literary analysis the New Cambridge edition, p. 39). The balcony represents the ramparts of Flint Castle, and the stage below is the base court, to which Richard must descend. Richard's appearance is likened by Bolingbroke to the rising of the academic, sun: he appears most majestic here, yet there is what to italicize in an, pathos in the audience's awareness that his power is now to be eclipsed. Smoking Academic. He is bushs resume, invited to come down, and smoking essay his descent (line 183) vividly shows his loss of authority.

Gestures of submission are important here, too: Bolingbroke says (line 36) that he will kneel, and at line 188 he does so - Richard's response suggests either that he believes Bolingbroke is insincere (he isn't, clearly) or that he (Richard) recognizes the inevitability of Henry's seizing the throne. As with the collage book reports, tournament scene (I, iii) trumpets are sounded (line 61; see note in Macmillan edn., p. 170): the parley is less obviously ritualized than the tournament, but there is an etiquette. Northumberland is smoking academic essay, rebuked by Richard, who has waited in vain for him to kneel (we see a similar disregard for does it cost to print traditional courtesy in IV, i). Northumberland speaks as Henry's envoy, Richard responds and accepts the invitation to smoking essay parley. Collage Book. Bolingbroke, exemplary in observing the etiquette of the parley, acknowledges Richard's sovereignty, but Richard knows, as the audience does, that their rôles have effectively been reversed.

Northumberland's brusque manner towards Richard reveals this, where Bolingbroke is more courteous and deferential. Academic Essay. Finally, we should note (by inference from Richard's comment to his uncle) how York weeps to see Richard's degradation. To emphasise the majesty of the soon-to-be-deposed monarch, Shakespeare repeatedly uses his proper title King Richard (not, as elsewhere, cousin, nephew and so on) with one notable exception (line 6) which earns Northumberland a rebuke from York. How Much It Cost To Print And Bind A Dissertation. It is notable that the title is used most often by Bolingbroke, who later refers twice to his majesty and addresses Richard directly as my gracious lord and most redoubted lord. Richard inverts the usual forms of respect, showing mock deference (Most mighty prince, my Lord Northumberland; line 172) and academic calling his rival King Bolingbroke and his majesty in thesis literary analysis the next line, and academic speaking of himself in the third person as merely the king. Richard's fantasy of exchanging his royal privileges for how much does to print and bind the simple life of a poor pilgrim is essay, pathetic: he is to italicize essay, sorry for himself and smoking articulates his sorrow eloquently enough to inquiry essay stir our sympathy, but this speech is self-indulgent and inappropriate: he could take Aumerle's advice (lines 131 - 2), grant Henry's requests and save face. The symbolism of Richard's coming down, in case the audience has missed it, is spelled out by the king in his exploration of the meanings of the words he repeats (down, base court and up). In his ironic rebuke of essay Bolingbroke for debasing himself by kneeling (lines 190 - 1) Richard reminds us of his own similar action (with a different symbolic meaning) in bushs resume the previous scene. It would appear that his real objection is not that Bolingbroke has no need to kneel, but that his heart is not in it: Up, cousin, up.

Your heart is up, I know/Thus high at least, although your knee be low. As in the last scene the king is smoking academic essay, likened to the sun, but here it is his generous rival Bolingbroke who states the likeness. Relationship with the play and literary analysis its general themes. In one sense nothing really happens in this scene, which is valuable chiefly as comment and explanation on events, at smoking academic the mid-point in what to italicize in an essay the drama. It is smoking academic essay, a very judicious scene in that understanding of the reasons for Richard's failure as a king is mixed with sympathy for his plight. This is one of the series of intimate, private interludes which run through the play, culminating in the most private of all, Richard's meditation in Pomfret, in V, v. The scene is set in a garden: one the one hand this contrasts with the public settings of the play's most important scenes; on the other, the real garden here, reminds us of inquiry Gaunt's repeated metaphor (II, iii: This earth of academic essay majesty. this other Eden, demi-paradise. this blessd plot, this earth) in which the whole country is how much it cost, likened to a garden, an idea developed in the dialogue in this scene. Smoking Academic. The queen (in reality a child) is presented as a rather pathetic young woman. She is made aware of the realities of the political situation, but her helplessness may evoke sympathy for herself and, by association, for a dissertation Richard. Shakespeare varies a stock device (narrative information being reported by a messenger or well-informed noble to others on stage) as the Gardener is able to divulge information which came last night/To a dear friend of the smoking, good Duke of York's yet which is already no more than everyone doth know: the queen has not been informed of what we would now call the word on the street.

Shakespeare takes some pains over the dialogue here. It is worth noting a number of statements which establish the essay birthday letters, outdoor setting (about bowls and dancing - which give rise to a series of weak puns on rubs, bias and keeping measure - or these trees: presumably the stage posts are used here). But mostly, Shakespeare gives the Gardener an opportunity to expand the idea of essay England as a blessed plot or garden. Collage. A close study of smoking essay all the imagery in analysis the scene should be made, but some ideas can be noted here. When the Gardener instructs the Servant in his task, we may already note the ambiguity of his orders: he likens the academic essay, ripe fruit to unruly children, while the servant is to be the executioner (we know that Bushy, Green and Wiltshire have just been executed by Bolingbroke's servants). Literary Analysis. The garden is a commonwealth in the Gardener's government and smoking academic essay the weeds are without profit in sucking fertility from the flowers. In case we miss the point, the Servant now spells out the analogy: Richard has neglected his sea-walld garden. This gives the Gardener, continuing the Servant's metaphor, the chance to explain that the scientific inquiry, garden is academic, now being tended by essay Bolingbroke: Richard is likened to a tree sheltering parasitic weeds which seemed in eating him to hold him up; the image is developed as the Gardener likens Richard's nobles to academic the boughs of a fruit tree: these need regular pruning (cutting back) while in extreme cases, superfluous branches (useless or disloyal nobles) are lopped away.

Hearing this provokes the queen to join the conversation rebuking the Gardener who in Adam's likeness describes the what essay, expulsion from Eden of cursd man in the person of Richard. The extended metaphor of the scales, in which Bolingbroke now outweighs Richard, suggests the image of the two buckets (IV, i, 183-8) but in this case Richard is the heavier (with grief) while Bolingbroke mount(s) up on high. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In this scene what has been implied by Richard in III, iii and discussed by the Gardener in III, iv, is enacted, that is Richard's deposition. Smoking Academic. There is a ceremony for the coronation of a monarch, but no established form for abdication (hitherto kings have been killed unlawfully by usurpers, but Bolingbroke wishes to act lawfully).

Thus, the principals have to inquiry essay make up the ritual as they go along. In an obvious reversal of the positions in the tournament scene, Bolingbroke presides, while others, Northumberland, York and chiefly Richard, enact the ritual of abdication. Richard has indicated his willingness to resign the crown, but, given a captive audience, seizes the opportunity to dramatize his loss. This is the last scene in which Richard and Bolingbroke appear together. Academic. Shakespeare is concerned with the legality of the proceedings: Henry and what to italicize in an essay York wish the abdication to be legal, while Carlisle thinks this impossible and Northumberland is more or less indifferent, but aware of where the power lies.

The scene divides into three unequal parts (the series of accusations and counter-accusations relating to Gloucester's death; the smoking academic, abdication, and the plotting of Aumerle, Carlisle and collage book Westminster). Essay. Of these, the central section can be divided further into Carlisle's objection to the proceedings (107 - 161); Richard's relinquishing the crown (162 - 222); his refusal to read the and bind, charges against him (222 - 272); the breaking of the mirror (273 - 304) and Richard's departure (305 - 318). The fourth act of Richard II is an essay ambitious example of bushs resume another variety of big scene, the ensemble-scene, in smoking which a massive effect is obtained by the presence on stage of a large number of bushs resume actors, several of whom have prominent speaking parts. Richard is given a carefully delayed entry. The scene opens with a short episode involving angry petty squabbling: the quarrel between Aumerle and Fitzwater; which is followed by the excited throwing down of gauntlets. Smoking Academic. This leads into the next episode, more serious and deeper in tone, in which the Bishop of scientific essay Carlisle is the essay, chief actor. Thesis Analysis. His impassioned protest against Bolingbroke's proceedings raises the smoking academic essay, scene to a new level of feeling. Only then does Richard himself appear, when the scene is does it cost and bind a dissertation, half-way through. The effect in the scene is essay, that Richard II appears just before the crest of the wave: he inherits the excitement worked up in the preceding episodes, and he dominates his scene by riding the climax.

Emrys Jones, Scenic Form in Shakespeare (p. 15) The staging of the scene once again requires almost the essay, full resources of the Elizabethan stage. Rival factions can be massed on either side of the stage, while the central area will in turn be taken by the various accusers, starting with Bagot, by Carlisle and by Richard. Smoking Academic. At some point (where is not clear in the text) Bolingbroke will occupy the throne which was Richard's. The three conspirators at the end of the scene remind us of the plotters in II, i. This is a scene in which objects are important: as well as the throne, we must note the collage reports, use of the gages at the start of the scene, the crown which Richard gives to academic essay Bolingbroke, the paper (line 269) on which Richard's alleged offences are listed, and the mirror. The throwing of the gages becomes almost silly before Bolingbroke halts it. It would appear from line 183 (On this side my hand and on collage reports, that side thine) and subsequent remarks, that both men hold the crown for some time before Richard lets it go. In destroying the mirror, Richard enacts his own destruction while making his (shattered) image correspond truly to his kingship. When Bolingbroke (line 113) states his intention of ascending the throne, he is defied by academic essay Carlisle: whether Henry takes the throne at once or is delayed by Carlisle is not given in the stage directions, any more than is the manner of his ascent. As elsewhere, titles are instructive: York addresses Bolingbroke as Duke of Lancaster before proclaiming him Henry, fourth of that name.

Even Carlisle now refers merely to Richard, while Bolingbroke does likewise. Though Richard ironically cries God save the king, he notes that no-one present feels able to say Amen to his acclamation. Richard now associates Henry with the sun (221, 261) while recognizing that he once dazzled beholders as the sun does (283 - 4). As he looks into the mirror, Richard examines the book reports, symbolism of the king's face (the word is re-iterated and placed in a series of rhetorical questions: Was/is this the face. ). The term indicates his sense of the difference between the smoking academic essay, literal face of the ordinary man (he still has this) and the kingly authority others see in the face of the ruler (this has passed to Henry). This is Shakespeare's comment on scientific essay, the doctrine of the King's Two Bodies. For another reading of this scene click here. Relationship with the play and its general themes.

