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Birth Of A Nation Essays and Research Papers. Times have now changed, but there are remnants of this subject everywhere, even in film. The movie Birth of research paper writing a Nation is . considered one of the greatest films of all time, even with these themes. AMC’s Filmsite even has it listed within the 100 Greatest Films of All Time. Another movie with the some of the same themes is Blazing Saddles. Blazing Saddles does not have the form same stature as Birth of a Nation , but it does deserve to be higher in the canon. I do believe that Blazing Saddles does not have the.
African American , Black people , Blazing Saddles 1326 Words | 4 Pages. Birth of essay research writing a Nation , Film Review Given there are more than 300 reviews written for this title, it's hard to say anything . new that hasn't already been said about the 1915 Movie “The Birth of a Nation ”. None the less, I will do my best to add my voice. Ok, so Birth of on best forever a Nation is a technical marvel. I will grant that it was masterfully shot for that time, and it is essay, stunning to just think this movie is the roots youtube, almost 100 years old, and it only paper, post-dates the youtube end of the Civil War by 50 years. There.
Cinema of India , Feature film , Feature length 1291 Words | 4 Pages. Research! The silent film I chose to watch “The Birth of a Nation ” is a 1915 American drama, directed by D.W Griffith, produced by D.W. . Griffith and Harry Aitken, co-written by D.W Griffith, T.F. Dixon J.R. and Frank E. European Dissertations! Woods, and was based on the novel and research paper, play “The Clansman” both by T.F. Dixon J.R. It was originally released on February 8, 1915 and european dissertations, was presented in two parts, separated by an intermission, as it is over three hours long.
The film follows the lives of two families in Civil War era America. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , D. Essay Writing! W. Resume Admission! Griffith 1323 Words | 4 Pages. Research Paper Writing! The Threat of the Mulatto in The Birth of a Nation In D. W. Griffith’s The Birth of a Nation the . interactions between black and white characters represent Griffith’s view of an appropriate racial construct in America. His ideological construction is white dominance and black subordination. Resume Form For College! Characters, such as the southern Cameron’s and their house maid, who interact within these boundaries, are portrayed as decent people. Whereas characters who cross the line of racial oppression; such as Austin.
Black people , Miscegenation , Race 1439 Words | 4 Pages. Essay! Birth of Nation and Its Racial Controversy. Courtanie Sanders Professor Harris MCA 101 10, December 2012 Writing Assignment_3 The Birth of A Nation and Its Impact . on American Society “The Most Controversial Motion Picture of as a essay All Time” The late 19th century, was a period that laid vast technological progression in essay writing the film industry toward the typical start of the twentieth century. Essay Research Paper Writing! During the time that new technology brought in the conception of resume form for college admission motion pictures and on screen projections, the imageries of African Americans on big screen. African American , Black people , Film 1275 Words | 4 Pages. Birth of a Nation: Art or Propaganda. Birth of A Nation : Art or Propaganda Mankind, engaging in war, driven by whatever instincts guide him, seeks to keep the research writing . Friends! defeats and paper writing, victories of as a professional essay battle in essay research paper his memory and on his conscience. To accomplish this men have used paint and canvas, ink and paper, or instrument and song in their effort to the teacher professional essay communicate the tragedy and glory of war. Never, before the career of D.W.
Griffith had anyone attempted to bring the subject to research paper writing film. The result of his efforts, weaknesses aside, mark a change in attitude. Art , Audience , Audience theory 803 Words | 3 Pages. Typical College Entrance! Review of the book “Ukraine. Birth of a Modern Nation ” Contemporary Issues in CEE For my paper I’ve . chosen Dr.
Serhy Yekelchyk’s book “Ukraine. Birth of a Modern Nation ”. For me as a Ukrainian it was interesting to see the history of my country and the process of formation of Ukrainian nation from the point of view of the Ukrainian Canadian historian. Initially the book was written in English and translated into Russian, Polish, Lithuanian, and research paper, Japanese. Surprisingly it. Holodomor , Kiev , Russia 1161 Words | 4 Pages. Revolutionary War and the Birth of a New Nation. The Birth of is a essay a New Nation It took 158 years for the American colonies to become a new nation . When the first . royal colony, Virginia, was established in 1624 the American colonists considered themselves a part of essay research paper writing England. Over time, the on best friends forever American colonists grew separate and wanted more independence. In 1783 the British recognized the American colonies as a nation at the Treaty of Paris.
Before the Treaty of writing Paris the colonists had to win their independence and fight the British in the Revolutionary. American Revolution , American Revolutionary War , Benjamin Franklin 974 Words | 3 Pages. Christopher Guerrero MCA 101 Prof. Harris 01 May 2013 Final Homework Assignment: The Birth of a Nation The famed filmmaker . D.W. Griffith helped make an enormous stride in 20th century cinematic history with the 1915 release of his creation, the essays on best friends Birth of a Nation . This film in essay research writing known for life is a long, its use of breakthrough cinematic techniques Within the process of making this groundbreaking film, the essay research paper technologically innovative filmmaking techniques really blew the minds of essaywhuman youtube people in the early 20th century. African American , Colored , Film 464 Words | 2 Pages. value.
People who viewed “The Birth of a Nation ” seem to attack its movie scenes based on a belief that to appreciate a film is . to be entertained by research, it. That is not always true. “The Birth of a Nation ,” while created to entertain, has left behind a true depiction of our history. Many of its themes; race fear, race war, the myth of the Old South, myths of Black and White sexuality, remain relevant and troubling ninety-six years after the film's release. The Birth of a Nation depicted the fall of the. Black people , Ku Klux Klan , Race 679 Words | 2 Pages. American Heroism: the Last of the Mohicans and the Birth of a Nation.
American heroism is a term that started to show itself in long the early years of the essay paper writing creation of european dissertations America as a nation and before hand when America . was first founded and explored as a frontier. Heroism defined by the Oxford English Dictionary is writing, simply, Great Bravery (Oxford, 2013). Heroism only consists of someone doing something brave, being courageous in the face of danger being someone who other people want to follow and emulate. Heroism in itself is the basis for American heroism but with the addition. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Cinema of the United States 1407 Words | 4 Pages. On March 3, 1915 the movie The Birth of a Nation was released at the Liberty Theatre in New York City. This film was financed, . filmed, and released by the Epoch Producing Corporation of D.W. Griffith and Harry T. Forever! Aitken. It was one of the first films to essay writing ever use deep-focus shots, night photography, and to dissertations be explicitly controversial with the derogatory view of blacks.
Throughout the movie, the film justified the need of the KKK in order to paper keep social harmony among society after the Civil War. Black people , Race , Racism 636 Words | 2 Pages. mind and emotionally overflowing heart caused him to be resentful. Why was Joe Morgan relieved to resume for college admission see Andrew Manson? . Joe Morgan's wife was about to give birth to their child. Andrew was the doctor who was to carry out the delivery. Morgan was anxiously waiting outside for the news of essay research writing his child. Since Andrew was able to save the child, it changed his outlook towards life. He was relieved to see him because. Childbirth , Doctor Who , Infant 1499 Words | 3 Pages. D. W. Griffith's Birth of a Nation: Analysis. the is a essay themes and romanticism of the Ku Klux Klan, and research paper, race relations during the Civil War and Reconstruction.
From a technical side, this movie was successful, . and many film historians conclude it was one of the first feature length films. In Birth of a Nation , it reinforces the notion that slavery was a social and gentle experience for professional, the slaves in many instances throughout the film. When there was a scene with the slaves, they were depicted dancing, singing, and being jubilant. Even when Silas Lynch. American Civil War , Black people , Film 1685 Words | 4 Pages. Birth Control: Availability to Teens. Paper Writing! Many teenagers today are very sexually active and take the risk that comes with sexual . intercourse.
Education is our number once source in getting sexual information out to our teens: “We have got to start educating our teenagers by introducing the on best forever ABC's for research paper, sexual education. A-abstinence; B-be faithful; C-latex condoms. (Rosenthal 113). A type of contraceptive, also called birth control, is to do just that: control birth . Teen and teen births are greatly. Resume For College Admission! Age of essay research paper writing consent , Birth control , Condom 1814 Words | 5 Pages. Navigate Developing Nations Introduction Developing Nations Chapter 1: What Are the Problems Facing Developing . Dissertations! Nations ? Developing Nations Chapter 2:Will Globalization Harm Developing Nations ? Developing Nations Chapter 3: Should Industrialized Nations Play an research paper writing, Active Role in the Developing World? Developing Nations Chapter 4: Can Democracy Succeed in Developing Nations ? Developing Nations Organizations to Contact Developing Nations Bibliography Introduction . Developed country , Developing country , Human Development Index 1442 Words | 5 Pages. Canada, The Birth of a Nation after World War 1 If there was a defining moment that made Canada into essaywhuman the roots, an independent . Essay Research! country, it was the First World War that would lay the foundations for Canadian independence. World War 1 touched the lives of all Canadians and for college admission, anyone who studies Canadian history cannot ignore the effects of the essay research paper Great War.
The war involved European countries but Canada being a dominion of the British Empire was called upon by England and had no choice but to participate. The. British Army , British Empire , Canada 3912 Words | 10 Pages. (Holder) Long Paper #1 October 14, 2011 Working to Unite the Nations How much of your time do you dedicate to is a long essay helping people in need? Do you . often think of the numerous individuals suffering from disease, political corruption, and hunger? For the individuals who work within the United Nations , dedication for the betterment of those who face struggles, is not just a job, but a lifestyle. The basis of research their efforts comes from the United Nations Human Rights Document. Is A Long Lesson In Humility Essay! This document proves to be an effective.
Haiti , Human rights , Peace 2421 Words | 7 Pages. ?Demographics Assignment: Analysis of First Nations and Canadian Populations GCG1D Part 1: Population Pyramid Analysis b) Based on the . Essay Research Paper! percentages from the chart, First Nations ’ dependency load is 39% compared to Canada’s dependency load of admission 25%. The First Nations has a higher dependency load because more of their population is under the working age. The percent of research writing children in college First Nations is research paper writing, almost two and a half times higher than Canada. The percentage of working class and older adults. Aboriginal peoples in Canada , Canada , Demographic economics 931 Words | 3 Pages. The United Nations and on best friends, the League of Nations. THE UNITED NATIONS The League of Nations Introduction: The United Nations is an international . organization of independent states to promote international peace and security. Its stated aims are furthering cooperation in many international things using many different departments. On the other hand the league of Nations was an inter governmental organization in 1920. It was a cause from the Treaty of Versailles.
Its main aims were the rights of man, women different colored, soldiers and avoiding. Franklin D. Roosevelt , International organization , League of Nations 1429 Words | 5 Pages. What Makes A Nation , A Nation ? No nation can exist forever. So what makes a nation , a . Research Paper! nation ? Milan Kundera’s essay, “A Nation Which Cannot Take Itself for Granted” examines this significant question. Published in June 1967, Kundera, a reformed Czechoslovakian communist writer, explores the sphere of culture and optimism of the is a long lesson in humility essay Czech nation during the period of de-Stalinization in writing Eastern Europe. Essays! “The existence of the Czech nation has never been a matter to research paper writing be taken for granted and. Youtube! Culture , Czechoslovakia , Eastern Europe 902 Words | 3 Pages. Satire and Stereotyping in the Birth of a Nation and Bamboozled. Spike Lee's film Bamboozled (2000), cinematically stages American mass entertainment's history of essay writing discrimination with humiliating minstrel stereotypes which . was first brought to film in the teacher as a professional 1915 by D.W. Griffith's The Birth of a Nation . ?Blackface' minstrelsy is a disturbing legacy that began as a tradition in the early 1800s on stage, with white actors using burnt corks to darken their skin and allowing them to portray African-American slaves, usually as lazy, child-like providers of essay research paper comic relief. Resume Form Admission! African American , African American culture , Bamboozled 3038 Words | 9 Pages.
BIRTH OF NAZISM Until the German people understand that one can conduct politics only when one has the support of essay power#8212;and again . power. Only so is the roots youtube, reconstruction possible#8230; It is not an economic question which faces the German people, it is a political question#8212;how shall the research paper writing nation #8217;s determination be recovered? (Bullock, 1962) Adolf Hitler posed this question to the German people in 1923. The face of post World War I Germany was truly battered, in all senses of. Adolf Hitler , Fascism , Germany 2792 Words | 7 Pages. “The Birth of Swatch” 1) Why was the Swatch so successful? In what way was this watch different from others in the industry? Before . Swatch started, Nicolas Hayek said “ Why cant we design a striking low cost, high quality watch and build it in Switzerland” just by reading this statement we can come to the conclusion that this was a new innovative idea, so what separates swatch from the rest of the other watch producers? * High quality * Build in Switzerland * Very low cost Why. Blancpain , Management , Marketing 661 Words | 3 Pages. The Pros and Cons of Home Birth The demand for natural child birth and giving birth outside of the hospital . Resume Form! setting is increasing in the United States.
However it is a topic that remains controversial. There is no shortage of essay research glowing stories from happy mothers of safely home birthed babies, but there are horror stories as well. Planned home births are generally considered safe for entrance essay, healthy women with low risk pregnancies being attended by certified nurse midwifes with a good system in place for. Childbirth , Home birth , Infant 1397 Words | 4 Pages. Teenage Births: Recycling Deprivation. Teenage births : recycling deprivation Teenage births : recycling deprivation Introduction Published in March 2009, “The . Spirit Level: why greater equality makes societies stronger” by Professors Richard Wilkinson amp; Kate Pickett has become an award winning bestseller, at the same time that has been subject to a volley of criticism from a variety of sources. The book emphasizes that problems more common among poor people are worse in essay research writing rich societies and the base of this affirmation are.
Abortion , Adolescence , Household income in entrance the United States 1169 Words | 4 Pages. Two Nation Theory Two Nation Theory means the cultural, political, economic, spiritual, and societal differences between the . Research Paper Writing! two major groups of people, Hindus Muslims of the Sub Continent. It was the foundation for the Partition of India in 1947. It declared that Muslims and Hindus were two separate nations by every ideological description and european dissertations, consequently Muslims should have an self-governing homeland in the Muslim majority areas of British India so that they can protect their cultural ,political. Essay! Indian independence movement , Lahore , Mohsin-ul-Mulk 992 Words | 3 Pages. Sade Bynoe Polsci 202-02 What is a Nation -State? A most basic definition of the state is an organization that maintains monopoly . of violence over a territory. One of the most important elements of a state is called sovereignty, or the ability to dissertations carry out actions or policies within a territory independently from external actors or internal rivals. A state needs to be able to act as the primary authority over its territory and the people who live there, setting laws and rights, resolving. Ideology , Nation , Nation state 1310 Words | 4 Pages. ? FUISAMI TALILOA BIRTH CONTROL CLINICS IN THE 1920’S HIS/120 01/08/2015 TIMOTHY BUCHANAN UNIVERSITY OF PHOENIX The . fact that birth control even existed was remarkable enough.
Buying a condom made you a criminal in 30 states. In the 1920’s, women were able to paper writing prevent pregnancy, something they have never done before. Women like Sangers, a devoted catholic mother who got pregnant eighteen times, eleven at essays friends birth and research writing, seven miscarriages. She created the first” Planned Parenthood. Abortion , Birth control , Childbirth 1008 Words | 5 Pages. Birth control as a movement in the US has had a very uneven relationship to movements for women s rights. Discuss early birth . control reform efforts in relationship to issues of gender and class power. Birth control was an early-twentieth-century slogan, but it has become the generic for all forms of control of reproduction. With the spread of agriculture and the economic advantages of european large families, religious and in essay paper some cases secular law increasingly restricted birth control, with the european dissertations result. Abortion , Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill 1191 Words | 4 Pages.
Birth Control as Solution to Poverty. seven billion mark this week, at least according to the fuzzy calculations of United Nations demographers. It took humans hundreds of thousands . of years, until the year 1804, to reach the first billion. It took another 123 years to reach two billion, in 1927. Since then, we’ve been passing these milestones like billboards along a highway. The latest billion took just a dozen years.
In 1999, the United Nations ’ best projection was that the world wouldn’t pass seven billion until 2013, but we reached. Abortion , Birth control , Birth rate 894 Words | 4 Pages. Bernadette Cristobal Professor Christian Clark Eng 102 3015 17 October 2013 Pg 200 W1 Advantages and Disadvantages of essay research paper Birth Control In . this day and age there are so many forms of birth control available that if used correctly it is the teacher professional essay, nearly impossible to essay writing have an unplanned pregnancy. The three most common contraceptive methods include the birth control pill which is filled with a combination of estrogen and progestin, the condom which is a physical barrier that stops the european dissertations sperm from entering . Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill , Condom 980 Words | 4 Pages. Research Paper! Birth Control - Major Research Paper Topic: Birth Control Description of Topic The controversy of birth . control evolves around an issue that has puzzled our morality for forever, years passed.
Through countless instances man has tried to separate the sexual act from that of procreation and subsequent childbearing. However, the essence of choosing acceptably lies not only research paper writing, within our morality, but additionally in our power to surmount through the pressure that exists in today's world. Hence our. Birth control , Catholic Church , Humanae Vitae 535 Words | 3 Pages. BIRTH FLOWERS amp; PERSONALITY TRAITS Keep aside your zodiac signs and european, connected attitudes; birth numbers and numerological . analysis; horoscopes and paper, astrological assertions; tarot cards and a glimpse into the future; crystal gazing and prophesying; parrot card predictions; palm reading and Chirology; seances and channeling; and every conceivable modern equivalent of the Oracles of Delphi…Forget about the teacher essay birth stones, lucky gems, charming mascots and magical amulets… Let us say it with beautiful Flowers;. Asteraceae , Divination , Flower 1204 Words | 4 Pages. Research Paper Writing! what the the teacher as a professional essay Birth Order Theory consists of. The Birth Order Theory states that the order in essay paper which you were born tends to determine . many things, such as how you perceive the world, your sense of responsibility, your expectations, and other personality characteristics.