This scene is a bridge between IV, i, where Richard's self-dramatization reaches a climax, and the philosophical acceptance of his situation which redeems and dignifies Richard in V, v. It is a sequel to III, iv, as the smoking academic, appearance of the queen evokes sympathy for Richard, though he seems now not to need this, and tells her so. And it prepares us for the next play in the sequence (Henry IV, Part i) as Richard correctly forecasts Northumberland's future dissatisfaction with his lot, and bushs resume fomenting of rebellion. Outside the smoking academic essay, political process, Richard has the shrewdness he lacked in office. The action here precedes what York describes at the start of scene ii, which is Henry's and Richard's coming into London. As with the does and bind, queen's earlier appearance (III, iv) her opening words indicate the location (a street which Richard must take on his way to essay the Tower of bushs resume London). Although this is a public place, the guard, who accompanies Richard but does not speak, evidently defers to the queen, who takes her leave of Richard before the smoking, Northumberland's arrival changes the mood. The queen's attendants are also silent. The queen is emotional but Richard is composed and serene; as Hamlet does to Horatio, and as Othello does in his final speech, Richard invites his queen, in time to come, to tell. the lamentable tale of him, which will send the hearers weeping to their beds. The decorum and pathos here contrast with the brusqueness of what follows: throughout the collage reports, drama, Northumberland acts for Bolingbroke against Richard (rather as Norfolk did for Richard against Gloucester). In doing so, Northumberland has been more zealous than necessary, and his personal malice is evident: we can see Henry as an honest man in an impossible position; we cannot see Northumberland in this light. The force of Richard's stinging rebuke here is felt by the audience, most of whom will know its historical accuracy.

Whether Richard actually made this prediction is not important: in the series of history plays, Northumberland's ambition is apparent already; later it will be recognized (and punished) by Henry. In Henry IV, Part ii the king sees Richard's words here as an accurate prophecy. Northumberland's curt rejoinder shows that he cares nothing for Richard. My guilt be on my head tells the audience that this is a bad man. Note the contrast between the strained language of the queen, who invites her attendants (really, the audience) to wash her fair rose. with true love tears, and academic essay the stoicism of Richard, who is preparing for his death (does he guess how imminent this is?) and bids her take up the religious life.

At the end of this scene (81-86) we find the sequence, common in Shakespeare generally, but not in this play, of short alternating lines (known as stichomythia) which also introduce use of rhyme, to scientific inquiry mark with pathos Richard's taking leave of the queen. Otherwise the scene is notable for Richard's comment on the deposing of a rightful king, his likening of Northumberland to a ladder wherewithal. Bolingbroke ascends (his) throne (55), and Richard's quibble on the double divorce - from his queen and from his crown. Relationship with the play and its general themes. Since Richard is academic, alone in his cell in Pomfret (Pontefract), his meditation on his misfortune has more pathos than his self-pity in IV, i. He has discovered poetic and philosophic insights into man's isolation, the nature of imprisonment, of imagination and of time. Does It Cost To Print And Bind A Dissertation. Richard is academic, ready for scientific essay his death and confront his murderers with dignity and heroic defiance - he is at last the man of action. The audience knows, as Richard does not until the end of the scene, that his murderers are already on the way.

Although Richard has many long speeches, and from Act III onwards these are increasingly perceptive and eloquent, this scene contains his only soliloquy in the whole play. In acquiring wisdom and academic stripped of privilege, Richard has acquired the full humanity hitherto denied him by his kingly office and his melodramatic and self-pitying response to scientific inquiry its loss. The long speech is painful to us because we know what is to be its sequel. In his last appearance Richard stood on a crowded stage, to some extent playing to the gallery. Now he has the whole stage to himself at first, followed by a touching and intimate encounter with an smoking essay ordinary man whose affection for him is plain. Though the audience may accept that Richard is now only an collage book reports ordinary man, yet his murder is an ugly act of violence which is hard to justify, though politically expedient. Richard's long speech is academic, almost like a poem and collage book reports important detail cannot readily be indicated here: it is advisable to study the smoking, whole soliloquy, looking out for the sequence of ideas and the principal images and analysis conceits. Richard's love of puns is shown when he addresses the groom as noble peer (why?).

You should also note the discussion of roan Barbary, leading to Richard's observation that he was not made a horse but has borne a burthen like an ass, spurred on by jauncing Bolingbroke. Richard and Bolingbroke: the nature of academic essay kingship. In an exam you may encounter a question about one or both of the principal characters, a question about the nature of kingship, or a statement (such as Richard's Not all the inquiry, water in the rough rude sea. ) with which you are invited to agree. Make sure you answer the question as set: if it specifies one character, you can only write (briefly) of the other to clarify your subject. The notes which follow should enable you to work out a structure for any question in this area: be ready to arrange your material to support your argument. Structurally, the smoking academic essay, play charts Richard's loss of collage reports power and Henry's ascent: this is made explicit in metaphor (up/down, buckets, base court etc.). In the case of Richard the smoking, loss of kingly authority leads to personal growth: Richard acquires humanity and humility, and the play is a tragedie as he acknowledges the universal nature of suffering.

As characters, the two are readily contrasted - Richard is ostentatious and fond of rhetorical flourishes; Bolingbroke says little, but means much. Richard is does it cost and bind, politically inept; Henry is a shrewd political operator. Richard has an early mediaeval belief in absolute monarchy; Bolingbroke understands modern power-politics and how to enlist others' support. Richard's Irish expedition is not well-managed (he leaves York to academic essay guard his interests); Henry's return is managed efficiently. What In An Essay. Richard chooses friends who cannot help him in time of need; Henry's friends are able to deliver. Their attitudes to kingship differ radically. Smoking. Richard sees the crown as his by right; because he is king, his decisions are almost by definition correct, approved by God and not to be resisted. Henry sees the kingship as a sacred duty which he reluctantly accepts, because he is competent to rule: he does not promote himself or show off, but works to defend the national interest, in the terms laid down by Gaunt in II,i, as he laments Richard's abuse of taxation. The drama gives Shakespeare licence to present a range of views about kingship. Two extreme views (those of Carlisle and Northumberland) meet with little support, but the pragmatic attitudes of Bolingbroke, York and Henry's allies (other than the Percy family) would appear to receive endorsement from the course of events, and the way in which they are presented.

Richard expresses the view (in III, ii) that the crown is inalienable: Not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the book reports, balm off from an anointed king. This belief receives its most consistent support from Carlisle: when Henry is to ascend the royal throne in God's name, Carlisle cries God forbid. Smoking Academic Essay. His covert response to Richard's abdication is to plot Henry's assassination: in his eyes murder is less serious than treason, which he believes Richard's supplanting by Henry to be. Since the essay, church is the guarantor of the king's divine right to rule, the church's authority is weakened by what has happened, so we may see self-interest at work. Northumberland is a very modern type; he may pay lip service to the sacred nature of kingship, but sees the king merely as a man who wields supreme power; Bolingbroke is more powerful than Richard, so he can take his throne. Henry repeatedly resists Northumberland's promptings: he does not wish to go so far, nor so quickly.

While Richard is in smoking academic Ireland, York tries to defend the what to italicize essay, king's interests but recognizes his inability to counter Henry's military power. He moves slowly, and when Richard effectively yields to his enemies in academic III,iii, York weeps (we know this from how much to print and bind, Richard's remark). But in IV,i, York is central to the deposition ceremony and in V,ii pledges his loyalty to the new monarch whose state and honour he for aye allows. He shows his loyalty in reporting his son's treachery to Henry; where the duchess is essay, moved by her feelings as a mother, York subordinates his paternal feelings to his high sense of perspectives essay birthday letters duty. What York and smoking essay Henry show the audience is a moderate view: the king is divinely appointed to rule, but his kingship is an to italicize essay obligation to the country, not an opportunity for self aggrandisement.

The crown can be forfeited if the smoking essay, king fails to rule well. Since Henry's triumph is in scientific inquiry a chain of historical events which leads to Elizabeth's accession Shakespeare is safe to depict Richard's overthrow, so long as it is clear that this is justified by the peculiar circumstances of the time, and by the fact that Richard freely abdicates. Exton's murder is the killing of smoking essay a good man, but not regicide (murder of a king). Collage Reports. Shakespeare's history plays (especially Henry IV, Part i, the smoking academic essay, sequel to Richard II ) are quite explicit in collage reports condemning treason. Any discussion of academic essay these two characters may lead to inquiry consideration of recurrent images. The sun and smoking academic day represent kingly rule; in the first half of the play the sun image is scientific inquiry essay, claimed by Richard (III,ii and III,iii) but at Harlech Castle (III,ii), Richard speaks of Bolingbroke's fair day, as the crown is to pass to his rival. In the central part of the play (especially III,iii and IV,i) images of ascent and descent recur. We use these metaphorically in a loose everyday sense to express ideas of status (high and low; going up, coming down) but they are dramatized in III,iii by Richard's action in coming down from the battlements of Flint Castle, to which his words draw our attention (references to the base-court, kneeling and so on). Finally, as Henry kneels, Richard questions his fealty: Up, cousin, up, your heart is smoking academic essay, up, I know. Later (IV,i) he will compare himself and Henry to two buckets: as one goes down (full of tears) the other (Bolingbroke) rises.

In any scene, it is scientific, instructive to note the forms of address characters use to one another. Belief in Richard's continuing title to the throne can be discerned in these. Northumberland is the first to refer to Richard merely by smoking his Christian name; York rebukes him, but Bolingbroke suggests that it is a slip of the book, tongue: this may be charitable to Northumberland. After Henry accedes to the throne, characters may or may not refer to him as the King; be alert to this. This play is principally about Richard and in the middle and latter parts of the play, he becomes more prominent in the drama.

In Act III he seems by turns pathetic and defiant; his appeal to nature in III,ii is bizarre, his self-pity in this scene and III,iii may appear unattractive. In IV,i, as he loses the reality of power, Richard seeks to dominate the smoking academic essay, proceedings. Noting that his throne can be taken away, but not his grief, he performs a series of collage actions which dramatize his situation. These culminate in academic essay the smashing of the mirror, an action which suggests a lack of self-control. But in scientific inquiry Act V, having taken leave of his wife, Richard gains in dignity. He is reconciled to his fate, sees the universal character of smoking essay suffering and inquiry essay meets his death with courage and fortitude. Richard is never a good king, but he becomes a very good man. The king's two bodies and the royal we This should not confuse you too much. The king is believed to be two people in one: the ordinary man, and essay the king's majesty (God's deputy on earth). Essay. As these two are embodied in one person, the king refers to himself using the first person plural pronouns we/us to refer to the king and his majesty.

When he is addressed (as king) it is the majesty to whom people speak. This is one of Shakespeare's plays in which theatrical language is not merely the narrative medium, but is also a subject of the drama: the play is about language. You should be aware that any essay in smoking academic essay which you contrast the scientific, characters and fortunes of Richard and smoking Bolingbroke will involve comparison of their language, among other things. Briefly, Henry is capable of eloquence, as in collage book his accusation of Mowbray in I, i, in his speeches before the tournament in I, iii, and especially in his praise of Richard's sun-like majesty in smoking essay III, iii. Literary Analysis. But he can be silent, as in academic his response to Northumberland's flattery in collage book II, iii. His speech is business-like where it needs to be, and he has no time for ostentation: as he becomes more powerful, to simplify greatly, so he becomes more sparing of his words.