Also, according to the Birth Order Theory, these characteristics then influence the career you choose, the types of relationships you have, and how well you will do in your adult life. I believe that according to essaywhuman the Birth Order Theory. Alfred Adler , Big Five personality traits , Birth order 949 Words | 3 Pages. Mcadam English 3 April 16, 2013 Birth Control, Why be Frowned Upon? Birth control is a way to prevent your daughter . from having a kid as a kid, not a statement telling her that it is okay to freely have sex.
If you know and understand that your daughter is having sex, wouldn’t you want the peace of mind that she is being safe, and protected? There are several ways to take birth control, and the doctor will choose the best method for the patient. Birth control has a 99% protection rate. Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill , Hormonal contraception 1031 Words | 3 Pages. Home birth vs hospitalized births.
almost every single birth that occurred happened inside the home and was the norm. Writing! Now a days it's the opposite. In the late 1960's that . percent dropped down to only 1% of births happening at home instead of a hospital. Typical Entrance Essay! The dramatic change in at research home births is caused by the advance in technology and medicine this world has experienced since then. Women have so many choices when it comes to form giving birth now. They can decide how they want to paper writing have the baby, and where. Birth can happen anywhere;. Birth , Birthing center , Childbirth 1150 Words | 4 Pages. Birth order and is a long lesson essay, how it impacts personality Personality is said to be moulded by ones experiences in life; this can be further derived to . Research Paper Writing! personality is based on the environment in which one grows up in.
The environment in which one grows up in is influenced a large number of factors. One such factor that has a dominant effect on the environment is dissertations, birth order. Birth order is the theory that one’s place in their family birth order (e.g oldest, youngest) indirectly affects ones personality via. Alfred Adler , Big Five personality traits , Birth order 881 Words | 3 Pages. Essay Paper! ?Jennifer Dean Birth Order The birth order as a useful construct would be an life is a long lesson in humility essay, essential tool to determine . whether or not an research paper writing, individual(s) is possibly predisposed to having any inherent form of maladaptive perfectionism or non-perfectionism behaviors or traits. European Dissertations! This type of information would provide some understanding of a client’s behaviors prior to seeking professional counseling or group therapy. There have been written over seventeen hundred birth order theories since the first. Alfred Adler , Birth order , Childhood 849 Words | 3 Pages. ?Explain the birth of gangs and how they impact society. Discuss the essay research paper writing economic value and the detrimental side of essaywhuman the roots youtube gangs and their related . business practices. Essay Paper Writing! Wednesday December 4th 2013 In the form United States today there are over 1.4 million gang members, these gang members come from research paper writing poverty and join these gangs for protection from professional essay other gang members or to survive on the streets. Paper Writing! A street gang is a group of members with identifiable leadership and internal organization, identifying with or.
Crime , Criminology , Gang 1526 Words | 5 Pages. Typical Essay! Birth defects, or congenital malformations, are the essay writing faulty formation of structures or body parts present at birth . Sporadic, . hereditary, or acquired defects may be immediately observed or may become manifest later in life; they may be visible on the body surface or present internally. Birth defects may be life threatening and require surgical correction, or they may interfere with function or appearance. It is life is a long lesson in humility, estimated that about 3% of research writing all children are born with major defects; minor defects. Allele , Chromosome , Congenital disorder 860 Words | 7 Pages. European Dissertations! http://www.ehow.com/about_5127713_pros-teen-access- birth -control.html Pro Allowing teens access to various forms of protection may help . decrease the amount of teen pregnancies taking place each year in the United States. Gone are the paper days when a teen pregnancy affected someone who was 16 or 17. Forever! There are now instances of 13- and 14-year-old girls having babies--teens who are completely unprepared to give birth and raise a child. If the research child is not given up for adoption, the responsibility typically. Adolescence , Combined oral contraceptive pill , Hormonal contraception 926 Words | 3 Pages. Birth Control People are using the dissertations internet for essay paper writing, everything these past couple of years, which is the teacher as a essay, leading to false statements and statistics . being posted onto the internet.
In Katy Hall’s article, “5 Awful Anti- Birth Control Debate arguments,” she uses false statistics and false analogy. She argues that it causes older men to take advantage of younger girls, it allows people to have sex for fun, it causes abortions, it’s basically already free, and essay, lastly that it is like Pearl Harbor (Hall, Katy). Abortion , Birth control , Childbirth 1545 Words | 4 Pages. The Roots! Birth Order ? Birth order can contribute too many differences in one’s personality. Joshua K. Essay Research! Hartshorne an editor for Scientific . News states that “our position in the family does indeed affect both our IQ and our personality.” It is a rising controversy that many people disagree on.
Birth order has a lot to essays on best friends do with ones, future, career personality, relationships etc. The way, in which one was treated as a child pertaining to birth order can influence how they feel, behave and how they live in the. Big Five personality traits , Birth order , Childhood 1261 Words | 3 Pages. can be potentially more important for the next generation than it is for us. The issue is birth . rate or population, what it is now and what it will be in research paper the future. First of all, what is birth rate? The birth rate is the essay prompts total number of births per 1000 of a population in a year. As you may know, by subtracting the death rate from the birth rate we will result in research writing the rate of population. Here is a display of the birth rate from on best friends forever 1950 to essay paper 2015. Year Birth rate 19501955 37.2 19551960 35.3 19601965 34. Essaywhuman! Birth rate , Demographic economics , Demography 988 Words | 4 Pages.
Partial Birth Abortion and Federalism. Cynthia Hill March 24, 2013 Political Science Hames Partial Birth Abortion . and Federalism With the research paper Supreme Court decision on the right of a woman to abortion in european dissertations 1973, controversy still looms heavy in the opinions of the essay people of America. The State of essays forever Texas was the subject of challenge by a single pregnant woman (Roe) on the constitutionality of the abortion laws. This famous Supreme Court Case Roe v. Wade was. Abortion , Federalism , Intact dilation and extraction 2195 Words | 6 Pages. Home birthing experts argue that giving birth at home is just as safe as being in a hospital for women in research writing low-risk categories. That may be . close to the truth, but only if nothing goes wrong. Resume Form For College! And the problem is that when it comes to giving birth , you never, ever know what might go wrong. Fit, healthy young women can still unexpectedly have horrible, traumatic births . Research! I should know, because I had one with my first son. The Federal Government announced yesterday that professional indemnity insurance.
Birth , Childbirth , Coroner 986 Words | 3 Pages. ?United Nations Organization (UNO) The Industrial Revolution in Europe brought many changes in the life of the people. Many big factories were . established to produce goods on a large scale in Europe and America. They bought raw materials at a very low price from their colonies and sold them the manufactured goods at a high price. This made these countries very rich and powerful. Essays Friends Forever! They made all types of weapons.
These countries fought among themselves. Small battles led to research big wars. The early part. Franklin D. Roosevelt , Human rights , League of Nations 892 Words | 4 Pages. Should Birth Control be Distributed in Schools? “ Birth control has been pitched in the United States as an . individual solution, rather than a public health strategy, the purpose of oral contraceptives was understood by manufacturers, physicians, and consumers to be the prevention of pregnancy, a basic health care need for women. Since 1990, the content of that message has changed, reflecting a shift in dissertations the drug industry's view of the contraception business” (Watkins, 2012, para. Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill , High school 1844 Words | 6 Pages. Dr. Kevin Leman, author of the book. The Birth Order, “why you are the way you are as a psychologist who has been saying for more than thirty . five years about the impact of the birth order.
Once you figure out your birth order, as well as the birth orders of essay paper those who you love, you’ll be way ahead of essays forever everyone else in essay paper writing the game of life. If you’re a parent, I’ll reveal and last born. European Dissertations! If you’re married, I’ll give you some tips about which birth order combinations make for paper, the smoothest-flowing marriages. Big Five personality traits , Birth order , Sibling 1459 Words | 4 Pages. Thesis Statement The knowledge of the person’s birth order predisposes the clinician towards his impression of the european characteristics of each . birth order, without considering other factors that may affect the behavior of this person. Critical Essay The family is the basic unit of society and it is within this family that the first form of essay research paper education is experienced.
As every person is as a, unique, his ways of addressing different situations and issues in life may be different from that of essay writing other people. Birth order , Family , Human development 1296 Words | 4 Pages. F. Admission! The Birth of Venus was created on canvas with the use of tempera paint. Botticelli would hand grind a material that . changes according to essay research the light that it reflects, also known as pigment. The powdered pigments are traditionally mixed with egg yolk which dries quickly and stays firmly in essays friends place (Saitzyk, 245). During the research paper Renaissance, fabric such as canvas were used instead of the popular wooden panel. As tempera. Cosimo de' Medici , Florence , Grand Duchy of Tuscany 2098 Words | 7 Pages. Wrongful birth By: Kelly Vaughn In March 2012, Arizona passed a bill that will prohibit medical malpractice lawsuits against doctors . that withhold information from expectant mothers that may cause her to have an abortion. The bill is not currently a law yet in the state of Arizona but nine other states do have such laws. Youtube! The states that do have wrongful birth laws are Pennsylvania, North Dakota, South Dakota, Utah, Idaho, Indiana, Missouri, Minnesota and research writing, North Carolina.
A wrongful birth is “. Resume Form For College! Abortion , Childbirth , Lawsuit 1355 Words | 4 Pages. Low birth weight and preterm babies. Low birth weight and preterm babies in United States is increasing. Low birth weight babies are babies who are born with the essay research writing . birth weight of less than 5 lbs. On Best! either due to preterm delivery or due to restriction of growth inside the uterus. These low birth weight babies are at essay increased risk for early death and long-term health and developmental issues than infants born later in pregnancy or at higher birth weights. College Entrance! Not all preterm infants are low birth weight, and vice versa. Racial/Ethnic. Cervix , Childbirth , Infant 768 Words | 3 Pages. Human Rights and United Nations Convention. 5433 fax www.adatum.com 5432 Any Street West Townsville, State 54321 555.543.5432 ph 555.543.5433 fax www.adatum.com Consulting Consulting . Technology Technology United Nations convention on the rights of essay research paper a child. United Nations convention on is a long in humility the rights of a child.
UNCRC UNCRC The United Nations convention on the right of the essay paper writing child (UNCRC) supports the children by making sure all of the college entrance rights are reinforced to make sure everyone has an equal change and to make sure things are. Abuse , Democracy , French Revolution 707 Words | 3 Pages. Research Writing! The Role of Women in Nation Building. THE ROLE OF WOMEN IN NATION BUILDING Tayo A. Zubair Nation Building is a process of constructing and as a professional, fashioning a national . identity. Research Writing! The choice of essaywhuman these key words, process, and research paper writing, construction and fashioning are very fundamental because they are the basic ingredients of life is a long in humility essay nation building. Taking a critical look at these words one will realize that nation building is indeed a process which takes place over a long period of time.
It is gradual and not drastic or a sudden occurrence. Construction and. Africa , Decision making , Gender 1873 Words | 5 Pages. ?MaKayla McKnight Eng 102 Amanda Morris November 12, 2014 Contraceptives Should Be Offered In Schools About 3 in 10 teen girls in essay writing the U.S become pregnant . before the age of 20, it doesn’t have to be that way. Birth control and european dissertations, other contraceptives should be offered in schools to teens. Having these contraceptives available in school-based clinics are giving our most vulnerable students a chance to essay paper writing prevent future pregnancies and educate students how to practice safe sex. This would not only be benefiting.
Abortion , Birth control , Combined oral contraceptive pill 1928 Words | 8 Pages. Adopted Children Should Have Access to Birth Records. ?Adopted Children Should Have Access to Birth Records Adopted children ought to have the right to life lesson know who they are and where they came from. Essay Writing! . Truly, denying people that knowledge is like denying them a part of themselves. A 2005 study showed that the reason adopted people search for essays on best forever, their birth families is not because they are looking for a new family, but rather, “for news about the well-being of birth relatives, information about their background, the circumstances of paper writing their adoption and answers. European! Adoptees , Adoption , Closed adoption 2153 Words | 7 Pages. A Nation at Risk Part 1: A Nation at Risk was and is a document that in essence gave/gives a call to arms to essay paper writing wake up the . American nation in regards to mediocrity within education. The report changed high schools to include more necessary core classes for the American high school student and brought about college entrance other forms of essay paper writing changes for American schools. It has brought about both negative and positive results in the roots youtube the reform towards successful education of all students. It was imperative to bring.
A Nation at Risk , Education , Education in paper the United States 2431 Words | 7 Pages. the college essay prompts first action to take place to essay paper writing create security among the forever European nations however was also one of the main causes of World War One. The . secret alliance systems transformed into the League of research paper Nation after the entrance prompts First World War. The League of paper writing Nations main purpose was to forever make, according to Woodrow Wilson, ?the world safe for democracy' and research, also to prevent the turmoil which was caused in WWI from reoccurring. The League of Nations had various triumphs however for the teacher as a essay, the most part failed causing many members. Adolf Hitler , League of essay paper writing Nations , Treaty of Versailles 1060 Words | 3 Pages.
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Gospel Topics Essay: Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham. Note: The Mormon Church began publishing essays on a variety of historical and essay writing, doctrinal issues. To see an overview of the articles, you can go here: Gospel Topic Essays: Fixing History? In this review of an article titled “Translation and Historicity of the Book of typical prompts, Abraham: A Gospel Topics Essay,” the entire article will be cited (all underlined), with my comments throughout. Here is the 5-part Viewpoint on Mormonism series broadcast during the writing week of December 1, 2014: The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints embraces the book of Abraham as scripture. Before we go any further, I must comment on the word embraces . How can the Mormon Church leaders “embrace” the Book of Abraham? After all, this book in european, the LDS canon is perhaps the biggest reason church members leave Mormonism. Essay Paper Writing. There is the roots youtube, plenty of evidence to show the Book of Abraham is fraudulent, a false bill of sales, an invitation to essay, join a Ponzi scheme, and so much worse. If the church “embraces” this book, then we must wonder why so very little has been said about it at General Conferences held since the 1970s. Rather, I believe this part of LDS scripture is an form admission embarrassment to the church, so don’t be fooled by this statement.
As far as the reference to the “ book” of Abraham, I’m not sure why the small letter “b” is used. The “Book” of Mormon is always capitalized. And although many sources on lds.org don’t capitalize the essay research paper writing word “book,” others do. Essays Friends. (For example, see here.) It is also capitalized in the explanatory note preceding the book in the LDS canon (“ A Translation of some ancient Records that have fallen into our hands from the catacombs of Egypt. The writings of Abraham while he was in essay, Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written by his own hand, upon papyrus.”) The media traditionally capitalize it (i.e. see here and here). Even LDS apologists capitalize it. No explanation is given for making it lowercased, but in this article, I will retain the traditional capitalized “Book” of Abraham and leave the underlined portions intact. This book, a record of the college essay biblical prophet and patriarch Abraham, recounts how Abraham sought the blessings of the priesthood, rejected the idolatry of his father, covenanted with Jehovah, married Sarai, moved to Canaan and Egypt, and received knowledge about the Creation. The book of Abraham largely follows the biblical narrative but adds important information regarding Abraham’s life and teachings. This isn’t the first time where a church publication lifted the Book of Abraham to a lofty position.
A church manual boasts: The book of Abraham is an evidence of the inspired calling of the Prophet Joseph Smith. It came forth at a time when the study of the ancient Egyptian language and culture was just beginning. Research. The scholars of the 1800s had scarcely begun to life is a long lesson essay, explore the field of Egyptology, and yet, with no formal training in ancient languages and no knowledge of ancient Egypt (except his work with the essay research writing Book of Mormon), Joseph Smith began his translation of the ancient manuscripts. Essaywhuman The Roots. His knowledge and ability came through the power and gift of research paper, God, together with his own determination and as a professional, faith. Essay Writing. ( Pearl of Great Price Student Manual Religion 327 , 2000, p. 29). Another one states:
In 1967 eleven fragments of the Joseph Smith papyri were rediscovered by Doctor Aziz S. Atiya, in the New York Metropolitan Museum of Art. Studies of them have confirmed that they are mainly ancient Egyptian funerary texts of the sort commonly buried with royalty and nobility and designed to guide them through their eternal journeyings. This has renewed the question about the connection between the records and the book of Abraham. Joseph Smith did not explain the method of translating the book of Abraham, just as he did not explain fully how the Book of Mormon was translated. On Best Friends Forever. Nevertheless, like the Book of Mormon, the book of Abraham is its own evidence that it came about through the gift and power of God ( Church History in the Fulness of Times: Religion 341-43 , p. 258). According to essay paper writing, these manuals, Smith was inspired. Even though these are mainly Egyptian funerary texts and not writings from the patriarch Abraham, the reader is supposed to believe that “the book of Abraham is its own evidence that it came about through the gift and power of God.” So what do we do with the professional essay Book of Abraham? There are only two possibilities: 1) Joseph Smith really did receive authentic papyri that contained the writings of Abraham. 2) Joseph Smith really never had papyri with writings of Abraham.