Richard, by smoking academic essay contrast, loves the sound of his own voice. When he has effective power, as at the start of the play, he has a liking for scientific inquiry unnecessary display (I, i and I, iii) but is more ready to issue absolute commands than to give reasons (as in II, i). Smoking Essay. Before he gains power, Henry always tries to justify his actions; when he has power, he tries to present his actions as reasonable, which, mostly, they are. Bushs Resume. As his power wanes, Richard becomes eloquent in his introspection, engaging our sympathy but indulging in self-pity and jumping to rash conclusions (as in his condemnation of his friends in III, ii). His abdication is blatantly theatrical, but he achieves a more complete humanity and peace with himself in smoking essay the play's last act. Richard, as ruler, fails to grasp that the thesis literary analysis, display of authority needs to be backed up with the reality of power . This may mean cultivating his own popularity, as Bolingbroke is said to do (V, i, 7 - 21) but more importantly establishing a broad power base among the nobility and commons, rather than indulging a clique of smoking academic sycophants while excluding many of the does to print, most powerful in academic essay the land. From the start of the play, Shakespeare establishes a sense of utterances forceful in manner, but not backed up by real power. Richard believes in his majesty, a sacred, quasi-magical quality which comes from God and perspectives birthday is inalienable (Not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from an smoking academic anointed king; III, ii, 54 - 55) and so do others, Carlisle wholly and Henry to a point. But the moment powerful people cease to believe in this (as Northumberland has) the game is up.

There is a calculating quality in Bolingbroke's speech by contrast: he never threatens what he cannot deliver. In II, i, Richard rants at what the dying Gaunt, speaking of punishment only forestalled by smoking essay his uncle's age and sickness, then sets in train the seizure of his estates, wrongly supposing that he can do this without risk. But in III, i, Henry actually executes three of reports Richard's counsellors, one of them (Wiltshire) a noble, knowing that his action is sanctioned by his and Northumberland's soldiers. Discussion of the play's language can also be thought of in terms of the variety of poetic forms and of imagery , especially related groups of images (images of nature, the four elements, the sun) recurring throughout the drama. Space does not permit full discussion of academic essay these here, and you are directed for a more extensive treatment to Brodie's Notes , pp. 86 - 91 ( Style: Variety, Word-play, Rhyme, Imagery ) and the section headed Language (pp. 31 - 34) in the introduction to the New Cambridge edition of the play. Bushs Resume. You should have a clear sense of the different headings or categories under which you would organize comment on the play's language, and be aware that examiners might invite this comment in general or specific terms. It is quite likely, for example, that you might be asked about the theatrical effectiveness of the essay, play's language - that is, how it works in conveying narrative, giving insight into character or attitudes, and engaging the sympathy or revulsion of the audience. The comment below is the outline of a lecture given at a study day for A level students.

notes from a lecture by thesis Dr. Paul Hammond at Leeds University. Language is academic essay, not just a medium of the what to italicize, play, but one of smoking its subjects. Language is in an, used as an instrument of smoking academic political control and manipulation. We are shown how power operates through language. What To Italicize Essay. Political uses of language can be considered under these headings: The rhetoric of command: Richard uses this early in the play, but not much hereafter. We were not born to sue, but to command. At the end of this statement Richard admits he is smoking academic, already losing power.

The rhetoric of persuasion: Richard tries to patch up the differences of Bolingbroke and Mowbray. To Italicize Essay. This, too, fails. The rhetoric of authentication: Richard and others appeal to the source of their authority. Richard appeals to God. In doing this he reminds others of the source of his power. Bolingbroke does so: In God's name I'll ascend the regal throne and Carlisle retorts in like manner: Marry, God forbid. The rhetoric of display: The power of the monarchy is smoking academic, displayed through verbal imagery (compare also the visual stage imagery of what in an essay pageantry, costume and theatrical display - use of throne, crown and so on: Richard is aware of smoking academic both kinds of imagery). All these kinds of rhetoric gradually cease to work for Richard. The implication is politically dangerous: that rulers have no power if their subjects refuse to bushs resume be manipulated. The play is very concerned with the use of language.

The audience lived in academic essay a society dependent on the spoken word. Those who were illiterate would be used to hearing long sermons and stories. Those who were literate were trained at school in the arts of using language rhetorically to persuade. Having learned to argue effectively they would be well able to essay judge others' rhetorical skills. Act I, scene i alerts us to the fact that this play is to be about smoking essay, language. In An Essay. Richard begins with the rhetoric of control and academic power.

He has a monopoly of command here: he is to be the bushs resume, arbiter of the dispute. In I, iii, the tournament is a ritual with a set order and forms of expression (the closest modern equivalent would be a law court). The ritual here is ancient and traditional and has little to do with Richard's power as king. He chooses to use his temporal power to break the ritual of divine justice on smoking academic essay, which the tournament is based (God decides in the trial by combat). Richard halts the contest, asserts his own power and dispenses with the divine justice. He replaces the ritual language with his own personal language, and his words are no longer effective, only decorative. The (musical) flourish at line 122 matches the book, rhetorical flourish with which his judgement is smoking academic, delivered. The power of Richard's utterances appears as he easily remits four years of Bolingbroke's exile, but its limits are noted by Gaunt (226) who observes that Richard is powerless to extend his life. Though Richard's word is law in this scene, it will not be so for long.

From this point in bushs resume the play we note the contrast between Richard's and Bolingbroke's speech. On his return from exile, Bolingbroke is plain, direct and forceful. In II, iii, line 70 he insist that Berkeley address him by his proper title - Lancaster. When York accuses him of treason in returning before his exile has expired, he justifies himself by a quibble, taking refuge in a legal nicety. Bolingbroke's actions appear honest for a while, as he metes out justice to Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire, and his simple and effective words and actions are very different from Richard's flourishes and smoking academic self-glorification. Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire have razed out his imprese, the heraldic sign which declares his identity of Lancaster. In An. However, the audience may be troubled in wondering by what authority Bolingbroke executes these men. On his return from smoking essay, Ireland (III, ii) Richard greets the earth using a familiar image of mother and child, yet reverses the bushs resume, usual rôles, as he tries to own the earth and direct it to act as an effective agent of essay harm to scientific inquiry his enemies.

This demonstrates Richard's compulsive tendency to retreat into a fantastic world of excess and disproportion. As he invokes spiders and toads to be his soldiers, we are aware that he lacks real forces (he is about to find this out). Smoking Academic Essay. His language is grotesque and bizarre, not the collage book, rhetoric of realistic command or persuasion. In this scene, discussion of language becomes explicit: Salisbury, bringing bad news, says: Discomfort guides my tongue while Scroope refers to his own care-tuned tongue. Richard urges morbid conversation: Of comfort no man speak as he wants to academic essay sit upon the ground and tell sad stories. While Aumerle's brief interruptions are all practical, Richard wants only to what talk and write. His musings lead him (151) to question his and others' identity. His language isolates him from his supporters; it is no longer functional but self-consolatory. In III, iii, at smoking essay line 144, Richard turns the perspectives, power game into a language game: first he asks a series of questions and smoking proceeds, in self-dramatizing fashion, to answer them (Must he submit?/ The King shall do it. ) Then he changes from reports, he to I, indicating a problem of identity. He can no longer use language to display power, so uses it to display his spirituality, imagining himself as a humble hermit, but the language disturbs by its extravagance.

From line 161 on, the smoking, language becomes even more grotesque: Richard shows no interest in confronting Bolingbroke's army, but rather in using his and Aumerle's tears to cause foul weather and dearth or to make a pair of graves. He has retreated into image-making, but communication has broken down. In IV, i, Richard, on his entry, tries to invent a new ritual of uncrowning and to invent the language for this. While Bolingbroke presides over the ceremony it is how much and bind a dissertation, largely Richard who enacts it, and uses the objects of ritual: he transfers the crown, refuses Northumberland's paper, but improvises his own confession, and introduces the final ritual object in the mirror, giving a commentary on the destruction of himself which he enacts. In V, v, the smoking academic essay, solitary Richard recognizes how hard it is to conceive of images, as he tries to invent an imaginary world to people his cell. He can now see the gap between his ideas and language and the real world; his isolation is explicit, and he is essay birthday, aware of it. He now has no audience. At the start of the play everyone is obliged to acquiesce in Richard's language game. He now has no power, only language, which is decorative and consolatory. We have moved from a world in which images authenticate (real) power, through a struggle to sustain this, to language itself, which is all Richard has left.

Act IV, scene i (the deposition scene); summary of a lecture by David Lindley at Leeds University. Two questions to consider are: Why is the essay, main action preceded by the sections in which Aumerle and Carlisle figure prominently? Why does the scene continue beyond Richard's renunciation of the crown, which is its natural climax? The scene begins the second half of the play. It recollects the opening of the analysis, whole play and points a parallel between Bolingbroke and Richard. It emphasises the essay, clash of aristocratic pride with law and kingly power. It looks back to events before the play's opening, showing how present events are determined by the past, and the continuity of history.

It reminds us that the events of the play are historical. Henry IV faces difficulties similar to those of Richard, but he deals with them differently. By way of contrast, Carlisle sets forth a view of the to italicize essay, king as above judgement. He foretells future events (in this play, other than prompting Exton's murder of Richard, Henry has avoided bloodshed, but it will come later in his reign). We see the events which cause the future. When Richard enters the scene a number of people are under suspicion or arrest: Aumerle and his supporters, Carlisle, Richard himself. Shakespeare added and smoking invented this part of the scene.

There is no historical basis for it. There is no suspense involved in this scene, for its outcome is already known (Richard has earlier given up the crown). The focus is not on what is to happen, but how it will happen. Inquiry. It is smoking essay, a struggle for theatrical, not political dominance. Richard tries to gain the audience's attention: note how he swamps Northumberland with words.

This is a play which seems deliberately not to indulge in how much does to print and bind a dissertation action. There is suspension or paralysis of action whenever it threatens. How then is our interest sustained? The focus of the scene is on objects rather than actions , to each of essay which objects Richard has a different attitude. He resigns the crown , the symbol of collage reports power. He refuses to read the paper listing his crimes, the symbol of smoking real actions. He smashes the how much does it cost to print, mirror , symbol of vanity and self-knowledge, and shadow of his face. It is a dramatic moment when Richard's wish to turn everything into images collapses. This prepares us for the prison scene (V, v). Coping with tasks in A level exams. In preparing for the exam you should be aware of the different kinds of question you will have to answer.

In studying the text closely you should simply realise that the material studied can be approached in different ways in the exam. Tasks based on a passage from the play. In theory any scene in the play could be chosen; in essay practice the number of inquiry essay suitable scenes is more limited, but of course the extract chosen will only be a brief part of a much longer scene. Because of the part of the question (usually) which refers to the themes of the play (not necessarily in so many words) and which implies consideration of before and after, scenes from the smoking academic essay, middle of the text are more likely to be chosen. What the examiners do NOT want is a gloss (prose paraphrase) of the extract given. This might make you feel secure, but you won't be.

What (usually) is required is as follows: Consideration of the scene's treatment of the play's general themes - the extract and perspectives essay letters its place in relation to the rest of the play. Matters of smoking academic staging and theatrical presentation as implied in the text: use of objects; movements; relationships on stage (to whom are speeches addressed?) and book the scene's structure (in episodes). Questions about smoking academic essay, theatrical presentation are NOT questions about character and the content of scientific essay speeches. How a character (or characters) is (are) revealed in the dialogue.

Again, this is not a question which invites paraphrase, but discussion of academic essay rhetoric. Usually, the examiners will give you an outline of how you should answer the question. You must organize your answer in these terms. Once again, remember not merely to paraphrase or give a loose running commentary. Tasks based on themes and characters. The examiners want to see lots of material but without irrelevance or sacrifice of depth and thoroughness. In general, essays produced in and bind trial examinations have shown too much narrowness of approach.

It is essential to plan your essay to ensure that sufficient range of essay comment appears. This plan need not be beautiful, nor take more than a few minutes, but should be comprehensive. Embody the plan in your opening sentence(s), e.g. In Richard II Shakespeare presents the audience with a range of ideas about the collage book, nature of kingship: to Carlisle the right to rule is smoking academic, God-given and inalienable, while for Northumberland the throne is available to thesis literary the candidate who wields most effective power; between these extremes we see how York, Bolingbroke and, above all, Richard, come gradually to essay modify their ideas. The example questions below come from past Advanced level papers: #147;It is the cynical and devious who prosper in Richard II .#148; Do you agree? How does Shakespeare present Richard and Bolingbroke as contrasting personalities and kings in thesis literary Richard II ? By what means and with what success does Shakespeare attempt to smoking secure our sympathy for scientific essay Richard? In what ways do the minor characters serve to heighten the academic, tragic effect of the play Richard II ? You should deal particularly with two or three characters (other than Richard and Bolingbroke). The examiners will play fair and certainly won't set an bushs resume essay on the Second Herald or the Welsh Captain. Essays explicitly about a single character are comparatively rare at essay 'A' level (as they invite the prepared essay). Essays may well be about relationships and literary analysis the theatrical presentation of smoking characters.

In this play, questions about Richard and Bolingbroke must be expected. Questions about inquiry essay, York, Aumerle and Northumberland are also possible. Academic Essay. The queen, the caterpillars, Carlisle and Gaunt also contribute to how we see Richard, but are not in scientific essay enough of the play to sustain essays on their own. Questions on themes look harder but aren't, usually. And they inhibit the retelling-with-comment method you should avoid. The central theme of this play is the nature of kingship. Questions about kingship may appear as questions (or statements to which you respond) about order/disorder, anarchy, rule or government . For example, you may need to essay discuss the idea of the King's two bodies or whether the play supports the view that not all the water in thesis literary the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from th'anointed king.

You may be asked in what sense the play is a history play (how does Shakespeare interpret history to present a debate on smoking essay, ideas of kingship) or how Shakespeare addresses political issues. Any order/disorder question is what in an, really a question about the contrasting approaches and essay fortunes of Richard and Henry, which is qualified by the views (on the sources and nature of kingship) of these two, and bushs resume of others, among them Carlisle, Bagot, Fitzwater, Aumerle, Northumberland, Gaunt and York, as well as the Gardener. If you are given a statement to respond to, do not suppose you must agree or disagree wholly. Usually, the smoking academic, statement will be more or less fair but will invite some qualification. Wholly wrong comments are never used. Often the accuracy of scientific inquiry essay a statement may depend upon the interpretation given to the text in performance.

Questions about the play as theatre. A third kind of question will allow you to examine the play in explicitly theatrical terms (note that discussion of dramatic qualities is smoking academic essay, perfectly in order in the other types of collage reports question). Subjects on which you should be ready to answer would include some of the things discussed in a context-based question, but seen in the perspective of the whole play (structure, actions, properties and language). Other subjects would include the unity (or lack of it) of the play (organic coherence, consistency of tone - see, for example, A. P. Rossiter's essay, Uncomformity in Richard II , in the Casebook guide, pp. 214-229) and academic Shakespeare's use of oppositions or contrasting elements: Richard and collage reports Henry; public (formal, ceremonial) and private (informal) scenes; action and inaction; Northumberland's power politics and Carlisle's divine right of kings, and so on: these things are not to be examined simply in their own right, but in terms of their effect on the play as a work of smoking essay theatre.

As language is of such importance here, this is discussed more fully in a separate section of this guide. A very basic outline for revision. Use this very basic outline to learn the structure of the scientific inquiry, play. Adapt or customize it to suit your preferred methods of study. Bolingbroke challenges Mowbray (Norfolk) for smoking essay killing his uncle (Gloucester). Richard declares a tournament at to italicize Coventry. Gaunt rejects Duchess's (Gloucesters's widow's) plea for revenge: God's is the quarrel. Coventry - the lists - no result but Mowbray and Bolingbroke (Henry, Hereford, Lancaster, King) banished. Richard plans to take Gaunt's estates. Gaunt makes mega-patriotic speech and dies. Smoking Academic. Richard is rude and seizes his goods; Northumberland is unimpressed and conflicting perspectives essay birthday letters tells of a very tasty plot (lots of names) France - heading for Ravenspurgh.

Bushy, Bagot and the queen - surely the least memorable scene in the play; Bagot goes to Ireland; the other two (Greene, Bushy) don't. York is worried. Smoking. Bolingbroke near Berkeley - meets pals and York. Salisbury and a Welsh captain tell us Richard has lost his army - rumoured to be dead. Caterpillars - Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire get the chop (why not Bagot? See above). Harlech - king gets lots of bad news but makes some ace speeches: Spiders. Book. toads,Not all the water in the rough rude sea. and For God's sake let us sit upon the ground. Smoking Academic. . Collage Book. Flint Castle - Richard like the sun on the ramparts but comes down into the base court and says Up, cousin, up. . The Queen and smoking academic the Gardener - cue a load of metaphors. Very easy - it's all one scene; note its structure and the use of objects (the gages, the throne, the crown and bushs resume the mirror etc. etc.) Richard abdicates and Henry becomes king (How? When?) Plot at the end like in II, i, but this time its Carlisle, Westminster and smoking essay Aumerle against Henry. (No chance of this one succeeding). First of (too) many scenes: Richard bids dignified farewell to his queen, and is diverted from the Tower of London to Pomfret (sounds like pommes frtes) Castle.

York is sorry for Richard but supports Henry now, and proves it by reporting his son's plotting. Henry is literary, worried about his unthrifty son (Hal, later Henry V) an advert for the next play in the series. Cue for some slapstick as Aumerle rushes in, asks Henry to lock the door, then York turns up, then the Duchess. Henry graciously spares Aumerle but demotes him to Rutland. Exton thinks he should kill Richard. (v) Richard in smoking essay prison; he is philosophical and resolute; he learns from the groom of his horse's disloyalty and is duly murdered. Northumberland and Fitzwater have sorted out the would-be rebels. Westminster has died (naturally) but Carlisle is banished. What To Italicize Essay. Exton is also banished and essay Henry decides to go on pilgrimage to bushs resume the Holy Land to make up for what he's done. But he never goes (Why not?) Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the URL of any pages you use, and/or include the copyright symbol. Suggestions for improvement are welcome.

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The Lure of smoking academic Romance Writing (and Earnings) for essay, the Literary Set. Note from Jane : In 2014, I wrote and reported the following article for Scratch magazine; it has been edited and updated for my site. Madeline Iva is smoking, her pen name, and you won’t find a trace of her real-life identity anywhere. Iva is an emerging novelist who, as she puts it, writes “lady smut.” Her first novella was published last year by HarperImpulse, and it cost a dissertation, it focused on sexsomnia, an actual condition in which people have sex in their sleep and essay, wake up not remembering anything about it. To Italicize? The story’s protagonist is a young economist who has the hots for smoking, a strapping biologist, and starts waking up in the morning on the floor wearing different clothes. She has to solve the thesis analysis mystery of what she’s doing at night—and whom she’s doing it with. I met Iva for the first time in 2013 during a social outing with several other authors. She told me how much she loves writing smut. She calls romance novels “happiness machines”—they guarantee that you’ll be happier after reading the novel than before.

Only later did I discover Iva has an MFA in creative writing from essay, a top-tier program in the U.S., where she studied under one of the most respected literary writers today. Iva is part of a growing number of authors with serious literary cred who are finding greater financial success—and a welcoming community—in the romance business. It’s not exactly news that the literary establishment looks down on thesis genre fiction; rarely is smoking essay, it welcome within creative-writing degree programs—and god help the student who tries to workshop his genre work. While I was earning my BFA in creative writing, there was one student in the degree program who loved Doctor Who (before it was cool) and role-playing games, and brought fantasy fiction to workshop. A vague embarrassment would fall over what to italicize essay, the group. If the writer wasn’t seeking to essay emulate Fitzgerald, Hemingway, or Woolf, we didn’t know how to critique it. Indeed, as far as careers go, the publishing world often sets up genre writing as an all-or-nothing choice: you’re either a literary novelist, or you dive head-first into collage book the commercial side of the business. You can’t have one toe in essay each swimming pool, can you? But for thesis literary analysis, many authors, the separation between literature and genre isn’t so clear. The choice to write genre is smoking, often about money, yes, but authors like Iva are also weighing the costs and benefits of less tangible perks like community, mentorship, and audience response.

Put another way: can romance writers really have it all? How the to italicize in an essay Romance Genre Has Evolved. Iva has joined one of the bestselling genres in the publishing industry—and one of the smoking most lucrative for authors. Does And Bind? Fans of romance often read voraciously, consuming multiple books per week, so there is continuing and high demand for people who can write it. “Romance” tends to smoking essay be an umbrella term for thesis literary analysis, many types of essay novels that, according to Romance Writers of America, are defined by (1) a central love story and (2) an emotionally satisfying and optimistic ending. Beyond that, they vary tremendously. Some are contemporary stories; others are historical. What To Italicize Essay? Some are sweet (no explicit sex), while others are more steamy. Romance novels can also take on smoking the attributes of other genres (paranormal romance, romantic suspense, young adult romance). What Essay? The hottest of the hot is erotic romance: It’s more explicit, there’s more sex, and there may be kinky elements.

As with sex itself, what’s erotic is in the eye of the academic essay beholder, and readers will find varying definitions in the market. Then there’s erotica, which is not usually centered on romantic love and doesn’t follow any conventions of romance novels, but rather is material intended solely for the purpose of arousing the reader. Since the rise of ebooks, it’s easier than ever for readers to download the newest titles immediately to their e-reading device without being subject to the judgment of family members, store clerks, or fellow commuters. To Italicize In An? The ability to smoking academic essay leave behind chunky pink paperback covers and keep your romance habit a secret has benefited the bushs resume market, and the outstanding success of Fifty Shades of Grey points to very large audience potential. Essay? Very, very large. Romance writing is also an accessible way for new authors to get their start in to print and bind a dissertation publishing. Houses like Harlequin allow unsolicited, unagented submissions and offer online communities that can help writers improve their craft, understand the requirements of the genre, and get published. In addition, since the smoking academic essay advent of Amazon’s Kindle Direct Publishing and other digital self-publishing platforms, authors can take an experimental approach and see how they like the fit of romance—while earning money in the process. How Much To Print A Dissertation? Last year, two young women received extensive media coverage when their self-published dinosaur erotica series was discovered to be making the authors a significant income.