For the sake of argument, let’s assume the first possibility is essay research paper, correct and Smith did receive authentic papyri filled with the words of Abraham. If this is the case, then we still have two more possibilities: 1) Joseph Smith really did know how to translate these Egyptian hieroglyphics and put them into the roots English, which we have today and found in the Book of Abraham. 2) Joseph Smith really did not know how to translate these Egyptian hieroglyphics. If Joseph Smith never had papyri with writings of Abraham, we are left with three possibilities. Essay Research. Joseph Smith was. As the Gospel Topics essay explains, the Mormon Church continues to “embrace the book of Abraham as scripture.” In other words, a person must have faith that this book is authentic (#1 in the first scenario) and translatable by the hand of Joseph Smith (#1 in the second scenario).
If the second possibility in either scenario is correct, then the typical prompts Book of Abraham is essay writing, not what it is touted to be by LDS Church leaders. The book of Abraham was first published in 1842 and was canonized as part of the Pearl of Great Price in professional essay, 1880. The book originated with Egyptian papyri that Joseph Smith translated beginning in 1835. Many people saw the papyri, but no eyewitness account of the translation survives, making it impossible to reconstruct the process. Only small fragments of the long papyrus scrolls once in Joseph Smith’s possession exist today. The relationship between those fragments and the text we have today is largely a matter of conjecture. Let’s provide a little background.
In July 1835 Joseph Smith met a traveling showman by essay research paper the name of Michael H. Chandler who was displaying four Egyptian mummies in essaywhuman the roots, Kirtland, Ohio. Along with the mummies, Chandler possessed two rolls of papyri that contained a number of essay research, hieroglyphics, which he sold to the Mormons for $2,400. The next day, Smith proclaimed that the manuscripts were actually written by none other than two Old Testament patriarchs: I commenced the translation of some of the forever characters or hieroglyphics, and much to essay research paper, our joy found that one of the entrance essay prompts rolls contained the writings of Abraham, another the writings of Joseph of Egypt, etc. ( History of the Church, 2:235–36.) To stumble on research writing, such an incredible find was, in itself, an amazing stroke of what Mormons would view as divine providence. Imagine for a moment what a discovery this would be if, in fact, Smith had really come across the writings of essays forever, Abraham and research writing, Joseph. They would be priceless, predating the Book of Genesis by about five hundred years. If, as some LDS leaders believed, the Book of Abraham was actually written by the patriarch himself, they would be the only autograph manuscripts of biblical personalities currently available. For example, President Wilford Woodruff said,
The Lord is Blessing Joseph with Power to reveal mysteries of the kingdom of God; to translate through the urim and Thummim Ancient records Hyeroglyphics as old as Abraham or Adam. . . . Joseph the Seer has presented us some of the Book of typical entrance essay prompts, Abraham which was written by his own hand but hid from the essay paper knowledged of man for the last four thousand years. . . Resume Form For College. . (Susan Staker, ed., Waiting for World’s End: The Diaries of essay research, Wilford Woodruff (Salt Lake City, Utah: Signature Books, 1993), 50-51. Ellipsis and spelling in european, original. For more information on research writing, this topic, see here.) Of the two papyri, Smith chose to focus on youtube, the one he claimed was written by the patriarch Abraham, who, according to the text, supposedly held the priesthood well before it was even formulated by God in the days of the Levites. Paper Writing. In 1842 the typical college Mormon periodical Times and Seasons printed everything that Smith was able to paper writing, translate until that time. These were the european dissertations 1 March, 15 March, and 16 May 1842 issues of the Times and Seasons.
Circumstances would prohibit him from “translating” the rest of the Book of paper, Abraham papyrus or the life is a long in humility essay other papyrus that he called the Book of Joseph. In 1851 Smith’s uncompleted translation was published as a part of the Pearl of Great Price . This was canonized in 1880, thus elevating the Book of paper, Abraham to the level of LDS scripture. One of the major doctrines emanating from the Book of Abraham is the typical essay prompts “curse of Cain.” Abraham 1:21-26 states, Now this king of Egypt was a descendant from the essay paper writing loins of is a long lesson in humility essay, Ham, and was a partaker of the research paper blood of the Canaanites by birth. From this descent sprang all the Egyptians, and thus the blood of the Canaanites was preserved in the land. The land of Egypt being first discovered by resume for college admission a woman, who was the daughter of Ham, and the daughter of Egyptus, which in the Chaldean signifies Egypt, which signifies that which is forbidden; When this woman discovered the land it was under water, who afterward settled her sons in it; and thus, from Ham, sprang that race which preserved the curse in the land. Essay Writing. Now the first government of Egypt was established by Pharaoh, the eldest son of Egyptus, the daughter of Ham, and it was after the manner of the government of Ham, which was patriarchal. Pharaoh, being a righteous man, established his kingdom and essays, judged his people wisely and essay research, justly all his days, seeking earnestly to on best forever, imitate that order established by the fathers in the first generations, in the days of the first patriarchal reign, even in the reign of Adam, and also of essay paper writing, Noah, his father, who blessed him with the form for college blessings of the earth, and with the paper blessings of wisdom, but cursed him as pertaining to the teacher as a essay, the Priesthood. Smith used this passage in essay research paper writing, 1836 to claim that those with African heritage had inherited this “curse,” the entrance impetus for the later ban of Blacks from the essay paper writing LDS priesthood. It wasn’t until 1978 when this stringent ban was lifted. Life Is A Lesson In Humility. Today, however, no changes have been made to this portion of LDS scripture and the entire book remains in the standard works canon.
In 1966, eleven pieces of Smith’s original papyri were discovered in the Metropolitan Museum in New York, which were later turned over to the LDS Church. This discovery would be a major blow to the idea that the Book of Abraham should be considered authentic scripture from the patriarch. Thus, the Gospel Topics essay says that ““only small fragments of the long papyrus scrolls once in Joseph Smith’s possession exist today” and essay paper, that there is a large segment of the essaywhuman scroll now missing. Such an assertion is simply not true. Essay Research Writing. Egyptologists have said that, if anything is missing, it is a minute fraction. When Smith’s “translation” of the the teacher as a Egyptian hieroglyphics is considered, we can see that he had no clue as to what he was doing. For instance, he took one backwards E letter—which, in the Egyptian, was part of a series of letters that mean “pool”—and turned this letter into essay research 73 words (Abraham 1:13-14). In fact, this practice was common throughout his “translation.” Charles Larson states, On some occasions Joseph Smith separated a single Egyptian word to derive characters for his “translation,” while at other times he combined more than one Egyptian word into a single set of characters. In all cases his translation attributes a far more complex explanation to dissertations, the Egyptian letters and words of Papyrus Joseph Smith XI than do professional Egyptologists, and Smith ascribes meanings to words which are totally unrelated to their actual denotation. Thus, Joseph Smith’s “translation” is completely incorrect in both method and content. Research Paper. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 96)
The content of the writing is not even close to essaywhuman the roots, what Smith “translates,” a fact offered by David Persuitte: Papyrus No. XI and its associated pieces were actually a version of what is called the Egyptian “Book of Breathings,” or a “Breathing Permit.” The papyri upon which it is found are sometimes called “Sen-Sen” papyri because of the Egyptian word for “breathing,” which occurs frequently in the text. The Book of Breathings represents an attempt by the Egyptians to consolidate those elements of their beliefs that were essential parts of their funeral rites. Paper. It was, in short, a sort of talisman that was buried with the dead to the teacher as a, assure their well-being in the afterlife. ( Joseph Smith and the Origins of the Book of Mormon , 292). According to Dr. Robert Ritner from the University of Chicago, the Book of Breathings is, for all intents and purposes, intact; there are no substantial missing pieces. He stated, Assuming no reason that this particular Book of Breathings scroll must be expanded much beyond the writing surviving length, I have now read the entire document from the beginning to the end and have made up what one could make out on the poor copy of the final vignette.
The most that is missing from this text is simply two columns of Egyptian hieratic and possibly a small vignette, but other than that there would be nothing more that would inflate its current length other than its current size. It is life is a lesson, both unprecedented and unreasonable to assume that an intrusive text about a completely different matter, a narrative history about Abraham and his descendants, would have been inserted into a document whose beginning, middle, and end is devoted specifically to the resurrection of an Egyptian priest. It would disrupt the document and have nothing to do with this content. ( The Lost Book of Abraham , quoted at 40 minutes) I’ll quote Dr. Ritner elsewhere in this paper, as he is an Egyptologist who is writing, most willing to essays on best, talk about paper writing, this specific Book of on best friends, Abraham issue. As a scholar, he is not very impressed with the scholarship of the Mormon community, and the Gospel Topics essay did not convince him that the Book of Abraham is authentic. In a review of the research essay called “A Response to youtube, ‘Translation and Historicity of the Book of Abraham,'” Dr. Ritner wrote: The recent web posting on paper, the Book of Abraham by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter- Day Saints (hereafter the LDS church) represents new reflection on essaywhuman the roots, a document whose authenticity as verifiable history is now officially acknowledged to research paper writing, be in serious dispute. Thus the position paper concludes with a concession by noting (unnamed) modern scholarly opposition to the Book of Abraham, followed by a defense against any such scholarly debate: “The veracity and value of the resume form for college book of Abraham cannot be settled by scholarly debate concerning the book’s translation and historicity.” Rather, the truth of the book is sought in ways that cannot be verified externally, relying exclusively upon paper traditional faith: “a careful study of its teachings, sincere prayer, and the confirmation of the Spirit.”
Such a declaration may seem reasonable to those already predisposed to life, accept it, but on closer reading, the LDS church posting suggests discomfort with its own conclusions and reasoning. Not a single opposing scholar is mentioned by name, nor are their reasons for essay paper writing rejecting the european Book of Abraham. Yet the LDS paper attempts to engage in scholarly debate from a one-sided position, repeatedly citing in the footnotes the same limited set of essay writing, apologists who are primarily church employees at BYU in Provo. The significance of these apologetic publications will be discussed below. If scholarly dispute over translation and historicity is ultimately irrelevant, why bother to devote extended paragraphs to rebuttals of typical college, unmentioned objections on “Translation and the Book of Abraham,” “The Papyri,” and “The Book of Abraham and the Ancient World”? According to Dr. Ritner, the “works cited” for this paper is not much different from the LDS scholars who have been attempting to defend their scripture over the years. This makes sense because, most likely, these same scholars are the ones who probably wrote the research paper writing unattributed Gospel Topics essay in essay, the first place! These Mormon scholars have created a number of theories have been proposed over the years to prop up the efficacy of the Book of Abraham. In fact, consider the “Hidden Meaning” theory, the “Mnemonic Device” theory, the “Any Egyptian Connection” theory, the “Scribes Did It” theory, the “Missing Black and Red Scroll” theory, the “Mistaken Identity” theory, the “Catalyst” Theory, and the “Nobody Really Understands Egyptian Anyway” theory. Essay. Some of these “theories” are as far-fetched as Bigfoot eating the college entrance essay prompts Loch Ness Monster.
Not one of paper writing, these theories has been able to hold up when the evidence is considered. (See chapter 11 (“The Intellectual Approaches”) in By His Own Hand Upon Papyru s by Charles Larson for explanations of each theory.) Instead of focusing on missing pieces of the Book of Abraham (for which there is little evidence), perhaps LDS scholars and apologists should be dealing with the essays forever problems caused by what we is available. Absolutely nothing that we have today provides any support for Smith’s LDS scripture. We do know some things about the translation process. The word translation typically assumes an expert knowledge of multiple languages. Essay Research. Joseph Smith claimed no expertise in any language. He readily acknowledged that he was one of the “weak things of the world,” called to speak words sent “from heaven.” Speaking of the essaywhuman the roots youtube translation of the Book of Mormon, the paper writing Lord said, “You cannot write that which is sacred save it be given you from me.” The same principle can be applied to the book of youtube, Abraham. The Lord did not require Joseph Smith to research paper writing, have knowledge of Egyptian. By the gift and power of God, Joseph received knowledge about the life and teachings of Abraham. The LDS article explains how “Smith claimed no expertise in any language,” including Egyptian. By making this admission, the argument maintains that Smith must have been given divine revelation to make his Book of Abraham translation.
After all, he had previously done this a few years before with the “reformed Egyptian” text of the Book of Mormon, which he claimed he did “by the gift and power of the roots youtube, God.” And voila, here are the same words being used in this essay to show how his divine inspiration (rather than his understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphics) allowing him to make his translation of the Book of Abraham. Is this a coincidence? Hardly. Comparing the Book of Mormon to the Book of Abraham, Christian author H. Michael Marquardt states: Only part of the essay paper original 1829 manuscript of the Book of Mormon pages of the dictated text is dissertations, extent. Essay Paper. We do not have the gold plates to determine how accurate Joseph Smith’s dictation from the Egyptian was. But we do have the Egyptian papyri, Joseph Smith’s Egyptian Alphabet, and the Book of Abraham Translation Manuscripts. For College Admission. These later manuscripts together with Joseph Smith’s journal and knowing when his scribes worked with him all place the dictation process in the last half of essay paper writing, 1835.
With all of this historical background we have enough information to examine Joseph Smith’s competence with the ancient Egyptian language. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 407.) Let’s consider how the LDS prophet was able to get away with this ploy. In Smith’s day few people could have been considered experts in the field of Egyptology. The famous Rosetta Stone, currently on display at resume form, the British Museum in London, was discovered accidentally in 1799 by Napoleon’s troops in Egypt. Essay Research Paper Writing. A number of scholars worked for years to decipher the stone, which contained hieroglyphic Egyptian, demotic Egyptian, and Greek characters. Resume Form Admission. Finally, Jean Francois Champollion announced his results in research writing, 1822. Yet getting this information communicated to a general population would take many years before the Information Age took place.
As Dr. Ritner explains: In the 1840s in the United States, the ancient Egyptian language was virtually unknown. Form Admission. It had only been to research writing, be deciphered in 1822 and that knowledge simply had not crossed the Atlantic. So any interpretation given to an Egyptian document in 1842 or 45 or 50 or even 1860 would have been believable to a general audience. We would have no way of life in humility, comparing it with the essay paper actual truth ( The Lost Book of dissertations, Abraham, 14 minutes in) By 1861, T. Deveria had noted a series of essay paper writing, anachronisms and absurdities in the supposed translations and woodcut vignettes, and in 1912 a solicitation for professional opinions on the matter drew uniformly derisive assessments from A. H. The Teacher Essay. Sayce, W. M. F. Petrie, J. Essay Research Paper Writing. H. Breasted, A. C. Mace, J. Peters, S. A. College Essay Prompts. B. Essay Paper Writing. Mercer, E. Meyer, and friends forever, F. W. von Bissing Dr. Paper Writing. Ritner did an extended study on the different papyri that were discovered in 1967. As far as Facsmilies 1 and 2, he writes: Comparison of the surviving initial vignette of the Hor papyrus with Facsimile 1 proves beyond doubt, as the LDS web post agrees, that it was “the vignette that became facsimile 1.” However, neither Facsimile 1 nor 2 is a true copy, and both contain added forgeries, including the human-head and knife of the supposed “idolatrous priest of Elkenah” (Fig. 3 on Facsimile 1) as can be seen in the crude pencil additions to the original papyrus sheet as mounted and “improved” for publication by the LDS church in 1842.
NOTE: Go here to see an excellent portrayal of life is a long lesson, Facsimiles 1-3 by Infographics. In a video, he explained, What this document really is is an extended prayer on behalf of a deceased Egyptian priest, which begins with an invocation to the god of mummification, probably, certainly with a picture of the god of mummification, to ensure the priest’s continued existence into the next world, and writing, then it’s followed by a series of statements where “Oh deified Horus, may you walk as you head down in life, may your ears function, may your eyes function, may the gods receive you.” Long series of invocations on this, essentially assuring that this dead priest is able to function in death as he had in life, but now as part of a company of the ancient Egyptian gods. Abraham is not mentioned once. ( The Lost Book of Abraham video, 38 minutes in) Smith’s papyrus was both torn and attached to a backing that held it in form for college admission, place. On the essay writing backing someone, possibly Smith, filled in areas that were missing. An examination of Joseph Smith’s Facsimile No. 1 exposes a number of discrepancies between Smith’s interpretation and that of modern Egyptologists. Smith claimed that the facsimile portrays Abraham lying on an altar. Resume. Standing next to him is the essay writing idolatrous priest Elkanah who holds a knife in his hand.
Smith claimed that Elkanah was attempting to offer Abraham as a sacrifice. Below the altar are figures that Smith describes as idolatrous gods. Smith named a bird that hovers above the head of Abraham as the angel of the Lord. Richard A. Parker, once the life is a long lesson in humility essay chairman of the department of Egyptology at Brown University, disagreed with Smith’s assessment. He claimed: This is a well-known scene from the Osiris mysteries, with Anubis, the jackal-headed god, on the left ministering to the dead Osiris on the bier. The pencilled(?) restoration is incorrect. Anubis should be jackal-headed. The left arm of Osiris is in reality lying at his side under him.
The apparent upper hand is essay research, part of the wing of a second bird which is hovering over the erect phallus of Osiris (now broken away). The second bird is Isis and she is life long lesson essay, magically impregnated by the dead Osiris and then later gives birth to Horus who avenges his father and takes over his inheritance. The complete bird represents Nephthys, sister to Osiris and Isis. Beneath the bier are the four canopic jars with heads representative of the four sons of Horus, human-headed Imseti, baboon-headed Hapy, jackal-headed Duamutef and falcon-headed Kebehsenuf. (Richard A. Parker, “The Joseph Smith Papyri: A Preliminary Report,” Dialogue 3, no. 2 (summer 1968): 86.) For a comparison of writing, Joseph Smith’s interpretation of typical college entrance essay, Facsimile 1 compared to what it really was, click here. Other problems develop when Facsimile No. 2 is considered. Writing. This circular drawing supposedly verified the LDS teaching that God lives near a planet called Kolob. Resume For College. Smith also claimed it gave reference to “grand Key-words of the Priesthood.” (Explanation of figure seven opposite Facsimile No. Essay Paper Writing. 2.) Key words are an essaywhuman the roots essential part of the essay research writing LDS temple ceremony.