Even something on the fringe of mainstream romance has the potential to essay earn authors thousands of dollars per month; author Virginia Wade claimed her Bigfoot erotica was netting her $30,000 per bushs resume, month during peak sales periods. To be clear, the genre has changed a lot over academic, the last 30 years. If Fifty Shades of Grey didn’t tip you off, it’s gotten more explicit. Back in a dissertation the 1980s, if the heroine had sex with someone she didn’t love, the sex couldn’t be consensual. Women weren’t supposed to enjoy non-monogamous sex. But whether writing decades ago or a few months ago, romance authors may not want their bosses, colleagues, or even family members to know what they’re up to—thus the prevalence of pen names in the genre. And there’s the other main reason some authors have to be coy: aside from creating brand confusion for an author who wants to write outside the essay romance genre, too, a successful career writing lady smut might negatively affect her reputation in other markets, especially the literary market.

Not long after Iva finished her MFA, she tried writing a literary novel. She had a top agent interested in her short story collection, but as is often the case, the agent also wanted a novel to bushs resume sell. Under pressure to produce and disheartened by the negativity she encountered inside the literary community, Iva found herself unable to write. She fell into depression for two years. Smoking Academic? It was the bushs resume act of smoking academic essay writing romance, and discovering the romance community, that she says transformed and revived her career. Although she came from scientific essay, a prestigious literary background, genre fiction wasn’t entirely new to Iva.

She grew up reading romances because that’s what was in the house. “I had Kurt Vonnegut in one hand, and these bodice rippers in the other,” she said. As she entered the romance world, she created the essay persona of Madeline Iva, whom she views as less angsty and less complicated than her real self. Having an alter ego allowed her energetic and enthusiastic side room to grow. And Iva liked the romance community she found, comprising women who she says are warm and outgoing, vibrant and middle class, who reminded her of the women she grew up with. “I felt at home with them. Bushs Resume? The literary world is much more introverted, and much more bitter, cynical, and weary to some degree.

There’s a vast amount of academic essay transparency in collage reports the romance world. That’s how women operate; it’s a women-dominated field.” In the romance industry, emerging authors don’t have to search out smoking academic essay advice or mentor-shop, Iva said. What To Italicize? Experienced authors and peers will tell you how it works, repeat what they told you, then take you by the hand and show you. “You could call that mothering,” Iva said. “It’s just how they do it.” Adult contemporary author Jamie Brenner, who also writes erotic romance as Logan Belle, noticed the same thing about the essay community, especially in her former career as an agent. While Brenner describes the literary community as very “closed ranks,” she says that no matter how new or obscure a romance author is, established romance novelists will readily blurb new books or blog about them. Thesis Literary? “That’s the status quo,” Brenner said. When she published her debut Logan Belle novel, Blue Angel, in 2011, she immediately felt welcomed. Iva says the competitiveness found in academic the literary community—where there’s such a small slice of the pie to go around—doesn’t exist in romance because there is so much more money being spent on romance, with plenty of readers for everyone. Collage Book? However, Brenner has noticed some changes lately that have caused her to pull back on writing as Logan Belle. “It’s getting very, very crowded. Academic Essay? You have to be louder and louder and collage, louder. Smoking Academic Essay? You have to be really comfortable shipping things out.

It’s a much higher-volume business model—three books a year minimum to keep yourself in the mix.” Brenner says the other aspects of maintaining a genre career are growing more burdensome. In An? Being on the basic social media outlets—Twitter and Facebook—used to be fine, but now that’s not enough. A successful romance writer needs a “street team,” or a group of super fans advocating for her and handing out her stuff. Genre writers also participate in smoking essay more anthology work, so in between the thesis several novels per year, they often contribute stories to academic collections. Scientific? “The books are getting worse when they’re coming out closer together. I don’t know if this pace was set by the people in genre fiction or by ebooks, but it’s a really bad trend,” Brenner says. Iva has found solutions she’s comfortable with by cultivating the sense of community that first drew her to the genre. She started a group blog, Lady Smut, where she feels more comfortable with marketing and promotional activities because it’s about smoking academic, promoting the group rather than herself. “In the romance world, they talk about a two- to to italicize five-year startup period. I’m still in smoking that period. I have a very strong sense of the market, and I have a plan of what I’m going to write for collage book reports, the next several years, and I’m ready to execute that plan. I also have mad writing chops from going to a really good grad school.”

Using Romance to Achieve Commercial Success. Barbara Palmer is the essay pseudonym of a Canadian bestselling novelist who is also in her romance startup period, trying on the genre for the first time. Her erotic novel, Claudine , was released by bushs resume, Penguin Canada last year. Essay? So far, Palmer says she will keep her identities entirely separate: bestselling historical novelist (who refuses to be named here) and Barbara Palmer, who will not be making any TV or visual appearances to promote her romance book. The idea of writing such a book was suggested at a lunch with her editor, and Palmer’s immediate reaction was to laugh. “I’m way too shy; I’m too much of a reserved WASP to conflicting perspectives birthday ever write something like that,” she told me. But when Palmer went home, she couldn’t stop thinking about smoking, it and decided to perspectives essay letters give it a try. Because she realized she was starting from zero—without any knowledge of the field at smoking academic all—Palmer spent an intense period reading all the conflicting perspectives birthday letters erotic literature she could, including the essay classics. “ Belle de Jour is scientific essay, just phenomenal. I think it’s one of the best novels of the twentieth century,” she said. She also read a lot of contemporary romance and began to see a theme emerging among all the books, across eras: the women always end up as victims, damaged, or very submissive.

“That just didn’t compute well with me. Some women are like that, and we women do have struggles with those issues, but why are they all like this?” Palmer wanted to write about a woman who was completely different, someone who was very sensual, powerful, and in charge of her life. And so she created the titular character, a grad student by day who by night works as a high-end escort and commands stratospheric prices. Palmer believes that authors like herself are crossing over to romance because of the visible potential for commercial success, even in academic essay wild spin-offs that push the envelope in terms of morality. “Some of these people are pulling in bushs resume $60,000 to $80,000 a year just with self-published material.” The possibility of commercial success is something that motivated the editor and dramatic screenwriter operating under the pseudonym Aphrodite Elliot to give romance a try. But similar to Palmer, Eliot wants to academic create different kinds of female characters after discovering disturbing themes when researching the conflicting perspectives genre. She labels her stories with the tagline, “It doesn’t have to hurt to be hot.” And it’s definitely the hotness that sells best in the current market. Agent Laura Bradford told me quite directly, “There is a lot of smoking academic money to be made.” Bradford works with many types of authors who produce work at varying “heat levels.” She says she has authors who can release an erotic romance and earn $50,000 or $60,000 for the first month or two that it’s available—and that’s not an unusual situation.

Such authors, however, have been at it for ten years or more, and may already have 30 books under their belt. Generally speaking, Bradford says an erotic romance (which typically involves kink, but not everyone agrees about that) stands to does to print earn more than mainstream romance, which is essay, focused on a monogamous couple and may or may not be sexually explicit. Analysis? Of course, not all writers are comfortable writing the racier books. Still, Bradford says, “The bar has risen in terms of explicitness. An average-heat-level romance today is smoking essay, far hotter than it was a decade ago.” None of it cost a dissertation Bradford’s clients write romance secretly, though some do use pen names. For writers publishing the hot stuff in the 1990s, however, it was a very different experience.

Author and writing professor Mary Anne Mohanraj, who has an academic essay, MFA from Mills College, told me the trade was very taboo; if she told anyone she wrote erotic material, “they were stopped in their table conversations. I would still say it, but it would derail everything.” At the time, there were very few choices for reading or buying erotic fiction, and it was hard to conflicting essay birthday find. People often asked Mohanraj what erotica paid, at which point she’d have to explain the difference between erotica and porn—because, at smoking essay the time, porn paid ten times more than erotica. (Porn has a much higher ratio of sex scenes than erotica or romance, and may use cruder language.) Mohanraj wrote letters for the porn magazines and in an, earned $300 per letter. It was only a couple hundred words, and she could knock one out in about 20 minutes. She also wrote longer pieces; all in all, she could work two days a month writing porn, then take the rest of the essay month off. Inquiry Essay? Mohanraj wrote erotica and smoking, porn for about ten years; when she turned 30, she switched to does it cost to print and bind mainstream literature. “Writing porn is pretty mechanical, so I just got completely bored by the end of it. I felt like I’d said most of academic what I wanted to say. I thought a lot of damage was being done by what to italicize in an essay, sex not being talked about openly.” Once the Internet came along—and both erotic romance, erotica, and porn became much more prevalent and openly discussed—Mohanraj felt less need to be writing it. Smoking Essay? In addition to her full-time professorship at the University of scientific inquiry essay Illinois at Chicago, she is currently working on a memoir as well as a science-fiction series with, as she puts it, “a fair bit of sex.” Bradford, who also witnessed the very beginnings of the erotic romance market as an agent, told me that the digital publishers who came onto the scene in the early 2000s—Ellora’s Cave in particular—published stories that took risks in sexual explicitness that she hadn’t seen before, in addition to implementing a digital-first strategy. Academic Essay? The mainstream publishing industry wasn’t really paying attention, so it wasn’t until around 2005 or 2006 that the New York houses started looking at the Ellora’s Cave model and several major romance publishers started erotic romance imprints.

Bradford said, “By and thesis literary analysis, large, romance readers are very open minded, they are happy to try new things, happy to smoking academic try new authors. You can mix it up a little bit more. I don’t think of mystery as the land of taking risks, but romance kind of is.” The Role of an MFA Degree in Writing Successful Romance (Really) As a debut author, Madeline Iva is still focused on learning the conventions, which is harder than she thought it would be. “The romance authors who are making the most money fulfill the expectations their readers have,” she said. But she’s also using what she learned from her MFA program, where her famous professor told her that the best novels not only how much does and bind a dissertation engage your intellect, but are hellishly entertaining. Academic? “Through writing romances, I’ve learned to become more hellishly entertaining than I was before.” Iva says she owes her skill at the craft to her MFA program, and other romance writers I talked to who have MFA degrees—including Marina Adair and Kait Ballenger—emphasized the value of their degrees in teaching them the craft and scientific inquiry, how to accept feedback and smoking academic, criticism.

The combination of reports disciplined writing chops and smoking essay, romance’s marketability certainly appears to be rocket fuel for a publishing career. Bushs Resume? Adair sold seven romances while earning her MFA from San Jose State University; while she started out in screenwriting, focusing on family films and academic, teen comedies, she says she can’t imagine writing anything else now except romance. Ballenger also signed traditional publishing deals while enrolled in a low-residency program at Spalding University, and now has multiple romance books out, with more on the way. Before pursuing romance, Ballenger focused on writing and publishing young adult novels (her degree concentration is children’s/YA), and she continues to pursue both genres. But romance is now paying her bills, and collage book reports, she doesn’t have a YA deal yet. Scoring book deals that provide a decent wage is an uncommon outcome for most MFA graduates, who, Iva says, don’t expect to make a living writing literature. Academic Essay? “[The professors] told us that, statistically, you earn less after you get an MFA than before. Essay? And most everybody is going to smoking essay quit writing because they’ll want a house and analysis, a family and a retirement plan.”

But Iva has found her solution, at least for now. Her romance writing career has lent her the confidence and energy to smoking academic essay take another look at her literary work and try another novel. She’s bringing to how much does it cost to print and bind a dissertation her new draft a fresh perspective on how to write a successful story, reach a readership, and craft an authorial persona that suits her needs. Smoking Essay? “A lot of the scientific inquiry essay ‘writing’ world revolves around writerly stuff, not writing. The writerly stuff shuts me down. But the process of actually writing and being a professional is sublime.” Jane Friedman (@JaneFriedman) has 20 years of experience in essay the publishing industry, with expertise in digital media strategy for authors and publishers. Literary? She is the smoking essay co-founder and analysis, editor of The Hot Sheet, the essential newsletter on the publishing industry for authors. In addition to academic being a columnist for Publishers Weekly , Jane is a professor with The Great Courses, which released her 24-lecture series, How to Publish Your Book. She also has a book forthcoming from the University of Chicago Press, The Business of Being a Writer (March 2018).

Jane speaks regularly at conflicting birthday letters conferences and smoking essay, industry events such as BookExpo America, Digital Book World, and the AWP Conference, and has served on panels with the National Endowment for the Arts and the Creative Work Fund. Find out more. 23 Comments on collage reports The Lure of Romance Writing (and Earnings) for the Literary Set […] A growing number of authors with serious literary cred are finding greater financial successand a welcoming communityin the romance business. Academic Essay? […] Thanks for another great read. I’ve seen a lot on writing romance but nothing has taken this angle of talking with literary writers about it. Kudos! Thanks, Cathy! I continue to be fascinated by the divide we put (artificially or not) between “literary” forms of writing and more commercial forms … Hope to keep exploring the issue. Appreciate your comment! The more “literary” community could learn more and prosper by adopting more of the attitudes and values of the RWA (collaboration, creativity in marketing, support).

Great to hear from another MFA crossing over! Thanks for sharing your experience. I’ll tell you what…those romance writers know how to have FUN. Essay? If you don’t believe me, go to a Romance Writers meeting in your area. Some of the most most fun writers I’ve ever hung out with. #128578; They’re so fun they’re almost intimidating! #128521; I hope you do keep exploring the issue of literary vs. Academic? genre writers. I know literary writers who disdain genre writers as well as literary authors who also write romance novels under a pen name.

It’s clear that romance novels are a hot commodity now and it’s a genre that can bring today’s Indie authors financial success. Kudos to those who find success in this field. Agreed! Look forward to finding other ways to cover this issue. […] Note from Jane: Last year, I wrote and reported the following article for Scratch magazine; it has been edited and updated for my site. Literary? Madeline Iva is her pen name, and academic, you won’t find a trace of her real-life identity anywhere. […] This is a great article – thanks.

I must admit, as a ‘serious’ graduate of scientific essay english and history courses at Uni, it is hard sometimes to admit that I am now writing romances – and loving it. There is definitely a stigma attached from the perspective of some of my friends/colleagues/family. Oh well. At least I am having fun. I find that stigma fades quickly when you end up earning a living. #128521; This was a great article, thanks for sharing it! I’ve enjoyed so much of the information you have shared on your blog. I just signed contract for my first contemporary romance written with a pen name. Smoking Academic Essay? I’ve been writing for years in different areas and when I heard that romance was a hot market, I thought I’d give it a try. I have already found an conflicting perspectives, amazing community of smoking other writers who have been so supportive. I’ve just started writing a romantic suspense and look forward to seeing how things go.

[…] The Lure of scientific inquiry Romance Writing (and Earnings) for the Literary Set by @janefriedman […] This IS a great article and smoking academic, I really enjoyed it, although I wondered why you “spoke” only to writing erotic romance when the genre is so much wider. Scientific Inquiry Essay? I write sweet, so of course I feel left out essay , but I do appreciate the respect with which you presented this. And, being attentive as I am, I didn’t even realize this was a year old! Hi Liz – Thanks for commenting. Scientific Inquiry Essay? Have you seen more opportunity with sweet romance with the growth of digital publishing and self-publishing?

[…] a recognition that this market segment is growing at academic essay a fast clip with no end in sight. In “The Lure of Romance Writing (and Earnings) for the Literary Set,” one of what essay my favorite publishing experts Jane Friedman chronicles the academic essay developments of this […] […] article “The Lure of how much it cost Romance Writing (and Earnings) for the Literary Set” (2015) also did not do anything to academic essay clarify for me what’s going on in the genre. […] […] because publishers don’t need to take the time to print anything. However, there is a downside, according to Brenner, in terms of quality: “The books are getting worse when they’re coming out how much it cost closer […] Daily edition: Receive emails that include the full text of smoking academic essay each new post Weekly digest: Receive a Sunday weekly e-mail digest of new blog posts.

I have more than 20 years of experience in the book and magazine publishing industry, with expertise in digital media and the future of authorship. What To Italicize Essay? I speak around the world at events such as BookExpo America, Frankfurt Book Fair, and academic essay, Digital Book World, and have keynoted writing conferences such as The Muse The Marketplace. Book? Read more. I write and publish The Hot Sheet, the essential industry newsletter for academic essay, authors.

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acc422 week 1 homework assignment. Presented below are a number of smoking academic essay, independent situations. For each individual situation, determine the amount that should be reported as cash. Scientific Inquiry. 1. Checking account balance $925,000; certificate of deposit $1,400,000; cash advance to essay, subsidiary of $980,000; utility deposit paid to inquiry, gas company $180. 2. Checking account balance $600,000; an overdraft in special checking account at smoking academic essay, same bank as normal checking account of $17,000; cash held in a bond sinking fund $200,000; petty cash fund $300; coins and currency on hand $1,350.

3. Checking account balance $590,000; postdated check from how much and bind, a customer $11,000; cash restricted due to maintaining compensating balance requirement of smoking academic, $100,000; certified check from perspectives essay birthday letters, customer $9,800; postage stamps on hand $620. 4. Academic. Checking account balance at collage reports, bank $37,000; money market balance at mutual fund (has checking privileges) $48,000; NSF check received from customer $800. 5. Checking account balance $700,000; cash restricted for smoking, future plant expansion $500,000; short-term Treasury bills $180,000; cash advance received from customer $900 (not included in checking account balance); cash advance of $7,000 to company executive, payable on demand; refundable deposit of $26,000 paid to federal government to guarantee performance on construction contract. Your accounts receivable clerk, Mitra Adams, to whom you pay a salary of $1,500 per month, has just purchased a new Acura. You decided to test the accuracy of the accounts receivable balance of $82,000 as shown in the ledger. Conflicting Essay Birthday Letters. The following information is available for your first year in business. (1) Collections from customers $198,000. (2) Merchandise purchased 320,000. (3) Ending merchandise inventory 90,000. (4) Goods are marked to sell at smoking academic essay, 40% above cost. Compute an estimate of the ending balance of accounts receivable from customers that should appear in the ledger and any apparent shortages. Assume that all sales are made on collage, account.

The ending balance of accounts receivable from customers $ At the end of 2014, Aramis Company has accounts receivable of $800,000 and an allowance for smoking academic, doubtful accounts of $40,000. On January 16, 2015, Aramis Company determined that its receivable from Ramirez Company of collage reports, $6,000 will not be collected, and management authorized its write-off. Prepare the journal entry for Aramis Company to write off the Ramirez receivable. (If no entry is required, select #8220;No Entry#8221; for the account titles and enter 0 for the amounts. Credit account titles are automatically indented when the amount is entered. Do not indent manually.) Date Account Titles and Explanation Debit Credit. January 16, 2015. SHOW LIST OF ACCOUNTS. Smoking Academic. What is the it cost net realizable value of Aramis Company’s accounts receivable before the write-off of the Ramirez receivable? Net realizable value $ The trial balance before adjustment of Reba McIntyre Inc. shows the academic following balances. Does It Cost. Accounts Receivable $90,000.

Allowance for Doubtful Accounts 1,750. Sales Revenue (all on credit) $680,000. Give the entry for estimated bad debts assuming that the allowance is to provide for doubtful accounts on smoking essay, the basis of (a) 4% of gross accounts receivable and (b) 1% of net sales. (If no entry is required, select #8220;No Entry#8221; for the account titles and enter 0 for the amounts. Credit account titles are automatically indented when the amount is entered. Do not indent manually.) No. Account Titles and Explanation Debit Credit. On April 1, 2014, Rasheed Company assigns $400,000 of its accounts receivable to the Third National Bank as collateral for a $200,000 loan due July 1, 2014. The assignment agreement calls for Rasheed Company to continue to collect the receivables. Third National Bank assesses a finance charge of 2% of the accounts receivable, and interest on the loan is 10% (a realistic rate of interest for a note of this type). Prepare the to italicize in an essay April 1, 2014, journal entry for Rasheed Company. (If no entry is required, select #8220;No Entry#8221; for the account titles and enter 0 for the amounts. Academic Essay. Credit account titles are automatically indented when the amount is entered.

Do not indent manually.) Date Account Titles and Explanation Debit Credit. Prepare the journal entry for Rasheed’s collection of $350,000 of the accounts receivable during the period from April 1, 2014, through June 30, 2014. (If no entry is required, select #8220;No Entry#8221; for the account titles and enter 0 for the amounts. Thesis Literary. Credit account titles are automatically indented when the amount is entered. Do not indent manually.) Account Titles and Explanation Debit Credit. Beyonce Corporation factors $175,000 of smoking, accounts receivable with Kathleen Battle Financing, Inc. on a with recourse basis. Collage Book Reports. Kathleen Battle Financing will collect the receivables. The receivables records are transferred to smoking essay, Kathleen Battle Financing on collage book, August 15, 2014.

Kathleen Battle Financing assesses a finance charge of 2% of the amount of accounts receivable and also reserves an amount equal to 4% of accounts receivable to cover probable adjustments. Assume that the conditions are met for the transfer of receivables with recourse to be accounted for as a sale. Prepare the journal entry on August 15, 2014, for Beyonce to smoking, record the sale of receivables, assuming the what in an essay recourse liability has a fair value of $2,000. (If no entry is required, select #8220;No Entry#8221; for the account titles and enter 0 for the amounts. Credit account titles are automatically indented when the amount is entered. Do not indent manually.) Date Account Titles and smoking academic, Explanation Debit Credit. Assume that in an annual audit of Harlowe Inc. at bushs resume, December 31, 2014, you find the following transactions near the closing date.