Speaking specifically about typical entrance essay prompts, Facsmilie 2, Dr. Ritner states, Facsimile 2 derives from a separate burial, for an individual named Sheshonq. Large portions of this published “facsimile” were improperly inserted from unrelated papyri. All of Smith’s published “explanations” are incorrect, including the lone example defended by the new web posting. According to Egyptologist Stephen E. Thompson: Facsimile 2 is a drawing of an Egyptian funerary amulet known as a hypocephalus, which was placed under the head of the mummy and was intended to protect the head of the deceased, provide him with the sun’s life-giving warmth, and to paper writing, make it possible for college essay him to join the sun god Re in essay writing, his celestial boat, and thereby insure his continued, pleasant existence in the next life. (Stephen Thompson, “Egyptology and typical essay, the Book of Mormon,” Dialogue 28, no. 1 (spring 1995): 149–50.)
Thompson went on to say: Concerning Joseph Smith’s interpretations of the figures in this facsimile, it has been stated that “his explanations, are, in general, reasonable in light of modern Egyptological knowledge.” A comparison of essay paper, Smith’s interpretations with current Egyptological scholarship shows that this statement is also incorrect. Form. (Ibid., 150.) For a look at the translation of Facsimilie 2 by Smith versus what the paper writing Egyptian really said, click here. And for Facsimile 3, he writes, In Facsimile 3, Smith confuses human and animal heads and males with females. Entrance Essay Prompts. No amount of special pleading can change the female “Isis the great, the essay research paper writing god’s mother” (Facsimile 3, Fig. 2) into the male “King Pharaoh, whose name is given in the characters above his hand,” as even the as a professional LDS author Michael D. Rhodes accepts. Here Smith also misunderstands “Pharaoh” as a personal name rather than a title meaning “king,” so he reads “king king” for a goddess’s name that he claims to have understood on the papyrus!
For a look at essay writing, Facsimile 3, click here. When the manuscript of the Book of typical entrance, Abraham became available in the 1960s, scholars were now able to investigate whether or not Joseph Smith was indeed a prophet inspired by God with the essay ability to translate another language. As it turns out, Smith had no clue about the Egyptian language. Marquardt writes, Joseph Smith’s work on his Book of Abraham Egyptian alphabet, seven years later shows that he could not understand or interpret documents written anciently. From examinations done by Egyptologists, their studies show that Smith had not the slightest idea what the Egyptian characters meant relating to names, places, and subject matter. These manuscript pages clearly show that Joseph Smith pretended to translate Egyptian records. The claim that they had been written by the biblical Abraham is without a solid foundation. The manuscript pages show that Smith used the Bible like he did when he dictated the Book of Mormon text. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 406.) Egyptologists are unanimous that Smith’s “translation” was inaccurate and that his source was, in fact, of pagan origin, having nothing to do with the life is a long lesson essay patriarch Abraham. As Charles Larson explains,
Based on comparisons of the Metropolitan papyri to every available resource, including descriptions contemporary with Joseph Smith of the so-called Abraham and Joseph scrolls, as well as to research paper writing, a number of original translation manuscripts and other notes of the time, the papyrus scroll Joseph Smith represented as containing “the writings of Abraham” was shown to be merely a common pagan funeral papyrus of late date known as the Book of Breathings. European Dissertations. The scroll thought to contain the research “writings of Joseph of Egypt” was also identified as a typical late copy of the Egyptian Book of the Bead, which had been prepared for a woman named Ta-shert-Min. European. Neither scroll ever had anything to do with the biblical patriarchs Abraham or Joseph, except in the mind of Joseph Smith. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 173-74.) He also wrote on page 175: Not a single word, thought, or concept from Joseph Smith’s Book of Abraham, including his explanations of his three facsimiles, is in any way related to the subject matter of the common Egyptian funeral texts from which they were supposedly translated. Dr. Lanny Bell, who teaches Egyptology at Brown University, adds, From the evidence we have today, it’s quite safe to say that Joseph Smith did not have the Book of Abraham or the Book of Joseph in front of him in essay paper, the form of these papyri because they bear no relationship to the context of as a essay, these stories or his translation. Their findings are exactly the same as the research given by Egyptologists going back to the 19 th century, including Dr. A. H. Sayce (Oxford University), Dr.
W.M. Flinders Petrie (London University), Dr. James H. Breasted (University of Chicago), Dr. Arthur C. Mace (Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York), Dr. John Peters (University of Pennsylvania), Dr. Research Paper. Edward Meyer (University of Berlin), Dr. Freidrick Freiheer Von Bissing (University of Munich), and Dr. Samnuel A. B. Mercer (Western Theological Seminary). For College Admission. (For these quotes, see What Every Mormon (and Non-Mormon) Should Know , written by Edmond C. Gruss and Lane A. Thuet, pp. Paper Writing. 162-164.) In fact, we know of no reputable Egyptologist (outside of the LDS Church’s John Gee) who has accepted Smith’s translation.
On many particulars, the book of form for college, Abraham is consistent with historical knowledge about the essay paper writing ancient world. Some of the roots youtube, this knowledge, which is discussed later in essay research paper writing, this essay, had not yet been discovered or was not well known in 1842. But even this evidence of ancient origins, substantial though it may be, cannot prove the truthfulness of the book of Abraham any more than archaeological evidence can prove the exodus of the Israelites from Egypt or the Resurrection of the Son of life is a essay, God. The book of Abraham’s status as scripture ultimately rests on faith in the saving truths found within the research book itself as witnessed by the Holy Ghost. This claim is very similar to one made in a 2000 church manual: The Prophet Joseph Smith never communicated his method of college essay, translating these records. As with all other scriptures, a testimony of the truthfulness of these writing is primarily a matter of faith. The greatest evidence of the truthfulness of the book of research paper writing, Abraham is not found in an analysis of physical evidence nor historical background, but in prayerful consideration of its contents and power. ( The Pearl of Great Price Student Manual – Religion 327 , 2000, p. 28).
Ahh, so here we have it. Apparently a Mormon is encouraged to disregard any evidence that might weigh against the Book of Abraham. Essaywhuman The Roots. Let’s take the examples given in the essay regarding archaeological evidence: Exodus of the Israelites from Egypt: Of course, we have no archaeological evidence from the Exodus, nor would we expect to find anything. After all, the essay research paper people of essaywhuman the roots, Israel were nomads for 40 years and did not build anything. Nothing will ever be found to support this biblical story. It’s interesting that this example is used. New evidence continually comes up in the Holy Land to support the story of the Bible. (For examples of essay paper writing, evidence found in the roots, 2013, see here.) It is possible to visit Jericho, Ai, Caesarea, and research, Bet Shean to get an idea of what took place thousands of college entrance, years ago. Writing. Certainly an element of faith is needed to accept the events and people talked about in the Bible, but the historical/archaeological evidence is a huge support. In fact, there is much more to support the Bible than the dissertations Book of Mormon, for that matter! The Resurrection: Talk about evidence!
According to Paul in research paper writing, the fifteenth chapter of 1 Corinthians: 3 For I delivered unto you first of all that which I also received, how that Christ died for our sins according to friends forever, the scriptures; 4 And that he was buried, and that he rose again the essay research paper writing third day according to the scriptures: 5 And that he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve: 6 After that, he was seen of above five hundred brethren at once; of whom the greater part remain unto this present, but some are fallen asleep. 7 After that, he was seen of in humility essay, James; then of all the essay paper apostles. 8 And last of all he was seen of me also, as of european, one born out of due time. There is good historical evidence for the resurrection.
Of course, it still takes faith. But the leap of faith is a jump into the light, not the darkness. Essay Research Paper Writing. (For a fuller depiction of reasons why a person should believe in the resurrection, click here.) These cases are much different from the faith a person must have to believe in the Book of Abraham, for which the evidence screams “fraud” rather than lending support to its veracity. The Bible is on best friends, very clear that we must “test everything” (1 Thess. 5:21). Indeed, we are supposed to essay research writing, “test the spirits to see if they are true for many false prophets have gone out into the world” (1 John 4:1). Jesus described in the Sermon on form for college admission, the Mount how there are many false prophets masquerading as sheep when they are really ravenous wolves. When the Bereans tested what Paul taught them in essay paper, Acts 17, they were considered nobler than the Thessalonians because they went to scripture to ascertain truth. To suggest, as this essay seems to do, that the facts ought to take a back seat to faith is flawed, no matter how spiritual a Mormon may think it sounds. At this point, I want to bring something up about the is a lesson language. The Jews in those days spoke Hebrew.
There is no evidence a Jew ever wrote using Egyptian hieroglyphics. It would seem that Moses—who authored the Pentateuch—is the more likely candidate to essay research writing, have written in Egyptian since he grew up in the palace of Pharaoh! Of course, Abraham did travel to Egypt, as recorded in essaywhuman the roots, Genesis chapter 12, and even stayed there for a short time. Essay Research Paper Writing. But this was not the the teacher as a essay land of his friends and family. Instead, it was a place where, according to Abraham 1:5, “the worshiping of the paper gods of the heathen” was common. Thus, a Mormon needs to ask why Abraham would have written in resume form admission, a non-native language and style (hieroglyphics) belonging to pagans who worshiped other gods.
It is also curious that, just by chance, these very words of Abraham found their way to Kirtland, Ohio, and into the hands of a man who just so happened had the ability to “translate” them. Yet the research writing English of the Book of Abraham is completely out of context with the Egyptian style. Dr. Ritner explains that the “translation” provided by Smith is just like trying to mix Chinese and Ethiopian: The narrative style of the Book of Abraham does not correspond to Egyptian verbiage. It’s not the kind of thing Egyptians would say, they wouldn’t say it in form, that way, and it certainly would never appear in that way in a context such as this. Paper. It couldn’t possibly be more out of place. ( The Lost Book of Abraham , 40 minutes in)
We’ll consider more details that are detrimental to the Book of essay, Abraham, and when everything is put together, the essay paper writing chances the european Book of Abraham is authentic scripture lands between slim and essay writing, none. The Book of Abraham as Scripture. Thousands of years ago, the professional essay prophet Nephi learned that one purpose of the Book of Mormon was to “establish the writing truth” of the Bible. In a similar way, the book of Abraham supports, expands, and college essay, clarifies the biblical account of Abraham’s life. In the biblical account, God covenants with Abraham to “make of thee a great nation.” The book of essay writing, Abraham provides context for that covenant by showing that Abraham was a seeker of form for college admission, “great knowledge” and research writing, a “follower of righteousness” who chose the right path in spite of great hardship. Typical College Prompts. He rejected the essay research paper wickedness of his father’s household and spurned the idols of the surrounding culture, despite the threat of death. In the Bible, God’s covenant with Abraham appears to begin during Abraham’s life. According to the book of Abraham, the covenant began before the essays foundation of the essay research earth and was passed down through Adam, Noah, and other prophets. Abraham thus takes his place in a long line of prophets and typical college entrance, patriarchs whose mission is to preserve and essay research writing, extend God’s covenant on earth.
The heart of as a, this covenant is the priesthood, through which “the blessings of salvation, even of life eternal” are conveyed. In order to believe that we have new things to learn about Abraham, a person must trust that this book is true. To get to this point, Joseph Smith must be trusted. When we look at the life of the Mormon founder, doubts should be placed in our minds. The book of Abraham clarifies several teachings that are obscure in essay research, the Bible. Life did not begin at birth, as is commonly believed. Prior to friends forever, coming to earth, individuals existed as spirits. In a vision, Abraham saw that one of the spirits was “like unto God.” This divine being, Jesus Christ, led other spirits in essay writing, organizing the earth out of “materials” or preexisting matter, not ex nihilo or out of nothing, as many Christians later came to believe. European. Abraham further learned that mortal life was crucial to the plan of happiness God would provide for His children: “We will prove them herewith,” God stated, “to see if they will do all things whatsoever the Lord their God shall command them,” adding a promise to research writing, add glory forever upon the faithful.
Nowhere in the Bible is the purpose and potential of earth life stated so clearly as in the book of Abraham. A quick scan through the third chapter of the Book of Abraham (where the information from this part of the european essay came) can easily show how Joseph Smith merely took verses from other parts of the Old Testament and restated them here. Writes Marquardt, While dictating the Book of Abraham (what is essay research writing, now chapter 2) Joseph Smith used the KJV Genesis as a guide and friends, text for part of research paper, his story. The actual wording in the story suggests the use of Genesis in composing this work. This would indicate that the wording dictated was basically a copying effort of a preestablished text. At times he revised the KVV text to make it an autobiographical account by Abraham. The wording as printed in the KJV was used as part of the text Abraham supposedly wrote by his own hand. For College Admission. It is clear that Joseph Smith had the Bible open to paper writing, the book of Genesis as he dictated this section of the Book of Abraham. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 402.) If a plagiarist wanted to make his writing sound biblical, what would keep him from copying key phrases and ideas from the book already in his hands?
Consider, for example, the following: 2:11: “And I will bless them that bless thee, and curse them that curse thee.” (Compare Genesis 12:3.) 3:11: “ Thus I, Abraham, talked with the Lord, face to face, as one man talketh with another; and he told me of the works which his hands had made.” Compare with Exodus 33:11 and Numbers 12:8. 3:14: “And it was in the night time when the Lord spake these words unto me: I will multiply thee, and thy seed after thee, like unto these; and if thou canst count the number of life long lesson essay, sands, so shall be the number of research writing, thy seeds.” Compare with Genesis 22:17. 3:23: “And God saw these souls that they were good, and the teacher as a, he stood in the midst of them, and he said: These I will make my rulers; for he stood among those that were spirits, and he saw that they were good; and essay research paper writing, he said unto me: Abraham, thou art one of them; thou wast chosen before thou wast born.” Compare with Jeremiah 1:5. 3:27: “And the Lord said: Whom shall I send? And one answered like unto the Son of Man: Here am I, send me. As A Professional Essay. And another answered and said: Here am I, send me. Research. And the Lord said: I will send the college entrance essay prompts first.” Compare with Isaiah 6:8. But there are other odds parts to the Book of Abraham.
For example, in Abraham 1:10, it reads, “Even the thank-offering of a child did the priest of Pharaoh offer upon essay research the altar which stood by the hill called Potiphar’s Hill, at the head of the plain of Olishem.” (Also see verse 20.) Potiphar was the husband of the woman who made it look like the biblical Joseph had tried to rape her. This event took place several generations after Abraham. Perhaps this hill could have been named after another “Potiphar.” But I have no doubt that Joseph got this name from the Bible. In Abraham 1:16, it reads, “And his voice was unto me: Abraham, Abraham, behold, my name is Jehovah, and essaywhuman youtube, I have heard thee, and essay, have come down to deliver thee, and to european dissertations, take thee away from thy father’s house, and from all thy kinsfolk, into a strange land which thou knowest not of.” And Abraham 2:8 says, “My name is Jehovah, and essay research, I know the end from the beginning; therefore my hand shall be over thee.” It must be understood that Jehovah is an English word. European. It is not found in the Bible, as it is neither Greek or Hebrew.
Rather, the word is a result of combining the Tetragrammaton (YHWH, a word for “God”) with “Adonai,” a Greek word meaning “Lord.” Combining the vowels from the essay research writing Greek and inserting them into college prompts the Hebrew YHWH created “Jehovah.” This was done well after the paper time that both the Bible and the Book of Abraham were originally written. The Mormon must explain how the made-up English word “Jehovah” get into the Egyptian language when it was not even invented until a thousand years after Christ. In 2:16-17, it reads, “Therefore, eternity was our covering and our rock and our salvation, as we journeyed from Haran by the way of Jershon, to come to the land of Canaan. Now I, Abraham, built an altar in the land of Jershon.” However, “Jershon” is a Book of resume form for college, Mormon place name found in Alma 35 and is not mentioned once in essay writing, the Bible. Neither Abraham nor Moses would have had knowledge of New World names. Life Is A In Humility Essay. Is this just another way Smith added words he had already created to show that his new revelation added new details and was somehow necessary as a supplement to Genesis? Abraham 2:22-24 reads: And it came to pass when I was come near to enter into Egypt, the Lord said unto me: Behold, Sarai, thy wife, is a very fair woman to look upon; Therefore it shall come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see her, they will say—She is his wife; and they will kill you, but they will save her alive; therefore see that ye do on this wise: Let her say unto the Egyptians, she is thy sister, and essay, thy soul shall live. According to the Book of Abraham, God told Abraham to lie. If true, this leads to two problems: 1) God is european, culpable of lying because he told someone (Abraham) to do this.
2) This contradicts the research paper writing biblical version which, for whatever reason, leaves this part out completely. Then, referring to the creation of the world in Abraham chapter 4 and 5, Abraham moves to the plural use of “gods” (i.e. “the Gods, organized and formed the heavens and the earth,” “the Spirit of the life long lesson Gods was brooding upon the face of the waters,” “and they (the Gods) comprehended the research light, for it was bright,” “and the Gods called the light Day,” and european, “and the Gods ordered the expanse”), using the plural instead of the essay research singular for the creation of the world. Indeed, the the teacher professional Hebrew “Elohim” is plural, but no reputable translator has ever translated this word as “gods.” When it comes to the last two chapters of the Book of Abraham, nothing is unique. In fact, Abraham 4 and Genesis 1 are parallel. The Creation: Comparing Genesis 1 and Abraham 4.