Assuming that each of the amounts is material, state whether the merchandise should be included in the client’s inventory. 1. A special machine, fabricated to smoking, order for a customer, was finished and specifically segregated in the back part of the shipping room on December 31, 2014. The customer was billed on that date and the machine excluded from inventory although it was shipped on to italicize in an essay, January 4, 2015. Essay. 2. Merchandise costing $2,800 was received on January 3, 2015, and what to italicize essay, the related purchase invoice recorded January 5. The invoice showed the shipment was made on academic essay, December 29, 2014, f.o.b. destination. 3. A packing case containing a product costing $3,400 was standing in the shipping room when the physical inventory was taken. It was not included in the inventory because it was marked “Hold for shipping instructions.” Your investigation revealed that the inquiry essay customer’s order was dated December 18, 2014, but that the case was shipped and smoking academic, the customer billed on January 10, 2015. How Much Does It Cost. The product was a stock item of your client. 4. Merchandise received on January 6, 2015, costing $680 was entered in the purchases journal on January 7, 2015. The invoice showed shipment was made f.o.b. supplier’s warehouse on December 31, 2014. Because it was not on smoking, hand at December 31, it was not included in inventory.

5. Merchandise costing $720 was received on what in an essay, December 28, 2014, and the invoice was not recorded. You located it in the hands of the purchasing agent; it was marked “on consignment.” Inventory information for smoking academic essay, Part 311 of Monique Aaron Corp. discloses the following information for the month of June. June 1 Balance 300 units @ $10 June 10 Sold 200 units @ $24. Perspectives Essay Birthday. 11 Purchased 800 units @ $12 15 Sold 500 units @ $25. 20 Purchased 500 units @ $13 27 Sold 300 units @ $27.

Assuming that the periodic inventory method is used, compute the cost of goods sold and ending inventory under (1) LIFO and (2) FIFO. Cost of Goods Sold $ Assuming that the perpetual inventory method is used and costs are computed at the time of each withdrawal, what is the value of the smoking ending inventory at LIFO? The ending inventory at LIFO $ Assuming that the perpetual inventory method is used and costs are computed at the time of each withdrawal, what is the gross profit if the scientific inventory is valued at FIFO? Gross Profit (FIFO) $ Use the following coupon code: 100% non-plagiarized Papers 24/7 /365 Service Available Affordable Prices Any Paper, Urgency, and Subject Will complete your papers in 6 hours On time Delivery Money-back and Privacy guarantees Unlimited Amendments upon request Satisfaction guarantee. You helped me meet my obligations as a student when I was unwell. I would otherwise be one year behind if I had not used your services.

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Chuck Wendig is a novelist, screenwriter, and game designer. Smoking Academic Essay! This is his blog. He talks a lot about writing. And food. And pop culture. And his kid. He uses lots of naughty language. NSFW. Probably NSFL.

Be advised. Mystery novels work a lot like any other genre, except that mystery writers murder their imaginary friends. To paraphrase the Hoover campaign promise, a mystery novel will deliver “a corpse in every pot.” (Mystery authors are twisted. We might as well get that straight from the outset.) Mystery offers plenty of room for conflicting perspectives essay variation, too.

Murder is smoking academic essay, universal—it can happen in any setting and any time. A sleuth can be a professional, an amateur, or a NINJA (though I’ve already done that last one), and your victim and method can vary just as widely. One warning, however: killing your imaginary friends is a lot like eating potato chips. Nobody I know can stop with one. Sound like fun? Awesome. Let’s get going: Occasionally, a mystery succeeds with a central crime other than murder, but generally speaking purloined papers, missing mutts, and the seizure of family jewels doesn’t get you very far in the mystery world. (However, properly handled, the family jewels have great potential in other genres.) On the positive side, if your imaginary friends are at essay, all like mine, they’re better off dead. 2. PUT THE HATCHET DOWN AND FIND A SLEUTH.

It’s easy to rush prematurely into the process of fitting imaginary friends for essay cement waders. When real killers rush the process, they end up in does it cost to print jail (or dead). The best way to keep your novel (and your career) off the writers’ version of essay, death row? Plan it thoroughly. Plan it well. Bushs Resume! And plan to start with an smoking interesting sleuth.

Readers don’t turn the pages because they care about fictitious corpses. Readers want to help the bushs resume, cool kids solve a crime. What’s better than an intriguing sleuth? A BROKEN ONE! Hooray!

Is your detective emotionally damaged? Physically impaired? Addicted to Hostess Fruit Pies? Excellent: good times lie ahead. If not, stop now and take a hammer to your sleuth’s emotional kneecaps. Bust those suckers good—and be creative. Divorces, tragic accidents, and smoking essay dead relatives are dime-a-dozen. What To Italicize Essay! You can do better. Make your detective allergic to coffee, or phobic of houseplants. Smoking! Squash her beloved iguana beneath a Zamboni and literary then force her to solve a murder at an ice rink. You get the idea.

3. MUMBLE, MUMBLE, BACKSTORY … OR, EVERY ZAMBONI-HATING SOCIOPATH HAS A MOTHER. Your detective needs a reason to solve the crime you’re about to smoking, commit. Faced with a choice between tracking a killer and conflicting perspectives essay going out for Mexican food, every normal human picks the essay, churro. Something (aside from your need to MAKE A MILLION DOLLARS PUBLISHING, YO) makes your detective select “hunt killer” over collage reports, “Tuesday Tacos,” and you have to know the reason before you write . Maybe the story prompts it. Maybe it’s something in the detective’s past. Best case scenario, past and story fuse in a giant quesadilla of motivation.

Mmmm…cheesy goodness…. 4. THE FIRST RULE OF THE BACKSTORY IS DO NOT WRITE BACKSTORY. No, seriously. Smoking Essay! Don’t. Bushs Resume! Not directly, anyway. Backstory is the cayenne pepper of the writer’s literary spice drawer. Smoking Essay! A little, added at bushs resume, the proper time, enhances the novel and gives it zing. Use too much and readers dump the entire thing in the garbage bin. 5. EVERY BODY NEEDS A COFFIN – BUILD YOUR WORLD. But I thought this was about killing people! Patience, young Padawan.

We’ll get there. First things first. Your sleuth and your supporting cast live in a specific time and essay place. What To Italicize In An Essay! Construct and memorize that landscape. Novels set in the “real” world need just as much attention as the ones that live on fantasy and science fiction shelves. Maybe your victim lives alone in a fifteenth-story apartment carpeted with empty Reese’s wrappers. Maybe the sleuth uses only one-ply toilet paper.

I don’t know, but you have to, and you need to know before you write page one . In real life, people get run over with cars, shot with pistols, and academic essay decapitated with ancient swords. (THERE CAN BE ONLY ONE!!) In fiction, anything is fair game if you can explain it . Scientific Inquiry! Take down your victim with all the creativity you can muster . Smoking! Pufferfish poison? Absolutely. Shuriken to the face? You’ll see it in essay one of my novels. Academic! I’ll show you mine if you show me yours!

One note: In my world, the bushs resume, method comes before the victim, but this is a chicken-and-egg kind of problem. Do it the academic essay, other way ‘round if it works for you. Which brings us to: As with the sleuth, choose wisely—and by “wisely” I mean with all the wicked, sadistic power within your twisted soul . You can kill ANYONE YOU WANT TO. Or more than one! The world’s your oyster…shiv—er, shuck—that baby and find some pearls. 8. WHODUNIT, WHY-HE-DUN-IT, DUN DUN DUN. You know that big “reveal scene” where the sleuth explains who killed the literary, victim and why? Surprise! The author had that plotted out 300 pages earlier. (My first novel has 288 pages. Do the math.) Figure out the killer’s method, opportunity and motives before you start writing.

Mystery readers will burn you in effigy (and barbecue your book in reviews) if these elements fall flat. You’ll need at least three suspects (I prefer four), each of whom falls into one of two categories: people who wanted the victim dead and smoking essay people who might have killed him. Sometimes they overlap. Sometimes they don’t. Also? At least one should come from “outside the box” – the victim’s kindergarten teacher, for analysis example.

Don’t stretch belief, but don’t just fill your story with expected variations on the theme. 10. … AND LISTEN TO THEM LIE ABOUT KEYSER SOZE. All suspects are liars. Smoking Academic! Let me repeat for emphasis: Every one of bushs resume, your suspects is a liar . The issue is that only one is lying about academic this murder . Literary! The rest don’t want the sleuth finding out they were dressing in drag, having sex with a prostitute dressed as a purple dinosaur, or fertilizing the marijuana grove at the time of the killing. Smoking! Figuring out what your suspects are hiding is just as important as figuring out “who-done-it” … and sometimes, a lot more fun. Some writers pants their way through a novel, but how they do is a mystery to scientific, me. My novels start with an outline, and that outline starts with the murder—even when the smoking academic, killing happens before the start of the book.

The outline doesn’t need huge detail, but it should include every major scene (and major clue) in the novel. It gives you a road map and helps you keep your sleuth on course when everyone starts lying. 12. BUT WAIT! THERE’S ANOTHER OUTLINE! A secret outline, for your eyes alone . This one tracks the offstage action—what those lying suspects were really doing, and when, and why. The “secret outline” lets you know which clues to plant, and where, and conflicting birthday keeps the lies from essay, jamming up the conflicting essay birthday, story’s moving parts. Mmm….jam….Back in a minute, I need some toast. 13. GET A CLUE. IN FACT, TAKE TWO, THEY’RE SMALL.

Mysteries have three kinds of clues. “Genuine clues” point to the killer and help the detective solve the crime. “Fake clues,” (also called “ red herrings ”) point to someone other than the killer. They serve to smoking essay, distract the reader (and, often, the bushs resume, detective too). “Pivotal clues” are the lynchpins upon smoking academic essay, which the solution turns—they give the final piece (or pieces) to scientific essay, the puzzle and, ultimately, solve the crime. You need all three types of clues, and you must insert them in a way that keeps the reader guessing which is which. 14. WAITER! THERE’S A DEAD GUY ON PAGE ONE!

Mystery readers are like the crowds in the Roman Coliseum—they came for blood, and essay they want it NOW. Thesis Analysis! Readers will not wait a hundred pages for a corpse. Academic Essay! They want death by page 50 … if not, your book may well become the victim. Remember back around #3 where I made a big deal about the detective’s backstory? Without violating the First Rule of Fight Club Backstory, your mission—should you choose to accept it—is to persuade the reader that “hunting down a serial killer who wants to conflicting perspectives letters, eat your eyeballs” is essay, a viable alternative to churros and beer in your detective’s world. Extra points if you do this without internal monologues, flashbacks, dreams, or the Ghosts of Dead Ancestors. And yes, the does to print a dissertation, detective novel is the Momomyth ( in smoking essay murderous form. Essay! However, the writer’s quest is to keep formula from becoming formulaic . 16. STEP 1: STEAL UNDERPANTS. Academic Essay! STEP 2: . Between Act One (the choice between death and churros) and collage book the midpoint-ish AHA!, lies a quagmire where unwary authors get lost in smoking essay the process. Write the early stages of the literary analysis, investigation quickly.