Abraham 4:1: “And then the Lord said: Let us go down. And they went down at the beginning, and they, that is the Gods, organized and essay research, formed the heavens and the earth.” Genesis 1:1: “In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.” Abraham 4:2: “And the the teacher professional earth, after it was formed, was empty and desolate, because they had not formed anything but the essay earth; and darkness reigned upon the face of the deep, and the roots, the Spirit of the research paper writing Gods was brooding upon the face of the waters. Genesis 1:2: “And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters.”
Abraham 4:3: “And they (the Gods) said: Let there be light; and there was light.” Genesis 1:3: “And God said, Let there be light: and there was light.” Abraham 4:4: “And they (the Gods) comprehended the light, for it was bright; and they divided the light, or caused it to be divided, from the darkness.” Genesis 1:4: “ And God saw the light, that it was good: and essay, God divided the light from the darkness.” Abraham 4:5: “And the Gods called the light Day, and the darkness they called Night.
And it came to pass that from the evening until morning they called night; and from the morning until the evening they called day; and this was the first, or the beginning, of that which they called day and essay paper, night.” Genesis 1:5: “ And God called the light Day, and the darkness he called Night. And the evening and the morning were the first day.” Abraham 4:6: “And the Gods also said: Let there be an expanse in the midst of the waters, and resume form for college admission, it shall divide the waters from the waters.” Genesis 1:6: “And God said, Let there be a firmament in the midst of the waters, and let it divide the waters from the waters.” Abraham 4:7: “And the Gods ordered the expanse, so that it divided the waters which were under the expanse from the waters which were above the expanse; and it was so, even as they ordered.” Genesis 1:7: “ And God made the essay firmament, and divided the waters which were under the firmament from the waters which were above the firmament: and it was so.”
Abraham 4:8 “And the Gods called the life lesson in humility expanse, Heaven. And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning that they called night; and essay research, it came to european dissertations, pass that it was from morning until evening that they called day; and writing, this was the second time that they called night and resume admission, day.” Genesis 1:8: “And God called the firmament Heaven. And the evening and the morning were the second day.” Abraham 4:9: “And the Gods ordered, saying: Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the earth come up dry; and it was so as they ordered; Genesis 1:9: “And God said, Let the waters under the heaven be gathered together unto one place, and let the dry land appear: and it was so.” Abraham 4:10: “And the Gods pronounced the dry land, Earth; and the gathering together of the waters, pronounced they, Great Waters; and the Gods saw that they were obeyed.” Genesis 1:10: “And God called the dry land Earth; and the gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.”
Abraham 4:11: “And the Gods said: Let us prepare the earth to bring forth grass; the herb yielding seed; the fruit tree yielding fruit, after his kind, whose seed in itself yieldeth its own likeness upon essay research the earth; and it was so, even as they ordered.” Genesis 1:11: “And God said, Let the earth bring forth grass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit tree yielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in itself, upon the earth: and it was so.” Abraham 4:12: “And the Gods organized the earth to bring forth grass from its own seed, and the herb to bring forth herb from its own seed, yielding seed after his kind; and the earth to bring forth the tree from its own seed, yielding fruit, whose seed could only bring forth the same in itself, after his kind; and the Gods saw that they were obeyed.” Genesis 1:12: “And the earth brought forth grass, and herb yielding seed after his kind, and the tree yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:13: “And it came to pass that they numbered the days; from the evening until the morning they called night; and it came to pass, from the morning until the evening they called day; and it was the third time.” Genesis 1:13: “And the evening and the morning were the third day. Abraham 4:14: “And the Gods organized the lights in the expanse of the heaven, and caused them to divide the resume for college day from the night; and organized them to be for signs and for seasons, and for days and for years;” Genesis 1:14: “And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for essay paper writing seasons, and for days, and years.” Abraham 4:15: “And organized them to be for lights in the teacher, the expanse of the heaven to give light upon the earth; and it was so.” Genesis 1:15: “And let them be for lights in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth: and it was so.” Abraham 4:16: “And the Gods organized the two great lights, the essay greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; with the the teacher as a professional essay lesser light they set the stars also;”
Genesis 1:16: “And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the essay paper day, and the lesser light to european dissertations, rule the night: he made the stars also.” Abraham 4:17-18: “And the Gods set them in the expanse of the heavens, to give light upon the earth, and to essay research paper, rule over the day and over the night, and to cause to divide the light from the darkness. And the Gods watched those things which they had ordered until they obeyed.” Genesis 1:17-18: “And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the entrance essay light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:19: “And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning that it was night; and it came to pass that it was from morning until evening that it was day; and it was the fourth time.” Genesis 1:19: “And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.” Abraham 4:20: “And the Gods said: Let us prepare the waters to research, bring forth abundantly the moving creatures that have life; and youtube, the fowl, that they may fly above the earth in the open expanse of heaven.” Genesis 1:20: “And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the research earth in european dissertations, the open firmament of essay research paper writing, heaven.” Abraham 4:21: “And the european dissertations Gods prepared the paper waters that they might bring forth great whales, and dissertations, every living creature that moveth, which the waters were to bring forth abundantly after their kind; and every winged fowl after their kind.
And the Gods saw that they would be obeyed, and that their plan was good.” Genesis 1:21: “And God created great whales, and essay paper, every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind: and form admission, God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:22: “And the research Gods said: We will bless them, and cause them to life is a long lesson in humility, be fruitful and multiply, and fill the waters in essay research, the seas or great waters; and cause the form admission fowl to multiply in the earth.” Genesis 1:22: “And God blessed them, saying, Be fruitful, and multiply, and fill the paper waters in the seas, and let fowl multiply in the earth.” Abraham 4:23: “And it came to pass that it was from evening until morning that they called night; and essaywhuman the roots youtube, it came to pass that it was from morning until evening that they called day; and it was the fifth time.” Genesis 1:23: “And the paper writing evening and the morning were the fifth day.” Abraham 4:24: “And the Gods prepared the earth to bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle and creeping things, and is a in humility, beasts of the research paper writing earth after their kind; and it was so, as they had said.”
Genesis 1:24: “And God said, Let the earth bring forth the living creature after his kind, cattle, and creeping thing, and resume, beast of the earth after his kind: and it was so.” Abraham 4:25: “And the Gods organized the earth to bring forth the beasts after their kind, and cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after its kind; and the Gods saw they would obey.” Genesis 1:25: “And God made the beast of the earth after his kind, and essay, cattle after their kind, and every thing that creepeth upon the earth after his kind: and life long lesson essay, God saw that it was good.” Abraham 4:26-27: “And the Gods took counsel among themselves and said: Let us go down and form man in our image, after our likeness; and we will give them dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the essay paper writing earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So the Gods went down to organize man in their own image, in the image of the professional essay Gods to form they him, male and female to form they them.” Genesis 1:26-27: “And God said, Let us make man in our image, after our likeness: and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over paper writing all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth. So God created man in essays on best friends, his own image, in the image of essay research writing, God created he him; male and resume form admission, female created he them.”
Abraham 4:28: “And the Gods said: We will bless them. And the Gods said: We will cause them to be fruitful and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it, and to have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the research air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.” Genesis 1:28: “And God blessed them, and essays on best friends forever, God said unto them, Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it: and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that moveth upon the earth.” Abraham 1:29: “And the Gods said: Behold, we will give them every herb bearing seed that shall come upon the face of all the earth, and every tree which shall have fruit upon it; yea, the fruit of the tree yielding seed to them we will give it; it shall be for their meat.” Genesis 1:29: “And God said, Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed, which is upon the face of all the earth, and every tree, in essay research paper, the which is the fruit of a tree yielding seed; to you it shall be for meat.” Abraham 4:30: “And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, behold, we will give them life, and also we will give to essay prompts, them every green herb for meat, and all these things shall be thus organized.”
Genesis 1:30: “And to every beast of the earth, and to every fowl of the air, and to every thing that creepeth upon the earth, wherein there is life, I have given every green herb for meat: and it was so.” Abraham 4:31: “And the Gods said: We will do everything that we have said, and organize them; and essay research paper writing, behold, they shall be very obedient. Dissertations. And it came to pass that it was from essay writing, evening until morning they called night; and it came to european, pass that it was from essay paper, morning until evening that they called day; and they numbered the sixth time.” Genesis 1:31: “And God saw every thing that he had made, and, behold, it was very good. And the evening and the morning were the the teacher as a professional sixth day.” While it’s not “word for word,” Abraham chapter 4 directly correlates with Genesis 1. A coincidence? Obviously not. Smith was intent on changing the singular God with the plural “Gods.” And at essay research writing, the end of each of the days, he used the same formula. Life Is A Essay. Yet Joseph Smith had a chance to change Genesis 1 in his Joseph Smith Translation of the Bible.
However, even though he “translated” this chapter just a couple years before, he did not use “gods” for “God.” In a single stroke, Smith uses the Book of Abraham to contradict both the Bible and, for that matter, the Book of essay paper writing, Mormon (which Smith called “the most correct book on earth”). This change goes against the very teaching of the Pentateuch, as its cornerstone is Deuteronomy 6:4. Called the Shemah, the most important verse in Jewish history clearly states, “Hear O Israel, the youtube Lord thy God, the Lord is one.” Jesus quoted this in research, Mark 12:29. Literally, it says that God is one essence; there can be no plurality of gods. To believe this is to acquiesce to the pagan gods of the surrounding nations. Throughout the Bible, God is quite adamant that there are “no” gods before or after me” (singular) in Isaiah 43:10, and in Isaiah 44:6-8, God claims to know of no other gods. Consider Genesis 1:26-27 in relation to Abraham 4:26-27. Bill McKeever explains. how a Mormon must demonstrate that the preincarnate Jehovah had a body of flesh and bones at the time the conversation in Genesis 1:26, 27 took place.
Tenth LDS President Joseph Fielding Smith admitted that Jesus “did not always have a tangible body” ( Doctrines of Salvation , 1:11). A statement issued in 1916 by resume the First Presidency and Council of the Twelve made it clear that, during the preexistence, Christ did not have a tangible body. “In all His dealings with the human family Jesus the Son has represented and yet represents Elohim His Father in power and authority. This is true of Christ in His preexistent, antemortal, or unembodied state, in the which He was known as Jehovah.” ( Messages of the paper writing First Presidency 5:31, 32. Also cited in the Encyclopedia of Mormonism 4:720, emphasis mine.) Speaking in conference in April 1921, Charles W. Penrose noted, “The Holy Ghost is a personage of spirit, as Jesus Christ was when he was Jehovah. He was Jehovah from the beginning of the world, according to the history we have in the Old Testament scriptures. He was a personage of spirit, and he came here to the earth that he might be exactly like his brethren and like his Father, and have a body made out of the lower elements of the universe.” ( Conference Report , p.12, emphasis mine). In making a similar distinction between the personages of the the teacher as a professional essay LDS godhead, Mormon Apostle Bruce McConkie wrote, “The Holy Ghost has not a body of flesh and bones,’ however, ‘but is essay research paper, a personage of on best friends, Spirit.’ (DC 130:22.) He is thus a spirit man, a spirit person, a spirit entity. He lives and moves and has his being separate and apart from his fellow Gods.
His spirit body is in all respects comparable to the kind of a body that the Lord Jehovah possessed before that beloved and essay, chosen one made flesh his tabernacle by the teacher as a professional the process of mortal birth.” ( A New Witness for the Articles of Faith , pp.253, 254, emphasis mine.) Notice that these LDS leaders concede that prior to His mortal birth, Jesus was “unembodied” and a “personage of spirit.” This is the key to discovering the error so many Mormons make when it comes to the Genesis passages. According to LDS teaching, Jehovah, the preincarnate Jesus, did not have a body until he became flesh “by the process of mortal birth.” That being so, it is wrong for Mormons to assume that the words “image” and “likeness” refer to flesh and bones since the essay writing Mormon “Jehovah” (and Mormon “Holy Ghost”) had no such image or likeness when the conversation in Genesis 1:26 took place. The Creation: Comparing Genesis 2 with Abraham 5. In the final chapter of the Book of Abraham, an even closer copying of Genesis is made. Consider a verse-by-verse comparison:
Abraham 5:1: “And thus we will finish the heavens and the earth, and all the hosts of them.” Genesis 2:1: “Thus the heavens and the earth were finished, and all the life long lesson in humility host of them.” Abraham 5:2: “And the Gods said among themselves: On the writing seventh time we will end our work, which we have counseled; and as a professional essay, we will rest on the seventh time from all our work which we have counseled.” Genesis 2:2: “And on the seventh day God ended his work which he had made; and he rested on the seventh day from all his work which he had made.” Abraham 5:3: “And the Gods concluded upon the seventh time, because that on the seventh time they would rest from all their works which they (the Gods) counseled among themselves to form; and sanctified it. And thus were their decisions at research writing, the time that they counseled among themselves to form the heavens and the earth.” Genesis 2:3: “And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it: because that in resume form admission, it he had rested from all his work which God created and made.” Abraham 5:4 And the writing Gods came down and essays friends, formed these the generations of the heavens and of the earth, when they were formed in the day that the Gods formed the earth and the heavens, Genesis 2:4: “These are the generations of the heavens and of the earth when they were created, in the day that the research Lord God made the earth and the heavens,” Abraham 5:5: “According to dissertations, all that which they had said concerning every plant of the field before it was in the earth, and paper, every herb of the field before it grew; for the Gods had not caused it to rain upon the earth when they counseled to do them, and had not formed a man to till the ground.”
Genesis 2:5: “And every plant of the resume for college field before it was in the earth, and essay research, every herb of the field before it grew: for the Lord God had not caused it to rain upon european the earth, and essay research writing, there was not a man to till the ground.” Abraham 5:6: “But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the ground.” Genesis 2:6: “But there went up a mist from the earth, and watered the whole face of the forever ground.” Abraham 5:7: “And the essay research writing Gods formed man from the dust of the ground, and took his spirit (that is, the professional essay man’s spirit), and put it into him; and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life, and man became a living soul.” Genesis 2:7: “And the essay research Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.” Abraham 5:8: “And the form for college admission Gods planted a garden, eastward in Eden, and there they put the man, whose spirit they had put into the body which they had formed.” Genesis 2:8: “And the research paper writing Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and there he put the essaywhuman the roots man whom he had formed.” Abraham 5:8: “And the Gods planted a garden, eastward in Eden, and research writing, there they put the man, whose spirit they had put into resume for college admission the body which they had formed. Genesis 2:8: “And the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden; and essay research paper, there he put the man whom he had formed.” Abraham 5:9: “And out of the dissertations ground made the Gods to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food; the tree of life, also, in the midst of the garden, and the tree of research, knowledge of good and evil.” Genesis 2:9: “And out of the ground made the Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of european, life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of knowledge of good and evil.”
Abraham 5:10: There was a river running out of Eden, to water the garden, and from thence it was parted and became into four heads. Genesis 2:10: “And a river went out of paper, Eden to water the garden; and from thence it was parted, and became into four heads.” Abraham 5:11: “And the Gods took the man and professional essay, put him in the Garden of Eden, to dress it and to keep it.” Genesis 2:15: “And the Lord God took the man, and put him into essay paper the garden of Eden to dress it and to keep it.” Abraham 5:12-13: “And the Gods commanded the is a long in humility essay man, saying: Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat, But of the tree of knowledge of writing, good and evil, thou shalt not eat of friends forever, it; for in the time that thou eatest thereof, thou shalt surely die.
Now I, Abraham, saw that it was after the Lord’s time, which was after the time of Kolob; for as yet the Gods had not appointed unto Adam his reckoning.” Genesis 2:16-17: “And the Lord God commanded the man, saying, Of every tree of the garden thou mayest freely eat: But of the tree of the knowledge of essay research paper writing, good and evil, thou shalt not eat of european dissertations, it: for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.” Abraham 5:14: “And the Gods said: Let us make an help meet for the man, for it is not good that the man should be alone, therefore we will form an help meet for him.” Genesis 2:18: “And the Lord God said, It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him an help meet for him.” Abraham 5:15: “And the Gods caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam; and he slept, and they took one of essay research, his ribs, and closed up the dissertations flesh in the stead thereof;” Genesis 2:21: “And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof;”
Abraham 5:16: “And of the rib which the Gods had taken from man, formed they a woman, and brought her unto the man.” Genesis 2:22: “And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man.” Abraham 5:17-18: “And Adam said: This was bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh; now she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of man; Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. Genesis 2:23-24: “And Adam said, This is now bone of research, my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man. Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.” Abraham 5:19: “And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.” Genesis 2:25: “And they were both naked, the man and his wife, and were not ashamed.” Abraham 5:20: “And out essaywhuman the roots youtube, of the ground the Gods formed every beast of the field, and essay research, every fowl of the air, and brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them; and resume form, whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that should be the name thereof.” Genesis 2:19: “And out of the ground the Lord God formed every beast of the field, and every fowl of the air; and research paper writing, brought them unto Adam to see what he would call them: and whatsoever Adam called every living creature, that was the name thereof.” Abraham 5:21: “And Adam gave names to all cattle, to the fowl of the air, to every beast of the field; and for Adam, there was found an helpmeet for him.” Genesis 2:20: “And Adam gave names to european dissertations, all cattle, and to the fowl of the air, and to every beast of the field; but for Adam there was not found an help meet for him.”
Considering the parallels between Abraham chapters 3 and 4 and Genesis 1 and 2, it is obvious that Joseph Smith had his King James Version of the Bible open when making his “translation” of the Book of Abraham. The structure is clearly the same, while the main change involves changing the singular “God” into a plurality of gods. Too many questions remain unanswered: If the book of essay research, Genesis was really written in resume form for college admission, Hebrew and essay research writing, the Book of Abraham in Egyptian, how could the “translations” be so alike? Why do no competent scholars translate the Hebrew “Elohim” into the plural “gods”? If the entire text became corrupted, when did it become corrupted? (Note: The Dead Sea Scrolls fragments of the teacher as a professional, Genesis are very close to the Masoretic text (AD 900) and do not lend itself to being translated “gods”) Why does the Book of essay paper writing, Mormon—called by Joseph Smith as “the most correct book on life long lesson essay, earth”—not correspond with such a translation? Because there are so many similarities, “plagiarism” screams out and essay paper, takes ownership of essaywhuman the roots, this situation. Origin of the Book of Abraham.
The powerful truths found in paper writing, the book of Abraham emerged from a set of unique historical events. In the summer of 1835, an entrepreneur named Michael Chandler arrived at Church headquarters in Kirtland, Ohio, with four mummies and as a professional essay, multiple scrolls of papyrus. Chandler found a ready audience. Due partly to the exploits of the French emperor Napoleon, the antiquities unearthed in essay writing, the catacombs of Egypt had created a fascination across the Western world. European. Chandler capitalized on this interest by essay research touring with ancient Egyptian artifacts and charging visitors a fee to see them. These artifacts had been uncovered by Antonio Lebolo, a former cavalryman in the Italian army.
Lebolo, who oversaw some of the excavations for the consul general of France, pulled 11 mummies from european, a tomb not far from the ancient city of Thebes. Lebolo shipped the artifacts to Italy, and after his death, they ended up in New York. At some point the essay research mummies and scrolls came into Chandler’s possession. By the time the collection arrived in essays on best friends, Kirtland, all but four mummies and several papyrus scrolls had already been sold. A group of Latter-day Saints in Kirtland purchased the remaining artifacts for the Church. After Joseph Smith examined the papyri and commenced “the translation of some of the characters or hieroglyphics,” his history recounts, “much to essay research writing, our joy [we] found that one of the rolls contained the form writings of Abraham.” Translation and the Book of Abraham. Joseph Smith worked on the translation of the book of Abraham during the summer and paper writing, fall of 1835, by is a long lesson in humility essay which time he completed at least the first chapter and essay paper, part of the second chapter. His journal next speaks of translating the papyri in the spring of 1842, after the Saints had relocated to Nauvoo, Illinois. All five chapters of the book of Abraham, along with three illustrations (now known as facsimiles 1, 2, and 3), were published in the Times and Seasons, the Church’s newspaper in Nauvoo, between March and May 1842.
The book of Abraham was the professional last of Joseph Smith’s translation efforts. In these inspired translations, Joseph Smith did not claim to know the ancient languages of the records he was translating. Much like the Book of Mormon, Joseph’s translation of the book of Abraham was recorded in the language of the King James Bible. This was the paper idiom of scripture familiar to early Latter-day Saints, and its use was consistent with the Lord’s pattern of revealing His truths “after the essays on best forever manner of their [His servants’] language, that they might come to understanding.” A person could make a translation similar to the King James Version of the Bible, but this wouldn’t mean that the words would be (for the most part) word for essay research word from the translation originally done in 1611. The point made in essays, the following manual ought to be considered, as the paper LDS teacher is being instructed how to teach the difficulty of “translating” from essays on best, one language into another: Write a simple sentence on essay research paper writing, the board and admission, ask for a volunteer to translate it into any foreign language.
Then ask for a volunteer to translate a more difficult sentence (such as Abraham 1:2). Research. Discuss some of the challenges involved in translating writings from one language to another. Professional Essay. Invite students to look at Abraham Facsimile 1 and ‘translate’ it into a story line, without looking at the explanation below it. ( The Pearl of Great Price Teacher Manual Religion 327 , p. 35). This is exactly right. So here we have two resources: the Bible (Genesis) and the Pearl of Great Price (the Book of Abraham). When we compare one translation (from Hebrew to English = Genesis) with another translation (from Egyptian to research paper, English = Abraham), we can see that there is much similarity with Abraham 4-5 and Genesis 1-2. For the most part, we can even safely say they use the same words and is, in the roots, many parts, written down word for word. The main difference is Smith uses the essay writing plural “gods” for life is a lesson in humility God, but otherwise everything else is the same. How can this be if there are many possible translations from one language to another? Even if the two unique languages (Egyptian and Hebrew) were closely aligned in essay research paper, structure, the odds of essaywhuman the roots, having such similar translations are infinitesimally impossible.
Just as we can see in the Book of Mormon’s recitation of the King James Version of the Bible, the word-for-word copying is obvious. Paper Writing. There is no coincidence if plagiarism is involved. Joseph’s translations took a variety of forms. Some of his translations, like that of the Book of Mormon, utilized ancient documents in his possession. Other times, his translations were not based on any known physical records. Joseph’s translation of portions of the is a long essay Bible, for example, included restoration of original text, harmonization of contradictions within the essay Bible itself, and inspired commentary.
Some Mormons want to european, distance themselves from essay paper writing, a literal symbol-by-symbol “translation” of the Book of european, Abraham. For example, in 1992, two LDS scholars wrote, “Speculation nevertheless persisted as to the process Joseph may have used in translating the book, including the possibility that even if the papyri were not contemporary with Abraham they contained material that, under inspiration, turned Joseph’s mind back to ancient Egypt and opened it to direct revelation on paper, the experiences of Abraham. In that case, he may have received these ideas in life is a lesson essay, much the same way he did those of the inspired revision of the Bible. In that instance, acting without original documents, the essay paper writing Prophet’s only the roots youtube, claim was that by divine inspiration he was able to replace incorrect with correct ideas and restore the original biblical meaning” (James B. Allen and Glen M. Leonard, The Story of the Latter-day Saints , 1992, p. 77). Hold on a second. The preface to the Book of Abraham reads, A translation of some ancient records, that have fallen into our hands—The writings of essay research paper, Abraham while he was in Egypt, called the Book of Abraham, written by his own hand, upon papyrus. See History of the Church 2:235, 236, 348-35.
Charles Larson makes a good point when he says, All of these records show that he [Smith] intended the resume for college text of the Book of Abraham to essay writing, be regarded as nothing less than a direct, literal translation , which he had taken from Abraham’s own papyrus record . . Friends. . .while Joseph Smith presented himself as able to essay, translate and essaywhuman youtube, understand ancient languages, and specifically, while he claimed to have produced the Book of Abraham by translating the ancient Egyptian text from essay research, one of his papyrus scrolls, we now know that the Joseph Smith papyri are in fact pagan Egyptian documents unrelated to the biblical Abraham. Furthermore, if, as the 1992 Encyclopedia of Mormonism maintains, Joseph Smith received the Book of Abraham by life essay revelation, not translation, why did he and his followers pay the enormous sum of $2400—over $28,000 in 1992 U.S. dollars—for pagan Egyptian papyri that have nothing to do with the essay research paper writing biblical Abraham? ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 95) When the word “translation” is used, it infers that it came directly from the original source. If this is the roots youtube, not the paper writing case, then why did the papyrus need to be found in essays friends forever, the first place? If Smith could create the essay research proper translation without the the teacher as a professional essay actual papyrus (or, for research paper that matter, the gold plates for the Book of Mormon), it seems as if the actual sources just don’t matter. Some evidence suggests that Joseph studied the characters on the Egyptian papyri and attempted to learn the Egyptian language. His history reports that, in July 1835, he was “continually engaged in essaywhuman the roots youtube, translating an alphabet to the Book of Abraham, and arranging a grammar of the Egyptian language as practiced by the ancients.” This “grammar,” as it was called, consisted of columns of hieroglyphic characters followed by English translations recorded in a large notebook by Joseph’s scribe, William W. Phelps. Another manuscript, written by Joseph Smith and Oliver Cowdery, has Egyptian characters followed by explanations. The relationship of essay writing, these documents to the book of long in humility, Abraham is not fully understood. Essay Research Paper Writing. Neither the rules nor the translations in the grammar book correspond to dissertations, those recognized by Egyptologists today.
Whatever the role of the grammar book, it appears that Joseph Smith began translating portions of the book of Abraham almost immediately after the purchase of the papyri. Phelps apparently viewed Joseph Smith as uniquely capable of understanding the Egyptian characters: “As no one could translate these writings,” he told his wife, “they were presented to President Smith. He soon knew what they were.” Notice what is said: “Neither the rules nor the translations in the grammar book correspond to those recognized by Egyptologists today.” Perhaps the writer(s) of the Gospel Topics essay could have been more clear and stated, “Egyptologists are clueless how Joseph Smith thinks that he actually translated the Book of Abraham from the papyrus he had in front of essay writing, him.” With a wave of the typical college prompts hand, the writer continues, “Whatever the role of the grammar book…” In essence, the grammar book doesn’t play any role because it was filled with gibberish that nobody in research, the 1830s could have understood. After all, Egyptology was a new science that didn’t begin until Napoleon’s troops discovered the dissertations Rosetta Stone in 1799.
Dr. Ritner explains what he calls the “smoking gun” courtesy of Jerald and Sandra Tanner of the Utah Lighthouse Ministry: Again in contrast to the new LDS statement, it is not true that “no eyewitness account of the translation survives.” Smith’s secretary Warren Parrish wrote in essay research paper writing, an 1838 letter in the Painesville Republican: “I have set (sic) by his side and penned down the Egyptian hieroglyphicks (sic) as he claimed to receive it by direct inspiration from dissertations, heaven.” Smith’s “divine inspiration” was not, however, divorced from a direct attempt to translate the characters of the Egyptian papyrus, as is clear from surviving manuscript pages of the evolving text of the Book of Abraham. These pages, unmentioned in the new LDS church posting, were published in 1966 in microfilm reproductions and in transcription by Jerald Tanner as Joseph Smith’s Egyptian Alphabet and Grammar, Salt Lake City, Utah Lighthouse Ministry. These microfilm pages are the “smoking gun” evidence that resolves the history of the Book of Abraham translation process. In his introduction to essay research, the volume, Jerald Tanner records that his Modern Microfilm Co. was contacted “in the early part of college essay prompts, 1965” by a student at the Brigham Young University who had a typed copy of the “Egyptian Alphabet” hand copies, and that “later in the year another man loaned us a microfilm of the original document.” The microfilm reproductions found in the Tanner volume were printed from masters produced “in the early part of 1966,” the same year that the Tanner volume was published. The dates of 1965-1966 are significant, because the essay research paper microfilm edition contains not only the “Egyptian Alphabet,” but the evolving manuscript pages for the future Book of form for college, Abraham as well. These pages contain copies of specific Egyptian text from the “Breathing Permit of Hor,” column 2. That section of the papyrus was not reproduced in the Book of research paper writing, Abraham or any other publication until the is a long lesson in humility rediscovery of the Smith papyri in New York in 1967 and the publication of essay, sepia photographs in The Improvement Era in January and February of 1968. The copies made in 1965 and 1966, and dissertations, the 1966 publication by Tanner, cannot then be forgeries since no forger could have had the research writing unknown papyrus as a model to copy. The equation of the Book of typical college essay prompts, Abraham and the “Breathing Permit of Hor” is thus undeniable, and the source of Smith’s nineteenth century composition is settled. Period.
The Tanner volume that first published these manuscripts is cumbersome to use as it lacks running pagination, but relevant manuscript pages are lettered J through M, with a second series labeled out of order S, R, Q, N, P and O. Essay Paper Writing. Exactly like the “Alphabet and long in humility, Grammar,” the research writing pages include copies of Egyptian script on the left corresponding to lengthy English on the right. But in these texts, the English is the text of the Book of Abraham as it was being modified and would be published, with obvious deletions and revisions in the handwritten English text. Also unlike the “Alphabet and essays on best, Grammar” hand copies, the Egyptian script on most of these sheets is immediately clear and readily translated by modern Egyptologists. Without question, the translation efforts by essay research writing Smith and his “scribes” were based directly on form for college, Smith’s Egyptian papyri. After the Latter-day Saints left Nauvoo, the Egyptian artifacts remained behind. Essay Research. Joseph Smith’s family sold the papyri and the mummies in 1856. The papyri were divided up and sold to life is a long essay, various parties; historians believe that most were destroyed in the Great Chicago Fire of 1871.
Ten papyrus fragments once in Joseph Smith’s possession ended up in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. In 1967, the museum transferred these fragments to the Church, which subsequently published them in essay research, the Church’s magazine, the Improvement Era. The discovery of the papyrus fragments renewed debate about Joseph Smith’s translation. The fragments included one vignette, or illustration, that appears in the book of Abraham as facsimile 1. European Dissertations. Long before the fragments were published by the Church, some Egyptologists had said that Joseph Smith’s explanations of the various elements of these facsimiles did not match their own interpretations of these drawings. Joseph Smith had published the facsimiles as freestanding drawings, cut off from the hieroglyphs or hieratic characters that originally surrounded the vignettes. The discovery of the essay research paper writing fragments meant that readers could now see the european dissertations hieroglyphs and characters immediately surrounding the vignette that became facsimile.
None of the characters on the papyrus fragments mentioned Abraham’s name or any of the events recorded in the book of Abraham. Mormon and non-Mormon Egyptologists agree that the characters on the fragments do not match the research translation given in the book of Abraham, though there is not unanimity, even among non-Mormon scholars, about the proper interpretation of the vignettes on these fragments. Scholars have identified the papyrus fragments as parts of typical college, standard funerary texts that were deposited with mummified bodies. These fragments date to between the writing third century B.C.E. and college entrance essay prompts, the first century C.E., long after Abraham lived. Notice the admission: both “Mormon and non-Mormon Egyptologists agree that the characters on the fragments do not match the translation given in the book of Abraham.” This is quite an admission, saying that Joseph Smith did not a) know Egyptian grammar; b) accurately translate the papyrus. Of course, the fragments do not have to be as old as Abraham for the book of research paper writing, Abraham and its illustrations to be authentic. Ancient records are often transmitted as copies or as copies of copies. The record of life is a long, Abraham could have been edited or redacted by later writers much as the Book of essay paper, Mormon prophet-historians Mormon and Moroni revised the resume form for college admission writings of earlier peoples. Moreover, documents initially composed for one context can be repackaged for research paper writing another context or purpose.
Illustrations once connected with Abraham could have either drifted or been dislodged from their original context and reinterpreted hundreds of years later in terms of burial practices in a later period of admission, Egyptian history. The opposite could also be true: illustrations with no clear connection to essay paper writing, Abraham anciently could, by european dissertations revelation, shed light on the life and teachings of this prophetic figure. Some have assumed that the hieroglyphs adjacent to and surrounding facsimile 1 must be a source for the text of the book of Abraham. But this claim rests on essay research, the assumption that a vignette and the teacher essay, its adjacent text must be associated in meaning. In fact, it was not uncommon for ancient Egyptian vignettes to be placed some distance from their associated commentary.
Neither the research paper Lord nor Joseph Smith explained the process of translation of the book of Abraham, but some insight can be gained from the Lord’s instructions to Joseph regarding translation. In April 1829, Joseph received a revelation for Oliver Cowdery that taught that both intellectual work and as a essay, revelation were essential to paper writing, translating sacred records. It was necessary to “study it out in your mind” and then seek spiritual confirmation. Records indicate that Joseph and others studied the papyri and as a, that close observers also believed that the translation came by research paper revelation. For College Admission. As John Whitmer observed, “Joseph the Seer saw these Record[s] and by essay research the revelation of Jesus Christ could translate these records.” Once more, a person’s blind faith is requested. Unfortunately, as the church itself admits, “There are no official Church explanations for the Abraham facsimiles besides the Prophet Joseph Smith’s explanations that accompany them.” ( The Pearl of Great Price Teacher Manual: Religion 327 , 35.) Knowing if it is a book really written by Abraham requires great faith, as a church history manual says that, “like the Book of Mormon, the book of Abraham is its own evidence that it came about through the gift and power of God.” ( Church History in the Fulness of Time Student Manual Religion 341 -343, 258.) The Mormon is instructed to believe the prophet because he says he’s a prophet who 1) saw God; 2) was given the Book of Mormon and Book of Abraham and “translated” these; and 3) received direct revelation from God (DC). The Bible never requires that we have blind faith.
We have evidence to make a wise decision—such as the bodily resurrection (1 Corinthians 15). To believe someone is a prophet who “translated” funeral papyri as originating from the “hand of college prompts, Abraham”—all because we “study it out” in our minds and seek spiritual confirmation—is foolish. Could Smith be a wolf in sheep’s clothing, as Jesus warned in the Sermon on the Mount? It is likely futile to assess Joseph’s ability to translate papyri when we now have only a fraction of the papyri he had in his possession. Eyewitnesses spoke of “a long roll” or multiple “rolls” of papyrus. Since only fragments survive, it is likely that much of the papyri accessible to Joseph when he translated the book of Abraham is essay, not among these fragments. The loss of a significant portion of the papyri means the relationship of the papyri to the published text cannot be settled conclusively by reference to the papyri.
This same claim has been made by LDS apologists, an apparent attempt to somehow get the readers to think that, maybe somehow, the crux of the manuscripts are somewhere around. Thus, Mormons wonder if there could have been more that wasn’t found. Was the papyri found in 1967 in the roots, a New York museum the same papyri that Smith had in his possession? BYU professor Daniel Peterson wrote: Critics have long attempted to make a case against the Book of Abraham. They argue that some ancient texts do not support the book. They point to research writing, the fragments of the Joseph Smith papyri that we now possess and claim that since the european contents of these papyri bear little obvious relationship to the book of essay research paper writing, Abraham, the book is long lesson in humility, a fraud; but Hugh Nibley has made an exhaustive study of paper, these claims and has shown that the papyri we now have were probably not the as a professional essay ones from which Joseph Smith translated the book of Abraham. ( Ensign, January 1994): 20.)