Take the suspects out for smoking academic essay a test drive. See what they have to say. Plan to how much it cost to print and bind a dissertation, fill in the details once you get a grip on essay what’s happening in the endgame. Your detective must identify the to italicize in an essay, killer by the midpoint of the smoking, book. The investigation then shifts to proving how and why (s)he did it. Except that…

At some point, your sleuth will discover that everything he knew was wrong, the killer is NOT the female Elvis impersonator from the planet Diva-9, and OMG WE ARE ALL HOPELESSLY SCREWED. Welcome to thesis analysis, the long, dark, potty break of the soul—and every detective has to essay, hit bottom (or at least wipe out) before he or she can find the killer. Let your detective dig a hole and fall through into a cesspool … and then collapse the scientific inquiry essay, ceiling on her head. Force her to dig her way out with a broken chopstick. The second time ‘round, your detective is stronger and more motivated (digging out of a cesspool with a chopstick can have that effect).

The answer doesn’t come easily, but this time, when the smoking academic essay, sleuth reveals the killer, it’s the right one. Which leads to: 20. BOTTOM OF THE NINTH, TWO OUTS, AND BASES LOADED: TIME FOR A GRAND SLAM! This is the BIG REVEAL SCENE, in which the sleuth unmasks the killer, explains the motive, and gives free puppies to everyone. Conflicting Perspectives Letters! Hooray! The reveal is one of the smoking academic, two most important scenes in scientific essay a mystery novel (the other being discovery of the corpse) , and it has dual goals. Smoking Academic Essay! The first is to does it cost to print and bind a dissertation, explain (or explain away) every major clue and to expose the murderer’s identity. The second is more important: it can’t be boring. This is why your reader stuck with you for all those pages. Strike out here, and smoking academic essay all the free puppies die.

21. HOORAY! YOU WROTE A NOVEL! CELEBRATE! Surprise – this is an actual step in the process . The hardest part of writing a novel starts after you type “the end” on that stinky cheese you call Draft One.

But reaching the end of that draft deserves celebration. I recommend beer and churros, or lemon cupcakes, or port and letters honey-barbecue Fritos. Smoking! Whatever form of bushs resume, celebratory debauchery fits your style. 22. FEAR IS THE MINDKILLER, BUT REVISION KILLS EVERYTHING ELSE. Revision doesn’t mean “polish out a few passive cases and send that baby off to win worldwide praise.” Revising a novel is like killing a hydra with a safety razor. When you’re deep in the process, you swear it will NEVER END, but no good comes of short-circuiting the smoking essay, work. Not only must you fill the rotting, swampy holes you left in the early pages, you have to tighten the pacing, fix the plot, and make sure the clues hold up. The characters may need tweaking so they don’t all sound like Grandpa from bushs resume, The Muensters, and that’s just the tip of the iceberg where the smoking, edits are concerned. Remember that celebratory bourbon? Keep some around, you’re going to need it here.

23. AND NOW, A LESSON FROM BILL AND TED: IT’S NOT A CRIME TO GO BACK AND HIDE THE KEYS. (Yes, I’m about to quote Keanu Reeves for writing advice. Shut up or I’ll cut you with this safety razor.) Near the end of perspectives birthday, Bill Ted’s Excellent Adventure , the guys are stuck outside the San Dimas jail with a real problem: they must free the imprisoned historical figures or fail their presentation and flunk out of school. They have to essay, engineer a jailbreak NOW. So Ted turns to Bill and says, “When this is over, remind me to go back and hide the keys.” Moments later, Ted slips behind a bush and returns with the jail keys in his hand.

The lesson? When you have a time machine, getting the collage, details right is not a problem. Hey, writer? You have a time machine . Go back during the editing phase and drop the academic, keys where you need them. Just, please, find a better explanation for how they got there. 24.

WIRE CRITIQUE PARTNERS IN SERIES, NOT IN PARALLEL. Readers get only one virgin pass at a mystery (heh… I said “virgin”…) . If all your critique partners read at how much does to print, once, you won’t have anyone left to smoking academic, tell you if your edits and adjustments wreck the story or ruin the surprise. I run my novels through three sets of eyes: my alpha reader, peer editors, and my critique group, making edits and adjustments after each. Letters! You don’t necessarily need that many, but you need good ones and essay you should space them out. 25.

PUT A SHIV THROUGH THE HEART OF ANY ADVICE THAT DOESN’T WORK FOR YOU. What I’ve just shared is my method. (There are many like it, but this one is collage book reports, mine.) Some authors pants their way through a mystery, fueled by the tortured screams of smoking academic, their imaginary friends. Some of us find solace in chocolate waffles and scientific essay naked shuffleboard. (Don’t judge…) The most important advice I can give is FIND WHAT WORKS FOR YOU AND DO IT EVERY DAY. Whatever you’re writing, write it until it’s finished . Then revise. Then write something else. And something else again, until you run out of imaginary friends … and then create some new ones and kill them too. Susan Spann is a transactional attorney and author of the Shinobi Mystery series featuring ninja detective Hiro Hattori. Smoking Academic! The first book, CLAWS OF THE CAT , released in July 2013 from conflicting perspectives essay, Minotaur Books. In addition to smoking essay, murdering her imaginary friends, Susan’s hobbies include archery, martial arts, horseback riding, and perspectives essay birthday raising seahorses and essay rare corals in her marine aquarium.

You can find her online at, or on Twitter @SusanSpann . As entertaining as it was informative – great post! i liked OMG… SO FUCKING GOOD I LOVE ITTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTTT GOOD POST. Hahaha, as wise as it is hilarious. Bushs Resume! I am saving this one for rereads. Great post, I was having a crappy writing week this got the wheels out of a rut. I have been writing my mystery novel for smoking essay over 5 years now and finally I’m nearing its end. Its a struggle though. But, its the one of the best things i ever done in my whole life.

Writing a mystery doesn’t just give readers out there something fantastic to essay, feast their eyes on but it gives you an insight on who you really are on the inside of academic, that organ that’s called, “skin.” I love this! I started writing my murder mystery in September, but really focused on it in November (for NaNoWriMo). I was wondering…do I have creative autonomy to allow my detectives to solve the mystery using methods that may not exist in real life. How true to real “detectiveness” do I have to be? I don’t want to be TOO unbelievable, mind you, but perhaps adding data bases that they can search that probably don’t really exist, or tests that might not actually be real. How Much Does It Cost To Print A Dissertation! I figure they do it constantly on smoking essay the TV shows (with seemingly success, since the book reports, audience seems to eat it up), I would think I have the liberty to do it in my book! #128512; Am I way off? I don’t want to alienate my readers if this is smoking essay, a big no-no. Without limiting the “absolute rewrite” to mystery genres, the rule might help alleviate issues modern “superior literature” suffers, namely over-writing pretentious, silly, wordy, pseudointellectual verbiage masquerading as worthwhile fiction.

Novels are not haiku, and one needs detached courage to eviscerate a favorite phrase, lurid description, or nonessential character, however “colorful”. Edit and rewrite without mercy, until your critical reader alter ego can move without tripping over errors of grammar, or plot, or “great writing”, or anything in the structure that reminds us we’re reading a printed page, and not entering an what in an essay imaginary world of believable characters and events. Also, Rene, that can of worms is known as the smoking, “deus ex machina” (“god from the machine”) from the Greek’s theatrical device of having a divine imposition that conveniently resolves every problem for you. Needless to say, it has been famously mocked (alien in “Life of Brian”) and is just not going to get you anywhere, as it just looks as if you’re too lazy to how much a dissertation, find a solution. In non-science fiction, limitations of problem solving are what build dramatic turns, and your goal is to devise ways around crises, with research and cleverness, adding tension and veracity rather than stretching credulity. Thank you for your response. Smoking Academic Essay! I agree completely with the need to cut out wordiness that is happening in what in an essay today’s fiction. Smoking! There is nothing like reading a book with a great storyline and plot, only to find myslef “tripping,” as you say, over the wordiness and does to print over-description of clothing, expressions and surroundings.

A little description is needed when it enhances the tone and smoking essay actions of the story, but I honestly don’t care what color the reports, character’s clothes were or if there were ruffles and lace on the sleeves of a shirt, unless it will play a specific role in the plot. Also, thank you for your feedback concerning “deus ex machina.” I definitely do not want to get into a situation where I am using ways of academic essay, finding out information that are more like science-fiction than mystery. I don’t have a “superhacker” working on a computer to get instant information, nor do I have an instantaneous DNA identifier; I know DNA results take time and are not available in letters just a few days. However, something such as identifying a blood type can come back much sooner. I will stay away from the science-fiction additives and academic essay try to bushs resume, stay as close to academic essay, real life as I can. Oh, one more thing, for Susan Spann, the author of this great post…my main detective is afraid of mice; terrified of them, actually.

So there will be a couple of scenes where he’s either watching for them, or he comes across a nest (without overdoing it throughout the book, of course!). #128578; I LOVED that idea! This post was actually super helpful (and very entertaining to read). I laughed out loud probably more times than I should have while reading this, and I’m definitely going to scientific, check out some of smoking academic essay, your books. (One thing I did notice is there’s actually 26 advice points — there are two #3s :P). Inquiry Essay! Thanks a lot for writing this, I really wanted something to academic essay, help me plan writing a mystery since I was having trouble figuring out what to italicize in an essay how to start. Love your style, Susan – will have to pick up one of your books – do you have a favorite? I’m working on Book 3 in essay my mystery series featuring strong, female protagonist, Logan McKenna. SHATTERED: Logan Book 1 and bushs resume FOREST PARK: Logan Book 2 are the first two in my character-driven series. What’s your opinion on using multiple POVs?

I liked your comment about smoking academic essay having to use flashbacks if you put the dead body in collage book the first chapter. Smoking Academic! So true – I’m still developing my skills in that area – I like helping readers get inside the head of the bad guy(s). Thesis Literary! And I want the reader to almost be not sure who to root for for a while, if that makes sense. Sorry, Chuck! I addressed my comment to smoking, Susan – must have looked at one of the comments and that name got stuck in essay birthday my brain – please feel free to put in essay the correct name and inquiry essay change the pronoun!

Sorry! i love it, i have been using this saved page as a guide to my first novel. This is the most useful article that I’ve EVER red, I didn’t just enjoy your amazing tips but also your sense of humor and the way you’re helping your fellow writers. Greetings from Egypt 3. having trouble writting a light mystery plot for an educational videogame, right now I’m not sure I can go with a murder story, but this was of great help and very well written, thanks a bunch.