Christian researcher Charles Larson challenges this claim: And there could be no question that the Metropolitan papyri were indeed none other than the ones which Joseph Smith had once purchased and used. The reverse sides of the paper to which they were glued contained such things as architectural drawings of a temple and maps of the Kirtland, Ohio area. (Charles M. Larson, By His Own Hand upon Papyrus (Grand Rapids, MI: Institute for Religious Research, 1992), 36. Could there have been more papyri? In his book Shaken Faith Syndrome , Michael R. Paper. Ash writes, It is typical entrance essay prompts, vital to understand that we do not have all the essay research writing papyri that Joseph Smith had when he translated the Book of Abraham. Long In Humility. Some of the papyri were burned in the Chicago fire and it’s possible that other fragments were lost or destroyed elsewhere. Yale-trained Eypgtologist, Dr.
John Gee, believes that Joseph Smith originally had five papyrus scrolls–one of which was the hydrocephalus. Of these five scrolls, only eleven fragments of two scrolls are extant. (p. 115) Do they really think that more documents (conveniently destroyed, no less) will help their case? And if the other parts of the essay research paper writing papyrus were somehow destroyed in a fire or lost, why did these survive? Even though it’s extremely unlikely that they are right, it ought to be pointed that what we do have proves Smith to be a fraud. Consider Abraham 1:12, which reads, And it came to pass that the priests laid violence upon me, that they might slay me also, as they did those virgins upon is a long lesson in humility this altar; and that you may have a knowledge of writing, this altar, I will refer you to the representation at the commencement of this record. The figures as depicted in every Book of Abraham has this “representation,” and Egyptologists say it’s not even close to what Smith claimed them to be! Referring to this passage from the LDS scripture, Ritner writes,
In addition, Facsimile 1 is specifically referenced in the text of the typical entrance essay Book of Abraham (1:12): “that you may have a knowledge of essay, this altar, I will refer you to the representation at the commencement of this record.” That initial representation is Fig. 4 of Facsimile 1: “The altar for sacrifice by the idolatrous priests, standing before the gods of resume form for college admission, Elkenah, Libnah, Mahmackrah, Korash, and the Pharaoh.” Further links appear in Abraham 1:13-14, which describe the bedstead “altar” and foreign gods (actually canopic jars) in Facsimile 1, Figs. 5-9. From these clear internal references, the essay paper LDS church is wrong to question whether the vignette/ facsimile “and its adjacent text must be associated in meaning.” It is simply unacceptable to argue, as the forever new LDS posting does, that Facsimile 1 may not be relevant since “it was not uncommon for ancient Egyptian vignettes to be placed some distance from their associated commentary.” The Abraham text states clearly that the representation was not at some distance, but “at the commencement of this record.” There is only one such representation included by Smith “at the commencement” of the Book of Abraham. If he actually knew what he was doing, surely he would have copied the correct illustration (which is keyed perfectly — and repeatedly— to the text). As far as John Gee, Dr. Ritner was his teacher, and he’s not impressed with Gee’s analysis.
Dr. Ritner wrote, With regard to essay, the articles by my former student John Gee, I am constrained to note that unlike the interaction between Baer and Nibley, and the practice of all my other Egyptology students, Gee never chose to share drafts of his publications with me to elicit scholarly criticism, so that I have encountered these only recently. It must be understood that in these apologetic writings, Gee’s opinions do not necessarily reflect my own, nor the standards of Egyptological proof that I required at Yale or Chicago. Alternatively, Joseph’s study of the papyri may have led to typical essay, a revelation about paper writing, key events and teachings in the life of Abraham, much as he had earlier received a revelation about the life of european dissertations, Moses while studying the Bible. This view assumes a broader definition of the words translator and translation. According to this view, Joseph’s translation was not a literal rendering of the papyri as a conventional translation would be. Rather, the paper writing physical artifacts provided an occasion for meditation, reflection, and the teacher, revelation. They catalyzed a process whereby God gave to Joseph Smith a revelation about the life of Abraham, even if that revelation did not directly correlate to the characters on research, the papyri.
It is obvious why the Mormon Church needs to the teacher professional essay, maintain the Book of Abraham as authentic. As B. H. Roberts noted: . . . if Joseph Smith’s translation of the Egyptian parchment could be discredited, and proven false, then doubt would be thrown also upon the genuineness of his translation of the Book of Mormon, and thus all pretensions as a translator would be exposed and come to naught. Essay Research Paper Writing. (B. H. Roberts, comp., Comprehensive History of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, 2:138.) When it comes to Smith’s translation, there is so much wrong associated with it. Ritner stated, I want to be absolutely clear on this. There simply is no justification for the kind of interpretations that appear in facsimile one or facsimile three. They are wrong with regard to life is a lesson essay, the hieroglyphs, they are wrong with regard to essay paper, the gender, they are wrong with regard to the understanding of what the scene actually represents and where they are used in the body of the text. Resume For College. They are wrong there as well. In short there is no historical validity for the interpretations in that book.
None whatsoever. In an article he states: The text is a formal document or “permit” created by Isis and essay, copied by Thoth to assure that the youtube deified Hor regains the ability to paper writing, breathe and function after death, with full mobility, access to offerings, and all other privileges of the immortal gods. The implications, basic symbolism, and intent of the resume for college admission text are certain. There is no way that Smith was able to “translate” the Book of paper writing, Abraham. Everything in it was made up by him. Dr. Ritner concludes:
With the Book of Abraham now confirmed as a perhaps well-meaning, but erroneous invention by Joseph Smith, the LDS church may well devote some reflection to the status of the text. The former Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints, since 2001 renamed the Community of Christ, avoids this issue by treating the essay Book of paper, Abraham as speculative writing by Smith, not as a document of historical truth. In this decision they are clearly correct. Despite its inauthenticity as a genuine historical narrative, the Book of Abraham remains a valuable witness to early American religious history and to the recourse to ancient texts as sources of modern religious faith and speculation. The book still has its uses and significance, but not for the ancient world of Egypt and Abraham.
Feel free to speculate all you want about “missing” pieces, but Smith couldn’t even accurately translate what there was in front of him. Shouldn’t this be a concern for every Latter-day Saint? The Book of the roots, Abraham and essay writing, the Ancient World. A careful study of the book of Abraham provides a better measure of the book’s merits than any hypothesis that treats the text as a conventional translation. Evidence suggests that elements of the book of european, Abraham fit comfortably in the ancient world and supports the claim that the book of Abraham is an authentic record. A careful study of the Book of Abraham shows that Joseph Smith did not have the ability to read Egyptian hieroglyphics. Writing. To suggest that “the elements of the book of Abraham fit comfortably in typical college, the ancient world” is true, if we consider that this is nothing more than ancient funeral papyri. But to say Smith knew how to research paper writing, translate this is essaywhuman, just not true at all.
It is essay writing, very similar to his “translation” of the Book of Mormon, as pointed out by David Persuitte: Like The Book of Mormon , The Book of Abraham was the product of an eclectic mind and reflects the beliefs and literature of Joseph’s own time. Form Admission. Moreover, as we shall see, recent findings about The Book of Abraham provide some rather revealing testimony about Joseph’s ability as a translator of unknown languages. If Smith did not know how to translate the Book of essay research, Abraham, a text that is available today, how should the Book of Mormon be perceived today? While the plates of the Book of Mormon were supposedly returned to as a essay, the angel Moroni, we do have some characters that supposedly were on the plates. A paper with these characters was delivered to Dr. Anthon Lund by Martin Harris. Paper Writing. According to Persuitte, Competent philologist have examined copies of the the teacher professional essay scrap of paper containing the characters, and they agree that it is not an Egyptian inscription and that it is not written in any other known script. . . Essay. . Joseph obviously would have known at the time that any scholar that Harris would show the characters to would not be able to translate them. Essays. ( Joseph Smith and the Origins of the research Book of Mormon , p. 73.) As Marquardt points out,
This places the is a lesson in humility question of essay research paper writing, how reliable his work on the Book of Mormon would be. The Book of college prompts, Mormon is represented to have been written by the hand of a man named Mormon in a form of Egyptian. Writing. Without a working knowledge of the Egyptian language Joseph Smith would have us believe that he could make a correct interpretation of an ancient text. Whatever would come from his mouth as he dictated the Book of Mormon, Egyptian Alphabet, and Book of typical college, Abraham was considered inspired. All indications are that since Smith did not really translate from an ancient language in his work on the Book of Abraham he could not be trusted in essay research paper, his earlier dictation, when he reportedly had a record written in the same basic language. The material he produced indicates that he had a vivid and creative imagination as the european dictated text to his religious documents shows. Essay Paper Writing. ( The Rise of Mormonism: 1816-1844 , 408) The book of the teacher as a, Abraham speaks disapprovingly of human sacrifice offered on essay research, an altar in Chaldea. Some victims were placed on the altar as sacrifices because they rejected the idols worshipped by their leaders. Recent scholarship has found instances of typical college, such punishment dating to Abraham’s time. People who challenged the standing religious order, either in Egypt or in the regions over which it had influence (such as Canaan), could and did suffer execution for their offenses. The conflict over the religion of Pharaoh, as described in essay research paper, Abraham 1:11–12, is an example of punishment now known to have been meted out during the Abrahamic era.
Just because human sacrifice should be considered wrong, certainly from a biblical worldview, does not mean that Smith’s translation is even worth considering. The book of Abraham contains other details that are consistent with modern discoveries about the on best friends ancient world. Research Paper Writing. The book speaks of “the plain of Olishem,” a name not mentioned in the Bible. An ancient inscription, not discovered and translated until the professional 20th century, mentions a town called “Ulisum,” located in essay, northwestern Syria. Further, Abraham 3:22–23 is written in professional essay, a poetic structure more characteristic of Near Eastern languages than early American writing style. Abraham 3:22-23 has nothing to do with the Near East. Essay Writing. It borrows an idea found in Jeremiah 1:5 (“Abraham, thou art one of them; thou wast chosen before thou wast born”). Contrary to the Bible and the Book of Mormon, the Book of Abraham advocates an ex materia creation (out of life in humility, already exiting materials).
Joseph Smith’s explanations of the facsimiles of the book of Abraham contain additional earmarks of the paper writing ancient world. Facsimile 1 and Abraham 1:17 mention the idolatrous god Elkenah. “Elkanah” is plagiarized from the Bible (1 Samuel 1:1; 1 Chronicles 6:23-27, 34-38) and is not unique to the Book of Abraham. Another example of plagiarism from the pen of Joseph Smith. This deity is not mentioned in the Bible, yet modern scholars have identified it as being among the gods worshiped by ancient Mesopotamians. Sounds impressive until we understand that the “modern scholars” are all LDS. The footnote to this sentence reads: Kevin L. Barney, “On Elkenah as Canaanite El,” Journal of the Book of Mormon and Other Restoration Scripture 19, no.
1 (2010): 22–35, available at essays on best friends forever, maxwellinstitute.byu.edu; John Gee and Stephen D. Ricks, “Historical Plausibility: The Historicity of the research paper writing Book of Abraham as a Case Study,” in life lesson in humility, Historicity and the Latter-day Saint Scriptures, ed. Paul Y. Hoskisson (Provo, UT: Religious Studies Center, Brigham Young University, 2001), 75. Noticeably missing is any non-LDS Egyptologist agreeing with the LDS interpretation. Joseph Smith represented the four figures in figure 6 of writing, facsimile 2 as “this earth in resume form, its four quarters.” A similar interpretation has been argued by scholars who study identical figures in other ancient Egyptian texts. Facsimile 1 contains a crocodile deity swimming in what Joseph Smith called “the firmament over our heads.” This interpretation makes sense in light of scholarship that identifies Egyptian conceptions of heaven with “a heavenly ocean.” The sources, again, are all LDS. No Egyptologist supports such a view. The book of Abraham is essay paper, consistent with various details found in nonbiblical stories about Abraham that circulated in the ancient world around the time the papyri were likely created. In the book of Abraham, God teaches Abraham about the sun, the moon, and the stars. The Teacher Professional. “I show these things unto thee before ye go into Egypt,” the essay research writing Lord says, “that ye may declare all these words.” Ancient texts repeatedly refer to Abraham instructing the Egyptians in on best, knowledge of the heavens. For example, Eupolemus, who lived under Egyptian rule in research writing, the second century B.C.E., wrote that Abraham taught astronomy and other sciences to the Egyptian priests.
A third-century papyrus from an Egyptian temple library connects Abraham with an illustration similar to facsimile 1 in the book of Abraham. A later Egyptian text, discovered in the 20th century, tells how the Pharaoh tried to resume for college admission, sacrifice Abraham, only to be foiled when Abraham was delivered by essay an angel. Later, according to this text, Abraham taught members of the form admission Pharaoh’s court through astronomy. Essay Research Writing. All these details are found in as a, the book of Abraham. Other details in the book of Abraham are found in ancient traditions located across the Near East. These include Terah, Abraham’s father, being an writing idolator; a famine striking Abraham’s homeland; Abraham’s familiarity with Egyptian idols; and Abraham’s being younger than 75 years old when he left Haran, as the biblical account states.
Some of these extrabiblical elements were available in apocryphal books or biblical commentaries in Joseph Smith’s lifetime, but others were confined to nonbiblical traditions inaccessible or unknown to 19th-century Americans. Is it possible that a later writer (Smith) included this information that he took from the Bible? For instance, Joshua 24:2 said that Terah “served other gods” and therefore was an idolater. Smith was able to copy this into his “translation.” In fact, the “translator” (Joseph Smith) is able to use any information he wants while adding additional details and make it look like he knew what he was talking about. The veracity and value of the book of Abraham cannot be settled by scholarly debate concerning the book’s translation and historicity. The book’s status as scripture lies in the eternal truths it teaches and the powerful spirit it conveys. Resume Form For College. The book of Abraham imparts profound truths about the nature of God, His relationship to research writing, us as His children, and the purpose of this mortal life.
The truth of the book of Abraham is ultimately found through careful study of its teachings, sincere prayer, and the confirmation of the Spirit. Once more, we’re left with the “faith” card. Essays Friends. As Robert Ritner pointed out in essay research, his “A Response to ‘Translation. . . of the Book of european dissertations, Abraham,'” Such a declaration [that the veracity of the Book of Abraham is to be found in prayer] may seem reasonable to those already predisposed to accept it, but on closer reading, the LDS church posting suggests discomfort with its own conclusions and reasoning. Not a single opposing scholar is mentioned by essay research paper name, nor are there reasons for rejecting the european Book of Abraham. Yet the LDS paper attempts to engage in scholarly debate from a one-sided position, repeatedly citing in the footnotes the same limited set of apologists who are primarily church employees at BYU in Provo. Everyone is free to believe that Joseph Smith had the ability to research paper, translate from the papyri There is, however, absolutely no “veracity and value of the book of Abraham.” The evidence points against the claim that he did so.
Much is at stake here for the LDS Church and her apologists. If Smith did not have the academic ability to properly “translate” a common piece of Egyptian funerary papyrus, it would be doubtful that he had the translating ability to dissertations, decipher the research paper writing “reformed Egyptian” supposedly contained in the Book of Mormon . What Charles Larson wrote in 1985 is european dissertations, true still today: The message coming from LDS spokesmen today appears to be more and more one of accommodation: If facts fail to essay paper writing, justify faith (what one wishes to believe), then faith should overrule facts . This sort of as a professional essay, thinking is evasive, and must be set aside if any real reckoning with the essay paper facts is to take place. ( By His Own Hands Upon Papyrus , 169, 171) The discovery of the papyri that Smith used for the Book of Abraham puts serious doubt on Smith’s translating ability and his claim to being a prophet. As Larson puts it, Since the Joseph Smith Papyri have been identified with absolute certainty as prayers to pagan Egyptian gods, it is inconceivable, given God’s holy nature and youtube, character as revealed throughout the Bible, that He would associate Himself or His revelation in any way with these pagan religious documents.
Regardless of which of the above views of the Book of research, Abraham one holds, it is surely inconceivable that the God of the Bible would compromise his exclusivity as the one, true God by co-mingling His revelation with the idolatrous pagan teachings and rites of Egypt as expressed in the Joseph Smith Papyri. ( By His Own Hand Upon Papyrus , 166) I agree with Sandra Tanner of Utah Lighthouse Ministry when she states, “It is time for forever the LDS Church to decanonize the Book of essay writing, Abraham and admit that it is a product of european dissertations, Joseph Smith’s imagination.” ( Salt Lake City Messenger , October 2014, Issue 123) Come clean now. The sooner, the essay paper better. For more information on this topic, we highly recommend checking this article out. In addition, see the DVD titled The Lost Book of Abraham, which can be viewed for free here. (Highly recommended.) The article by Robert Ritner is on best forever, also worth looking at here. For an excellent rebuttal to arguments made by the LDS apologetic group FAIR, go here.
Books that discuss this topic include: For more responses to the Gospel Topics Essays, click here.
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10 Things Smart PhDs Do NOT Put On Their Industry Resumes. Written by essay paper writing, Isaiah Hankel, Ph.D. Essaywhuman? What are you supposed to do when you send hundreds of resumes out and get nothing back but a few automated responses? This is the question I was trying to answer my last year of graduate school. I literally sent out hundreds of resumes.
I posted my resume to Monster.com and research paper writing, waited for the tidal wave of industry job offers to roll in. Yeah…that didn’t happen. I polished up a generic resume and uploaded it to dozens of industry job websites. Life Lesson Essay? I remember getting on Pfizer and Baxter’s websites, clicking the job opportunities tab, and seeing all the industry job openings. “Yes!” I thought. Piece-of-cake. Essay? I’ll just upload my resume and have an offer by the end of the week.
There couldn’t possibly be that many other PhDs out there applying to the same PhD jobs. Wrong. Life Long Lesson Essay? I found out later that some companies receive over 2,000 resumes a day. Essay? 2,000 a day! I felt stuck and dissertations, lost so I asked my academic advisor to help me write my resume. He sent me his CV and said “Here, look at this.” Great.
Thanks for nothing. I knew that industry hiring managers weren’t interested in CVs. How did my advisor not know this? That’s when I realized how little lifetime academics know about getting an industry job. So, I asked one of the job counselors at the graduate school for essay research, advice. She told me the key to getting an interview was to friends write a very detailed cover letter, make sure that my education history was at the top of my resume, and to include a one sentence “objective” at the very top of my resume. Essay Research? Okay. That’s great advice. Right?
Nope. She was wrong too. It wasn’t until 3 months later that I found out just how awful her advice was. Friends? Over 427,000 resumes are posted to Monster.com each week—that’s just one job website. Most companies use Applicant Tracking Software to automatically filter and essay paper writing, eliminate 75% of the european dissertations, resumes sent to them. If your resume makes it to the desk of a hiring manager and paper writing, recruiter, they will spend an average of just 5-7 seconds reading it. Seconds. That’s all you get. All the hours, days, months, and years you’ve spent getting your PhD will come down to just a few seconds. Think of how hard you’ve worked to get to where you are. Are you really going to throw it all away by not taking the time to get your resume just right?
More is professional, more. This is what most PhDs are taught. Writing? Triplicates are better than duplicates. An N of 200 is better than an N of 2. Essaywhuman Youtube? A CV with 10 first author publications is better than a CV with one first author publication. On and research paper, on. But, when it comes to creating a strong industry resume for a PhD job, less is more. Adding the resume form for college, wrong things or too many things to your resume will keep you from getting the industry job you want.
A better strategy is to essay paper simplify your industry resume down to only the typical prompts, things that industry hiring managers and research paper, recruiters actually want to see. Here are 10 things smart PhDs like you should remove from your industry resume: 1. Unprofessional email address. Three out of essay four resumes are discarded because they’re sent from an unprofessional email address or have an unprofessional email address attached to their resume or cover letter. This means you can put yourself ahead of 75% of the essay research, other applicants simply by eliminating any references to unprofessional email addresses like firstname.lastname@example.org or similar. A lot of PhDs are afraid to use their University email address when applying to jobs because they think their PI is going to hack into their email account and on best friends, find out they’re trying to leave the essay research paper, lab. This won’t happen.
PIs don#8217;t have access to your University email account. However, if you’re currently working in industry and looking to change jobs, don’t use your work email because your boss can absolutely see your emails. Instead, create a very professional gmail address in resume form admission, this format: email@example.com. If this version of essay paper writing your name is life lesson in humility, taken, then simple insert your middle initial or middle name between your first and last names. 2. Impersonal greeting.
Never use an impersonal greeting on essay research your resume’s cover letter. Greetings like #8220;Dear Sirs#8221; or #8220;To Whom It May Concern#8221; are creepy, distant, and outdated. Most importantly, these greetings makes you seem lazy. Instead of european taking the research, time to research who the hiring manager is, you just threw your hands up in the air and typed a general greeting that could be applied to anyone. As a result, your resume and the teacher as a, candidacy were seen as mediocre at best. Smart PhDs always use a personal greeting.
They know that over 50% of all top industry jobs are given to referrals, but only 7% of applicants are referrals. Let that sink in. Over 50% of the essay research writing, best positions are given to people who have networked and, as a result, have been introduced to a decision-maker or someone who will vouch for them to a decision-maker. Yet, 93% of people applying to these jobs are just sending out their resumes blindly and impersonally on the Internet without knowing anyone at the company they want to work for. Essaywhuman Youtube? Which side of the fence are you on? Before you send your resume in, find out who the hiring manager is. Or at least find out the research paper writing, name of someone who works on life in humility the team you’re trying to crack into. At the very least, use the name of someone in writing, human resources. Then, connect with people who work at the company you’re seeking employment at. Network on LinkedIn, network at face-to-face events, and do whatever it takes to get to know someone well enough to put their name on the first line of your cover letter.
In the end, your cover letter should be short and sweet, with a personal greeting (e.g. Dear Jeremy, Dear Dr. Smith) and should start with a line like, “I have been in contact with Jason Jones , your Regional Sales Manager , who mentioned that your open Project Manager position would be perfect for me.” Putting an objective statement at the top of your resume will not help you get an industry job. Instead, it will paint you into a corner. European Dissertations? A better strategy is to use a visual center . A visual center starts at paper writing 2 inches from the top of your resume and form, ends 2 inches below that. This center should be emphasized with graphics, such as textboxes, bullets, and bold fonts. Load the essay paper writing, visual center with the value you will offer the company, such as across-the-board accomplishments, industry-specific skills, a summary of a highly successful project you lead, or even a clipping from a recommendation letter or news article about your work.
Resumes with visual centers that are interesting and catch the european dissertations, reader’s eye will be read much more carefully than they would be otherwise. A strong visual center will make you stand out without preventing you from being considered for additional positions. If you want employers to notice you and keep you in essay research, mind for other positions that you may also be qualified for, replace your objective statement with a visual center. Recruiters and hiring managers spend just a couple of seconds looking at a resume before deciding whether it’s worth a full read. This means you should show them exactly what they want to see first. And guess what—they don’t care about the dates.
They care about the title of the the roots youtube, position you held, the name of your employers, the location of your employer, and, most importantly, what you achieved. Research? Don’t mistake your resume for a publication citation. As A Essay? It doesn’t need to list the essay paper, dates first. When listing past employment, exclude the dates or at least list them last. If you really want to get your resume read, list your experience by relevance, not by typical college essay prompts, date. Just like you can sort publications on essay research paper writing PubMed by relevance to a specific topic, you can sort your work experience by relevance to a specific position. Always put your work experience above your education history. Smart PhDs never bury the lead on essaywhuman the roots youtube their resumes. Your lead is what employers want to read most on essay research your resume.
Drop the dates and the dated mentality. Essaywhuman The Roots? Instead, create a strong visual center, followed by a list of work experience sorted by relevance to the position you#8217;re applying for. Industry employers do not want to read about your job duties. They care about the essay research paper, outcomes you achieved, not how you achieved the outcomes. Your resume does not need a methodology section. Delete any reference to “job duties” or “responsibilities included.” Instead, list key achievements as tangibly as possible. Unlike your typical CV, a good industry resume is always accomplishment-focused.
This means that within seconds of reading your resume, employers should be able to see that the return on essay investment for hiring you is higher than the salary you are asking for. Paper Writing? You must demonstrate that you can save your potential employer time and make them money. Forever? If you’ve spent your entire career in research paper writing, academia, you can still add tangible outcomes to your resume. For example, you could say, “Helped PI recognize over $1,000,000 in grant funding by skillfully leading a team of essays friends forever scientists to complete all projects on time, resulting in essay research writing, grant renewal every year.” Do not waste precious resume space on listing the contact information of three professional references. Don’t even waste space on writing “References Upon Request.” Employers know that you have references. If you don’t, then you shouldn’t be applying for life long in humility, the job in research paper writing, the first place. You should be networking. 7. Typos and grammatical errors. If you can’t spell #8220;Technical Specialist#8221; correctly, you shouldn#8217;t be one.
At least that#8217;s what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume. Surveys and is a long lesson, studies show that top companies care more about communication and interpersonal skills than anything else when interviewing new candidates. One of the very first indicators employers will have of your communication skills is your industry resume. If it is essay research writing, riddled with mistakes, you will not move to prompts the interview stage. Essay Paper Writing? Your industry resume must be absolutely perfect. If you’re not a good writer or if English is not your native language and you’re submitting your resume in English, make sure you have a professional editor proofread it for errors. On Best Friends? You don’t need to pay hundreds of dollars for this.
You can find worthy editors on eLance and essay research paper writing, Fiverr who will polish your resume for as little as $5. Youtube? Once you’ve had your resume professionally proofread, go back and paper, insert relevant keywords into life in humility essay it. Then have it proofread again. Essay Research? This is the best and most successful sequence to follow. First, write your resume without considering keywords so it flows well. Then, have it proofread. Next, add keywords. And finally, have it proofread again. Using relevant keywords is critical to getting your resume past the Applicant Tracking Software checkpoint. It’s also important for getting your resume past recruiters and entrance prompts, hiring managers who will use the “Find” function on research paper their computers to do quick keyword searches on your resume. Form Admission? The best place to find the keywords you should use is in the job description of the position you’re applying for.
For example, if the description contains the phrase “project management” over and over againas in, project management experience requiredyou can bet the hiring managers entered it into their Applicant Tracking Software and that they will search for it themselves once they have your resume in hand. Publications don#8217;t matter in paper writing, industry. Life Is A Lesson? Even hiring managers for industry RD positions don’t care about your publications. This is especially true at the resume-reading stage of the hiring process. I know—it hurts. I’m sorry. There may be a few outdated hiring managers or RD directors who will insist that publications should be listed on an applicant’s resume, but they’re simply wrong. Smart PhDs know that putting their publication record on an industy resume is a waste of research writing time. They know that industry employers want to resume form see work experience and results, not publications or education history. You’ve worked hard on your publications and should be proud of them, but don’t let your pride get in the way of creating a sharp resume.
Besides, your publication record isn’t going anywhere. Once you get to the interview stage, if hiring managers want to bring up the papers you’ve published, they will. Recruiters and hiring managers have mountains of essay paper resumes sent to them daily. Recall that some companies receive thousands of resumes a day and most of essaywhuman the roots these will be filtered out by paper writing, Applicant Tracking Software. The remaining resumes will be further filtered out by employers who are unwilling to european dissertations read anything beyond a bullet point followed by a single sentence.
Think of writing an research, industry resume as the opposite of writing an academic journal article. Instead of using dense text and long paragraphs to construct a well-formulated argument, you want to simplify everything down into digestible nuggets of information. The Roots? Avoid turnoffs like small, dense font styles and sizes. Avoid run-on sentences. Essay Writing? Avoid paragraphs altogether. Smart PhDs put everything on their resume behind a bullet point, number, or header and never put more than two sentences together at a time. 10.
Overly personal information. Industry resumes that are submitted with photos are rejected 88% of the friends, time. Why? Because submitting a photo is essay, too personal. Don’t make the mistake of getting too personal too soon. The most important rule of writing an effective industry resume is to leave off all personal information. If you’re smart and have followed the other points in this article, you know that networking and for college admission, finding strong references is the most important thing you can do to get your resume read. The only personal information you should submit with your resume is a short cover letter with a personal greeting and paper, a personal reference—a reference who works at the company you’re applying to.
However, don’t be afraid to add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award you’ve received or leadership role you’ve held in typical college entrance prompts, the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership role. Things like “Captain of the swim team winning 3 consecutive awards for leadership” or “Four-time Habitat for Humanity project leader and Eagle Scout” will help differentiate you from the piles of resumes coming in from PhDs who having nothing but academic achievements to reference. Finally, it’s important to understand that almost every company you apply to (up to 93% of them) will Google your name and writing, look up your social media profiles. Before you submit your resume, make sure your social media profiles are professional and display a unified message. To learn more about transitioning into a non-academic career, including instant access to our exclusive training videos, case studies, industry insider documents, transition plan, and private online network, join the Cheeky Scientist Association. Latest posts by Isaiah Hankel Ph.D. (see all) Industry Transition Spotlight: Karin Weigelt, PhD - September 28, 2017 Climbing Career Ladders (Industry Careers For PhDs Podcast) - September 28, 2017 Industry Transition Spotlight: Kristy Bialas, PhD - September 21, 2017. Get Your Free Industry “Insider Booklet” Your First Step In Your Transition To Industry. Essays On Best? Some good advice here. The visual centre is a good concept however if the organisation uses resume scanning software then graphics will cause problems.
Keep it clean and readable by the software and then by a human if you are lucky enough to make the essay, first cut. Thanks for sharing your opinion Sally. Some very good points made and to stress the point on typos and grammatical errors please take notice of the following: #8220;However, don’t be afraid to add a line (just one, single line) to your resume indicating a particular award you’re received or leadership roll you’ve held in the past, especially if it’s a non-academic award or leadership roll.#8221; I believe you meant to say #8220;you#8217;ve#8221; instead or #8220;you#8217;re#8221; and resume, #8220;role#8221; instead of #8220;roll#8221; Thanks for the find Marwah, though you may have missed the essay, point of the article. No actually, I appreciate the forever, article and I am implementing your suggestions accordingly. #8220;7. Paper? Typos and grammatical errors. If you can’t spell “Technical Specialist” correctly, you shouldn’t be. The Teacher As A Professional Essay? one. Essay Writing? At least that’s what employers will think when they read a typo on your resume.#8221; ..condescends poster for being pedantic#8230; PS: this is is a long, your resume for essay research paper writing, people you#8217;re convincing to take your advice. Thanks a lot for this great article !. Where can i find a clear picture of the example shown in advice number 3.) Objective statement ? Thanks for the advice. The above are very handy. Should I even mention my PhD when applying for industry jobs?
Sorry, it sounds like a stupid question, but sometimes I feel it quite awkward and out of place given that my PhD topic is totally unrelated to many of the jobs I apply for anyway. Excellent advice. Any chance the #8220;After#8221; template is available for the roots youtube, download somewhere? Are there any examples of writing how a resume should look like for recently graduated PhD? Im curious, because I just don#8217;t know what to include in my resume if my publications does not matter (not that I have that many)? I only have education and in my country a PhD is considered as work.
Also, in my resume I have a section called key skills mentioning things like software, lab equipment etc. The Teacher Professional Essay? My PhD has been more of research writing engineering type of work. I have been developing an optical sensor. I would prefer to go to resume for college industry now. so I am trying to increase my chances. Really enjoy reading your posts. Keep up the great work! I do not question your suggestion in point #8 to remove publications from a resume.
However, a first author publication on a resume shows successful teamwork, strong communication skills, and conclusive results! It would seem to me that those are exactly the qualities that companies would be looking for in prospective candidates. Can you explain why these qualities should be devalued? Suggestion for publications: just put a link to your MyNCBI publication list at the bottom of your resume. Paper Writing? This will not eat up more than two lines of space. If a potential employer is really interested in life is a in humility essay, you and your work, then everything that you#8217;ve done is there. Excellent advice. Anybody have an existing LaTeX template that is laid out according to these principles? These articles make me nauseous; not because they are untrue, but because they are very true.
Just sad when even a PhD in a complete #8216;nerd#8217; position has to impress the former clothing sales girl with ADD, then the essay, bean counter who needs to know how much money you can save the corporation. European Dissertations? If you#8217;re applying for a PR/marketing or finance position then fine, but seriously#8230; Does nobody care that #8216;getting hired#8217; is essay research paper, now the primary skill in essaywhuman the roots youtube, today#8217;s job market? Could this conceivably not end well? In fact it already is. PS- also not knocking your advice, but on every page an expert offers a different take; case in essay writing, point the is a lesson in humility essay, photo on a resume. Agree. I#8217;m not a PhD but a writer.
I have taken a hint from the research paper writing, resumes of software engineers I#8217;ve worked with in essays friends forever, tech. Write for the person who understands the essay paper writing, skills you bring, and try to european get to that person directly. As an essay research paper writing, industry RD hiring manager (currently hiring), this article frustrates me quite a bit. As A Professional Essay? In my scan of resumes, one of the first things I look at paper writing is the dates of your education and form for college admission, work experience so I can understand your career path, and right after that I want to look at writing your publications. I don#8217;t want to hear how you got a $1M grant, I want to know that you were able to is a lesson in humility get a high quality scientific publication published because that was the primary output of your PhD. While I agree that industry hiring managers are looking for essay research paper writing, specific things and some of resume for college this post I agree with, I think some is plain bad advice.
The biggest thing I want in your resume is essay paper writing, clarity I want to see every major accomplishment in your career so far, including publications, as quickly and european dissertations, clearly as possible. Thank you Yvar! I#8217;m currently looking for jobs and I was debating on essay writing if I should list my publication records (which is resume form for college admission, very good) on research paper writing my CV or not. And I saw this article, and I was so frustrated because I believe somebody who did their job well in his previous position is more likely to do their next job well. Even that the essaywhuman, publication record shouldn#8217;t mean everything, it should mean something. Essay Research Writing? It#8217;s a representation of what you have achieved and what you are capable of as a Ph.D. or researcher. I#8217;m glad that as a hiring manager you think the same, that gives me quite a lot encouragement #128578; Hi, I am a recent PhD graduate and actively looking for an industry job, though not really successful! I am looking for a professional Resume writer to help me with re-construct my industry CV. Anyone here has a suggestion where I can find one? I too am in the same fight and this person at top resume really gave me the almost exact advice and offers packages to help you with your overall industry profile. firstname.lastname@example.org. Entrance Essay? Ready To Get Started?
Join Cheeky! Cheeky Scientist is essay paper, a training platform for academics who want to essays friends transition into non-academic careers. Research? The Cheeky Scientist Association is our specialized training program for PhDs who want to transition into industry. The Teacher As A Professional Essay? The site is not a part of the Facebook website or Facebook inc. Additionally, this site is NOT endorsed by Facebook in any way.
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